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Spoken Language Services, Inc. 


Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 

Wehr, Hans (Date) 

A dictionary of modern written Arabic. 

"An enlarged and improved version of 'Arabisches Worter- 
buch fur die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart' and includes the con- 
tents of the 'Supplement zum Arabischen Worterbuch fiir die 
Schriftsprache der Gegenwart.' " 

1. Arabic language-Dictionaries— English. 
I. Cowan, J Milton. II. Title. 
[PJ6640.W43 1976] 492'.7'321 75-24236 
ISBN 0-87950-001-8 

© Otto Harrassowtti, Wiesbaden 1961, 1B66, 1971 

© Spoken Language Services, Inc. 1976 

Spoken Language Services, Inc. 

P.O. Box 783 
Ithaca, New York 14850 


Shortly after the publication of Professor Hans Wehr's 
Arabisches Worterbuch fiir die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart 
in 1952, the Committee on Language Programs of the Ameri- 
can Council of Learned Societies recognized its excellence 
and began to explore means of providing an up-to-date Eng- 
lish edition. Professor Wehr and I readily reached agreement 
on a plan to translate, edit, and enlarge the dictionary. This 
task was considerably lightened and hastened by generous 
financial support from the American Council of Learned So- 
cieties, the Arabian American Oil Company, and Cornell 

This dictionary will be welcome not only to English and 
American users, but to orientalists throughout the world who 
are more at home with English than with German. It is more 
accurate and much more comprehensive than the original 
version, which was produced under extremely unfavorable 
conditions in Germany during the late war years and the early 
postwar period. 

Ithaca, New York J Milton Cowan 

November 1960 

Preface to The Pocket-Book Edition 

In order to meet the enormous increase of interest in Arabic 
brought about by political, economic and social develop- 
ments of the past decade, we have now published our 3rd 
Revised Edition of A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic in 
this handy, comprehensive and unabridged version. 

Munster Hans Wehr 

Ithaca, New York J Milton Cowan 

February 1976 


This dictionary presents the vocabulary and phraseology of modern written Arabic. It is 
based on the form of the language which, throughout the Arab world from Iraq to Morocco, is 
found in the prose of books, newspapers, periodicals, and letters. This form is also employed in 
formal public address, over radio and television, and in religious ceremonial. The dictionary will 
be most useful to those working with writings that have appeared since the turn of the century. 

The morphology and syntax of written Arabic are essentially the same in all Arab coun- 
tries. Vocabulary differences are limited mainly to the domain of specialized vocabulary. Thus 
the written language continues, as it has done throughout centuries of the past, to ensure the 
linguistio unity of the Arab world. It provides a medium of communication over the vast 
geographical area whose numerous and widely diverse- local dialects it transcends. Indeed, 
it gives the Arab people of many countries a sense of identity and an awareness of their common 
cultural heritage. 

Two powerful and conflicting forces have affected the development of the modern Arabic 
lexicon. A reform movement originating toward the end of the last century in Syria and 
Lebanon has reawakened and popularized the old conviction of educated Arabs that the 
ancient 'arabiya of pre-Islamic times, which became the classical form of the language in tile 
early centuries of Islam, is better and more correct than any later form. Proponents of this 
puristic doctrine have held that new vocabulary must be derived exclusively in accordance 
with ancient models or by semantic extension of older forms. They have insisted on the 
replacement of all foreign loanwords with purely Arabic forms and expressions. The purists 
have had considerable influence on the development of modern literary Arabio although 
there has been widespread protest against their extreme point of view. At the same time 
and under the increasing influence of Western civilization, Arab writers and journalists 
have had to deal with a host of new concepts and ideas previously alien to the Arab way 
of life. As actual usage demonstrates, the purists have been unable to cope with the sheer 
bulk of new linguistic material which has had to be incorporated into the language to 
make it current with advances in world knowledge. The result is seen in the tendency 
of many writers, especially in the fields of Bcience and technology, simply to adopt foreign 
words from the European languages. Many common, everyday expressions from the various 
colloquial dialects have also found their way into written expression. 

From its inception, this dictionary has been compiled on scientific descriptive principles. 
It contains only words and expressions which were found in context during the course of 
wide reading in literature of every kind or which, on the basiB of other evidence, can be shown 
to be unquestionably a part of the present-day vocabulary. It is a faithful record of the 
language as attested by usage rather than a normative presentation of what theoretically 
ought to occur. Consequently, it not only lists classical words and phrases of elegant rhe- 
torical style side by side with new coinages that conform to the demands of the purists, but 
it also contains neologisms, loan translations, foreign loans, and colloquialisms which may not 
be to the linguistic taste of many educated Arabs. But since they occur in the corpus of ma- 
terials on which the dictionary is based, they are included here. 

Introduction VIII 

A number of special problems confront the lexicographer dealing with present-day Arabic. 
Since for many fields of knowledge, especially those which have developed outside the Arab 
world, no generally accepted terminology has yet emerged, it is evident that a practical 
dictionary can only approximate the degree of completeness found in comparable dictionaries 
of Western languages. Local terminology, especially for many public institutions, offices, 
titles, and administrative affairs, has developed in the several Arab countries. Although the 
dictionary is based mainly on usage in the countries bordering on the eastern Mediterranean, 
local official and administrative terms have been included for all Arab countries, but not with 
equal thoroughness. Colloquialisms and dialect expressions that have gained currency in 
written form also vary from country to country. Certainly no attempt at completeness can 
be made here, and the user working with materials having a marked regional flavor will be well 
advised to refer to an appropriate dialect dictionary or glossary. As a rule, items derived from 
local dialects or limited to local use have been so designated with appropriate abbreviations. 

A normalized journalistic style has evolved for factual reporting of news or discussion of 
matters of political and topical interest over the radio and in the press. This style, which 
often betrays Western influences, is remarkably uniform throughout the Arab world. It 
reaches large sections of the population daily and constitutes to them almost the only stylistio 
norm. Its vocabulary is relatively small and fairly standardized, hence easily covered in a 

The vocabulary of scientific and technological writings, on the other hand, is by no means 
standardized. The impact of Western civilization has confronted the Arab world with the 
serious linguistio problem of expressing a vast and ever-increasing number of new concepts 
for which no words in Arabio exist. The creation of a scientific and technological terminology 
is still a major intellectual challenge. Reluctance to borrow wholesale from European languages 
has spurred efforts to coin terms according to productive Arabic patterns. In recent decades 
innumerable such words have been suggested in various periodicals and in special publications. 
Relatively few of these have gained acceptance in common usage. Specialists in all fields 
keep coining new terms that are either not understood by other specialists in the same field 
or are rejected in favor of other, equally short-lived, private fabrications. 

The Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo especially, the Damascus Academy, and, 
to a lesser extent, the Iraqi Academy have produced and continue to publish vast numbers 
of technical terms for almost all fields of knowledge. The academies have, however, greatly 
underestimated the difficulties of artificial regulation of a language. The problem lies not so 
much in inventing terms as it does in assuring that they gain acceptance. In some instances 
neologisms have quickly become part of the stock of the language; among these, fortunately, 
are a large number of the terms proposed by academies or by professional specialists. However, 
in many fields, such as modern linguistics, existential philosophy, or nuclear physios, it is 
still not possible for professional people from the different Arab states to discuss details of 
their discipline in Arabio. The situation is further complicated by the fact that the purists 
and the academies demand the translation into Arabio even of those Greek and Latin tech- 
nical terms which make possible international understanding among specialists. Thus while 
considerable progress has been made in recent decades toward the standardization of Arabic 
terminology, several technical terms which all fit one definition may still be current, or a 
given scientific term may have different meanings for different experts. 

Those teohnical terms which appear with considerable frequency in published works, or 
which are familiar to specialists in various fields and are considered by them to be stand- 

IX Introduction 

ardized terminology, presented no particular problem. Nevertheless it has not always been 
possible to ascertain the terms in general acceptance with the experts of merely one country, 
let alone those of all. Doubtful caseB are entered and marked with a special symbol. A descrip- 
tive dictionary suoh as this has no room for the innumerable academic coinages which experi- 
ence has shown are by no means assured of adoption. Only those that are attested in the 
literature have been included. 

Classioisms are a further special problem. Arab authors, Bteeped in classical tradition, 
can and do frequently draw upon words which were already archaic in the Middle Ages. The 
use of classical patterns is by no means limited to belles-lettres. Arohaisms may orop up in 
the middle of a spirited newspaper article. Wherever an aesthetic or rhetorioal effect is intend- 
ed, wherever the language aims more at expressiveness than at imparting information, 
authors tend to weave in ancient Arabio and olassical idioms. They are artistic and stylistic 
devices of the first order. They awaken in the reader images from memorized passages of 
anoient literature and contribute to his aesthetic enjoyment. Quotations from the Koran or 
from classical literature, whose origins and connotations may well elude the Western reader, are 
readily recognized by Arabs who have had a traditional education and who have memorized a 
wealth of ancient aouroes. In former years many writers strove to display their erudition by 
citing lexical rarities culled from ancient dictionaries and collections of synonyms. As often as 
not the author had to explain such nawadir in footnotes, since nobody else would understand 
them. This pedantic mannerism is going out of fashion and there is a trend in more recent 
literature toward smoothness and readability in style. Nevertheless it is clear from the 
foregoing that it is not possible to make a sharp distinction between living and obsolete usage. 
All archaic words found in the source material have, therefore, been included in this dictionary, 
even though it is sometimes evident that they no longer form a part of the living lexicon and 
are used only by a small group of well-read literary connoisseurs. Such included forms are 
but a small sample of what the user is likely to encounter in the writings of a few modern 
authors; the impossibility of including the entire ancient vocabulary is obvious. The user who 
encounters an old Arabio word which he does not understand will have to consult a lexicon 
of the 'arablya. Finally, some modern authors will occasionally take great liberties with older 
words, so that even highly educated Arabs are unable to understand the sense of certain pas- 
sages. Items of this kind have not been entered. They would contribute nothing to a dic- 
tionary whose scope did not permit inclusion of source references. 

The vocabulary of modern Arabic, then, is by no means standardized, its scope in times 
difficult to delimit. These results emerge from the very character of modern Arabio — a 
written language, powerfully influenced by traditional norms, which nevertheless is required 
to express a multitude of new foreign concepts, not for one country only, but for many distrib- 
uted over a vast geographical area. Arabic phonology, morphology, and syntax have re- 
mained relatively unchanged from earliest times, as has much of the vocabulary. Here tradi 
tional adherence to anoient linguistio norms and to the models of olassical literature, especially 
the Koran, has had the effect of preserving the language intaot over the centuries. But 
as vocabulary and phraseology must adapt to the new and ever-changing requirements 
of external circumstances, these are more prone to change. Strictly speaking, every 
epoch of Arab history has had its own peculiar vocabulary, whioh should be set forth 
in a separate dictionary. But as we have seen, the vocabulary of modern Arabio con- 
fronts the lexicographer who aims at completeness with more than a fair share of prob- 
lems and difficulties. 


In the presentation of the entries in the dictionary, homonymous roots are given separate- 
ly in only a few especially clear instances. The arrangement of word entries under a given 
root does not necessarily imply etymological relationship. Consistent separation of such roots 
was dispensed with because the user of a practical dictionary of modern Arabic will not 
generally be concerned with Semitic etymology. In conformity with the practice customary 
in bilingual dictionaries of modern European languages, where the material is treated in 
purely synchronic fashion, the origin of older loanwords and foreign terms is not indicated. 
For recent loans, however, the source and the foreign word are usually given. Personal names 
are generally omitted, but large numbers of geographical names are included; the nisba 
adjectives of these can be formed at will, hence are not entered unless some peculiarity such 
as a broken plural is involved. In transliteration, while the ending of nisba adjectives regu- 
larly appears as -i (e.g., januM, dirasi, makki), the same ending is shown as -iy for nominal 
forms of roots with a weak third radical, i.e., where the third radical is contained in the 
ending (e.g., qaeiy, sabiy, mahmly, mabniy). This distinction, not present in Arabic script, 
may prove valuable to the user of the dictionary. Because of a distinction which retains 
importance in quantitative metrics, the third person singular masculine suffix is transcribed 
with a long vowel {-ha, -*>) following short syllables and with a short vowel (-ftu, -hi) after 
long syllables. In any bilingual dictionary, the listing of isolated words with one or more 
isolated translations is, strictly speaking, an inadmissible abstraction. In order to provide 
the syntactical information to be expected in a dictionary of this size, a liberal selection 
of idiomatic phrases and sentences illustrating usage has been added. Symbols showing the 
accusative and prepositional government of verbs are also supplied. Synonyms and trans- 
lation's have been included in large numbers in order to delineate as accurately as possible 
the semantic ranges within which a given entry can be used. 

The material for the dictionary was gathered in several stages. The major portion was 
collected between 1940 and 1944 with the co-operation of several German orientalists. The 
entire work was set in type, but only one set of galleys survived the war. The author resumed 
the collection of material in the years 1946 through 1948 and added a considerable number 
of entries. The German edition of the dictionary, Arabisches WSrterhvdt ftir die Schriftsprache 
der Gegenwart, which appeared in 1952, was based on a corpus of approximately 45,000 slips 
containing citations from Arabic sources. The primary source materials consisted of selected 
works by Taha Husain, Muhammad Husain Baikal, Tauflq al-Haklm, Mahmfld TaimOr, 
al-Manfaluti, Jubran Kalll Jubr&n, and Amin ar-Raih&ni. Further, numerous Egyptian 
newspapers and periodicals, the Egyptian state almanac, taqwim misr, for 1935 and its 
Iraqi counterpart, datil al-'iraq, for 1937, as well as a number of specialized Egyptian 
handbooks were thoroughly sifted. The secondary sources used in preparation of the German 
edition were the first edition of Leon Bercher's Lexique (1938), which 
provides material from the Tunisian press in the form of a supplement to J. B. Belofs 
Vocahulaire arabe-francais, G. S. Colin's Pour lire la presse arabe (1937), the third edition of 
E. A. Elias' comprehensive Modern Dictionary Arabic-English (1929), and the glossary of the 
modern Arabic chrestomathy by C. V. Ode-Vassilieva (1929). Items in the secondary sources 
for which there were attestations in the primary sources were, of course, included. All other 
items in the secondary sources were carefully worked over, in part with the help of Dr. Tahir 
Khemiri. Words known to him, or already included in older dictionaries, were incorporated. 
Apart from the primary and secondary sources, the author had, of course, to consult a number 
of reference works in European languages, encyclopedias, lexicons, glossaries, teohnical 

XI Introduction 

dictionaries, and specialized literature on the most diverse subjects in order to ascertain the 
correct translation of many technical terms. For older Arabic forms, the available indices and 
collections of Arabic terminology in the fields of religion (both Islam and Eastern Church), 
jurisprudence, philosophy, Arabic grammar, botany, and others were very helpful. These 
collections were, however, not simply accepted and incorporated en bloc into the dictionary, 
but used only to sharpen the definition of terms in the modern meanings aotually attested 
in the primary source materials. 

After publication of the German edition the author continued collecting and presented 
new material, together with corrections of the main work, in Supplement turn arabtichen 
V/orUrhuch fur die SchrijUprache ier Qegmwart, which appeared in 1959. The Supplement 
contains the results of extensive collection from the writings of 'Abdassal&m al-'UjaUl, 
MikaMl Nu'aima, and Karam Malham Karam, from newspapers and periodicals of all Arab 
countries, as well as from Syrian and Lebanese textbooks and specialized literature. In the 
postwar years several lexicographical works dealing with modern Arabio became available 
to the author: the second edition of Beroher (1944), the fourth edition of Elias (1947), 
D. Neustadt and P. Sohusser's Arabio-Hebrew dictionary, MittBn 'Arabi'Ibn (1947), Charles 
Pellafs Unrobe vivant (1952), and C. K. Baranov's comprehensive Arabic-Russian dictionary, 
Arabako-BussUy Slomr (1957). In preparing the Supplement, the author compared these with 
his own work but was reluotant to incorporate items which he could not find attested in 
context, and which would merely increase the number of entries derived from secondary 

The author is indebted to Dr. Andreas Jacobi and Mr. Heinrich Becker who, until they 
were called up for military service in 1943, rendered valuable assistance in collecting and 
collating the vast materials of the German edition and in preparing the manusoript. A con- 
siderable amount of material was contributed by a number of Arabists. The author wishes 
to express his gratitude for such contributions to Prof. Werner Caskel, Dr. Hans Kinder- 
mann, Dr. Hedwig Klein, Dr. Kurt Munzel, Prof. Annemarie Schimmel, Dr. Biohard Sohmidt, 
and especially to Prof. Wolfram von Soden, who contributed a large amount of excellent 
material. I am deeply grateful to Dr. Munzel, who contributed many entries from news- 
papers of the postwar period and likewise to his colleague Dr. Muhammad Saftf. I 
appreciate having been able to disouss many difficult items with them. The assistance 
of Dr. Tahir Khomiri was especially useful. He contributed 1,500 very valuable items and, 
until 1944, his advice to the author during the collection and sifting of material shed light 
upon many dubious cases. Prof. Anton Spitaler likewise provided valuable observations and 
greatly appreciated advice. Contributions to the Supplement were supplied by Dr. Eberhard 
Kuhnt, Dr. G6tz Schregle, and Mr. Karl Stowasser. Moreover, in the course of two visits to 
a number of Arab countries, many Arab contributors, students, scholars, writers, and pro- 
fessional people too numerous to mention generously provided useful information and counsel. 
Here, as in the prefaces to the German edition of the dictionary and the Supplement, the 
author wishes to express his sincere thanks to all those who have contributed to the 
suocess of this undertaking. 

This English edition includes all the material oontained in the German edition of the 
dictionary and in the Supplement, as well as a number of additions and corrections the need 
for which became obvious only after the publication of the Supplement. Additions have been 
inserted in the proof almost up to the present time. It was therefore possible to inolude a 
number of contributions made by Dr. Walter Jesser in Alexandria. The number of cross- 

Introduction XII 

references has been considerably increased. A new type font was introduced for the Arabic. 
The second edition of Webster's New International Dictionary was used as a standard refer- 
ence for spelling and for certain definitions. On the suggestion of the editor, three changes 
were made in the system of transliteration used in the German edition, namely, j for r, 
% for £, and g for £. Also, following his preference, proper names were transliterated without 
capital letters, Bince there is no capitalization in Arabic script. The author followed a sugges- 
tion made by Prof. Charles A. Ferguson in his review of the dictionary (Language 30 : 174, 
1954) to transcribe feminine endings of roota having a weak third.radical (l\-) with the pausal 
form -ah instead of -&t. Also following Dr. Ferguson's advice, the author has transcribed many 
more foreign words than in the German edition. The letters e, c, 9, o, 6, g, v, and p, which 
have no counterpart in classical Arabic, have been added. The system of transcription for 
Arabic words throughout the dictionary is Bimply a transliteration of the Arabic script. For 
foreign words and Arabic dialeot words, however, the usual transliteration of the Arabic is 
inadequate to indicate the pronunciation. In order to avoid discrepancy between spelling and 
pronunciation, the author, in his German edition, would often refrain from giving any tran- 
scription at all, but merely enter the foreign word as a rough guide to pronunciation. In the 
present edition practically all foreign words have been transcribed (e.g., dibl&masi, helikoptar, 
vtzd, v&6) with the help of the added letters. Arab students at the University of Munster were 
consulted for the approximately correct pronunciation. Nevertheless, in many instances the 
foreign source word iB also entered because pronunciation varies considerably from speaker to 
speaker, depending on the dialect and the degree of assimilation. One other deviation from 
a striot transliteration of the Arabic was made for certain foreign words in order to provide 
a closer approximation to the usual pronunciation. In writing European words with Arabic 
letters, I , j , ^ are, contrary to regular practice in Arabic, frequently used to indicate short 
vowels. Where this is the case, we have transcribed accordingly (e.g., J^JUpjl otomatiki, 
iljU'li danmark). 

Finally, the author wishes to express his Bincere gratitude to the editor, Prof. J Milton 
Cowan, thanks to whose initiative and energy this English edition can now be presented to 
the public His generous expenditure of time and effort on this project has been greatly 
appreciated by all involved. To Theodora Ronayne, who performed the exacting task of 
preparing a meticulously accurate typescript, thereby considerably lightening our labors, 
we are indeed grateful. Professor Cowan joins me in recording our special thanks to Mr. Karl 
Stowasser, whose quite remarkable command of the three languages involved and whose 
unusual abilities as a lexicographer proved indispensable. He has devoted his untiring efforts 
to this enterprise for the past four years, oo-ordinating the work of editor and author across 
the Atlantic. The bulk of the translation was completed in 1957-1958, while he was in 
Ithaca. During the past two years in Munster he has completed the incorporation of the 
Supplement into the body of the dictionary and assisted the author in seeing the work through 
the press. 

The following paragraphs describe the arrangement of entries and explain the use of 
symbols and abbreviations : 

Arabio words are arranged according to Arabia *'oots. Foreign words are listed in straight 
alphabetical order by the letters of the word (cf. ^ j\j bans Paris, j>lf kddir cadre) . Arabi- 

XIII Introduction 

cized loanwords, if they clearly fit under the roots, are entered both ways, often with the root 
entry giving a reference to the alphabetical listing (cf. jjiti qanun law, ii'jy naizak spear). 
Two or more homonymous roots may be entered as separate items, including foreign 
words treated as Arabic forms (e.g., £jf karlm under the Arabic root '^ and 2 £_,5", the 
French word crime; cf. also the consonant combination k-r-k). In order to indicate to the 
reader that the same order of letters occurs more than once and that he should not confine 
his search to the first listing, each entry is preceded by a small raised numeral (cf. ij_, _,..). 

Under a given root the sequence of entries is as follows. The verb in the perfect of the base 
stem, if it exists, comes first with the transliteration indicating the voweling. It is followed 
by the vowel of the imperfect and, in parentheses, the verbal nouns or mafadir. Then come 
the derived stems, indicated by boldface Roman numerals II through X. For Arab users 
unaccustomed to this designation generally used by Western orientalists, the corresponding 
stem forms are: II JJ ja"ala, III JoU jaala, IV J«il afala, V Jxil lafa'ala, VI J*U3 
tafd'ala, VII JaJjI infa'ala, VIII J«=jl ifta'ala, IX J«i( if alia, X J.Al.1 istafala. Wherever 
there is any irregularity, for the rare stems XI through XV, and for the derived steins of 
quadriliteral verbs tho Arabic form is entered and transliterated (cf. yt VII, x-j VIII, ^ji- XII, 
r kL III). Then come nominal forms arranged according to their length. Verbal nouns of the 
stems II through X and all active and passive participles follow at the end. The latter are 
listed as separate items only when their meaning is not immediately obvious from the verb, 
particularly where a substantival or adjectival translation is possible (cf. ^>U hajib under 
<_JC, y\- sahil under J#). The sequence under a given root is not determined by historical 
considerations. Thus, a verb derived from a foreign word is placed at the head of the entire 
section (cf. ijl aqlama, 2 iij II). 

Essentially synonymous definitions are separated by commas. A semicolon marks the 
beginning of a definition in a different semantic range. 

The syntactic markings accompanying the definitions of a verb are » for the accusative 
of a person, » for the accusative of a thing, U for the feminine of animate beings, p for a 
group of persons. It should be noted that the Arabic included in parentheses is to be read 
from right to left even if separated by the word "or" (cf. ^y, ^ij). Verb objects in English 
are expressed by s.o. (someone) and (something), the reflexivo by o.s. (oneself). 

A dash occurring within a section indicates that tho following form of a plural or of a 
verbal noun, or in some instances tho introduction of a new voweling of the main entry, 
holds for all following meanings in the section even if these are not synonymous and are 
separated by semicolons. This dash invalidates all previously given verbal nouns, imperfect 
vowels, plurals, and other data qualifying the main entry. It indicates that all following defini- 
tions apply only to this latest sub-entry (cf. J^U- Jcajaqa, Jac 'adala). 

In the transcription, which indicates the voweling of the unpointed Arabic, nouns are 
given in pausal form without tanwin. Only nouns derived from verbs with a weak third 
radical are transcribed with nunnation (e.g., ^i\i qddin, ^^- muqtadan, jL ma' fun in 
contrast with <Sj±i buSrd). 

A raised z following the transcription of a noun indicates that it is a diptote. This indication 
is often omitted from Western geographical terms and other recent non-Arabic proper names 
because the inflected ending is practically never pronounced and the marking would have 
only theoretical value (cf. ^nG 1 -' istokholm, Jj.,1 abrll). 

The symbol O precedes newly coined technical terms, chiefly in the fields of technology, 
which were repeatedly found in context but whose general acceptance among specialists could 

Introduction XIV 

not be established with certainty (cf. jlilJ tilf&z television set, ^j*- hods intuition, j£- miharr 
heating installation). 

The symbol Q precedes those dialect words for which the Arabic Bpelling suggests a 
colloquial pronunciation (cf. «J»U»- hadddf, "J-u- II). 

Dialect words are marked with abbreviations in lower-case letters (e.g., syr., leb., saud.-ar., 
etc.). These are also used to indicate words which were found only in the sources of a particular 
area. This does not necessarily mean that a word or meaning is confined to that area (cf. j jjU- 
j&rur, ^ bapfa, oULi Sxlman). 

The same abbreviations, but with capital letters, mark entries as the generally accepted 
technical terms or the official designations for public offices, institutions, administrative 
departments, and the like, of the country in question (cf. ,^-Lf majlis, i£i mahkama). 

The abbreviation Isl. Law marks the traditional terminology of Islamic fiqh (cf. •L>.x»- 
hadai, OU Wan, **z* mtU'a), as distinguished from the technical terms of modern juris- 
prudence which are characterized by the abbreviation fur. (cf. gXfi 'amdi, l ^ r Jj talabbus). 
For other abbreviated labels see List of Abbreviations below. 

Elatives of the form af'alu are translated throughout with the English comparative 
because this most often fits the meaning. The reader Bhould bear in mind, however, that in 
certain contexts they will best be rendered either with the positive or the superlative. 

The heavy vertical stroke f terminates the definitions under an entry. It is followed by 
phrases, idioms, and sentences which illustrate the phraseological and syntactic use of that 
entry. These did not have to be transcribed in full because it has been necessary to assume 
an elementary knowledge of Arabic morphology and syntax on the part of the user, without 
which it is not possible to use a dictionary arranged according to roots. Consequently, no 
transcription is given after the vertical Btroke for: 

1 the entry itself, but it is abbreviated wherever it is part of a genitive compound (e.g., 
s. al-ma'cUi under pahib, huan al-u. under vJtdufa); 

2 nouns whose Arabic spelling is relatively unambiguous (e.g., *JS\i, leU, _>tfT, jb); 

3 words known from elementary grammar, such as pronouns, negations, and prepositions 
the third pennon perfect of the verb type fa'ala, occasionally also the definite article; 

4 frequent nominal types, such as: 

a) the verbal nouns (mafddir) of the derived stems II and VII — X : 
J^ taf'U, jUAil infi'al, JUiil xfti'dl, ibUil if'ildl, jUiu-l istif'dt; 

b) the active and passive participles of the basio verb stem : 
J*U fd'U, <i*U fd'Ua, and Jj*i» rnaf'ul, iJ^j^i. maf'vla; 

c) the nominal types J_*i fa*U, iluj fa'ila, jUiyi'oi, and Jjai fu'vl (also as a plural); 
UUi JVala and tijui fu'ula as well as J*il af'al; 

d) the plural forms jUtl af'al, oUil af'ila*, JJl*i fa'dlU, Jtlil aja'il, J»U* mafd'il, 
JJUi fa'd'il, J*Ui fa'a'il, JJUi fa alii, J-*Ui afd'il, J-*-Uj tafd'il, J^tu mafd'il, 
SJJUi fa'dlila. 

All other possible vowelings are transcribed (e.g., if'dl, fa"al, fu'ail, fa'il, af'td, fd'al). Words 
with weak radicals belonging in the form types listed above are also transcribed wherever 
any uncertainty about the form might arise (cf. Mj rdgin under ji-j t t_Jj^ ' *-*i J ^der c^ j zait, 
^JVI .u-J.1 under ju*_* masjid). 


List of Abbreviations 

In transcription, two nouns forming ft genitive compound are treated as ft unit. They are 
transcribed as noun — definite article — noun, with the entry word abbreviated (cf . under ^L. 
sahib, 4_1 Sibh). In a noun compound where the second noun is in apposition or attributive, 
it alone is transcribed (cf. under ij\ ibra, iU- )ild). In this manner the difference between 
the two constructions is brought out clearly without resorting to transliteration of the i'rab 
endings. A feminine noun ending in -a, as first member of a genitive compound, is also abbre- 
viated, and the construct ending -t is to be read even though it is not expressed in the 

In view of the great variety and intricacy of the material presented, it is inevitable that 
inconsistencies will appear and that similar examples will be treated here and there in a different 
manner. For such incongruities and for certain redundancies, we must ask the user's indulgence. 

November 1960 

Hans Wibb 

List of Abbreviations 










anno Domini 
















year of the Hegira 






construction engineering 






ante meridiem 


































east, eastern 










circa, about 






for example 

List of Abbreviations 

































north, northern 




noun, nomen 




North Africa 




northeast, northeastern 






Great Britain 









n. un. 

nomen nnitatis 



n. vie. 

nomen vicis 




northwest, northwestern 


















that is 










parliamentary language 









Intern. Law 

International Law 














person, personal 


Islam, Islamic 








Jordan Kingdom 





















pi. comm. 

pluralis communis 




post meridiem 
























which see 







List of Abbreviations 














south, southern 



Saudi At. 

Saudi Arabia 


theatrical art 


Saudi -Arabian 




southeast, southeastern 





















United Arab Republic 












west, western 






southwest, southwestern 


Yemenite usage 





I a particle introducing direct and indirect 
questiona; (•' — ' <* — a^i in alternative 
questions; j»l — 1 *\j* sawd'un a — am 
no matter whether — or; j\ a-yoa particle 
indicating or implying doubt: or? per- 
haps? viJJi J <iliJjl (taSukku) you 
wouldn't doubt it, would you? do you 
perhaps doubt it? or do you doubt it? 
Vi a-ld and LI a-md intensifying inter- 
jections introducing sentences : verily, 
truly, indeed, oh yes, etc., IjJiJLi VI 
(fa-nzuru) oh, do look! why, look! *Jl U 
(innaku) why, he is ... ! 

1 i r »T db 2 August (month; Syr., Leb., Jord., Ir.) 

a *_j| see y\ 

s ^jI abba u to long, yearn (d»j Jl ila iwtanihi 
for one's homeland) 

*._-ijl look up alphabetically 

JM (It. abate) abdti abbot (Chr.) 

5JU ibala, ibbala bundle, bale 

J I 


see jjl 

-Lf 1 abjad alphabet 

^-u-l abjadi alphabetic(al) ; oLjjfl 
elementary facts, simple truths | Jj_^| 
iu^VI the letters of the alphabet, "the 

Jjl abada i (*ji\ ubud) to stay, linger (^ at a 
place); — t u to roam in a state of 
wildness, run wild, be shy, shy away, run 
away (animal, game) II to make lasting 
or permanent, perpetuate, eternize (* V to be perpetuated, become 
lasting or permanent; to return to a 
state of wildness 

jjl abad pi. iUT dbad endless, eternal 
duration, eternity; l-ul abadan always, 
forever; ever, (with neg.) never (in tha 
future), not at all, on no account; (alone, 
without negation) never! not at all! by 
no means! | -b^l Jl, AjV J* and _^JJI JjI 
abada d-dahri forever; ^-^1 JjI abada 
l-abadin and ^JjNI JjI Jl ila abadi ha. 
forever and ever 

^Jjl abadi everlasting, eternal, endless 

,_£-ij*iM al-abadi eternity 

LJjI abadiya infinite duration, endless 
time, eternity 

JjT dbid wild, untamed 

«JjT abida pi. ijljl awdbid 2 unusual 
thing, prodigious event | UJl Jjljl a. 
ad-dunyd the Wonders of the World 

JoJa mu'abbad eternal, endless, ever- 
lasting | JjJ^ ^ (sijn) life imprisonment 

V I abara i u (abr) to prick, sting II to pollinate 
(a a palm tree) 

»j\ ibra pi. j \ ibar needle, pin; indicator 
(of an instrument); shot, injection (med.); 
sting, prick | lj\ *ii>- ftaqanahu ibratan to 
give s.o. an injection; ^\J\ *j\ i. ar-ra'% 
geranium (hot.); 4-~^.Ll. lj\ (magndtisiya) 
magnetic needle; JyV' Jii sugl al-i. 

_ni* mi'bar needlecase; pack needle 

! jLT dbdr see Ji 

i-Syl abraSiya and ~<^jj\ abruSiya pi. -at 
diocese, bishopric (Ckr.); parish (Chr.) 

j-^j-J abramis, ^^Jj-I bream (zool.) 

j_j\ ibrlz pure gold 

j~ij\ xbrxsam, ibrisim silk 

f jt_j\ ibriq pi. JjjLI abariq* pitcher, jug 

Jjyl abril April 

j_)l abzan pi. jjLl oidztn' washbowl 

fj\ ibzim pi. vjbl oftdztm 2 buckle, claap 

^1 ub$ pi. ^UT d&d^ and ^ajU ma'buj, pi. 
^L ma'dbkp hollow of the knee, popliteal 

J«jl V to take or carry under one's arm (* ; 
to put one's arm (*, • around s.o., around, hold in one's arm {*, • s.o., 

Jul ibf pi. ^>1>T dbdf m. and f. armpit 

jt\ abaqa t (JL1 t&df) to escape, run away 
( a slave from his master) 

jjl abaq a kind of hemp 

JjT dbiq pi. JLI uMd? runaway, escaped; 
a fugitive 

1 Jjl ibil (coll.) camels 

*aJU i&afcz, ibbdla bundle, bale 

>ijl ibliz alluvial deposits (of the Nile) 

^pjj I iblis* pi. U L I o&atoa devil, Satan 

1 j. I II to celebrate, praise, eulogize (• a de- 
ceased person), deliver a funeral oration 
(• in praise of s.o.) 

CjI ubna passive pederasty 

jLI ibbdn time; uLI i&odna during, 
uLI J at the time of, during 

J\jU ta'fcm commemoration (of a de- 
ceased person) | ,>jtJI iU»- Aa/fa( a(-(. 
commemorative celebration {in honor of 
a deceased person) 

UjjL wta'&un catamite; weakling, molly- 
coddle, sissy; scoundrel 

*> t l see ^ 

^yljl abnus ebony 

4il oictAa and aJiAo a (abk) to pay attention 
(J, also <-j to), heed (<j, also ^, take 
notice (J, also i_» of ) | *l ojj "^ _^.l (t/u*6aftu) 
an insignificant, unimportant matter V to 
display proud, haughty manners; to turn 
away, keep one's distance, remain aloof 
(^ys from), look down (jp upon), think 
o.s. far above (jp s.o or 

<f\ ubbaha splendor, pomp, ostentation, 
pageantry; pride 

i_jl ab pi. »LT aba father (also eccl.); ancestor, 
forefather; c^\ L yd abati my father! 
uI_jjVI al-abawdn the parents, father and 
mother; L'_>jl abund reverend father, form 
of address and title of a priest (Chr). \ 
JL*- jp LI aban 'an jaddin handed down 
from father to son, as inherited from 
forefathers; j«- jj\ abu su'n marabou; 
|0-" y. ' a ^ n-naum poppy ; J^A I ji I 
abu l-haul the Sphinx; jlkJLlI y\ abu 
l-yaqzdn rooster, cock 

*y\ ubuwa fatherhood, paternity 

gy} abawi paternal, fatherly 

Coj^jl ebonite 

<Jy\ (Fr. abonni) abunih pi. -at subscription; 
subscription card (e.g., for public convey- 
ances, a concert season, etc.) 

ijl aba a (»U ibd\ U\A ibd'a) to refuse, 
decline; to turn down, reject, scorn, dis- 
dain (*; to deny {* J* s.o. | 
4l*ij <jl "ill ji (illd an yaf'alahu) he in- 
sisted on doing it; jl V' Zi\ jl God willed 
that ... V to refuse, decline 

•LI ibd*, «. LI ibd'a rejection; dislike, 
distaste, aversion, disdain; pride 

jl ably disdainful, scornful; proud, lofty, 

<_jT abin pi. «L I ubdh reserved, standofiish ; 
unwilling, reluctant, grudging 

t^wl abib the eleventh month of the Coptic 


iSjj*^>} abiquri Epicurean 

\jja-j) abiquriya Epicureanism 

~J\ utrujj and £j\ utrunj citron (Citrus 
medica; hot.) 

I j^ifi (Turk, atefpi) dieSgl fireman, stoker 

fL ma'tam pi. «rt. ma'atim* obsequies, funeral 

1 o\j\ atari pi. JlT atom, J^l utom, utn female 
donkey, she-ass 

2 jy\ aiun, attun pi. Jll utun, ^\j\ atdtin 2 
kiln, furnace, oven 

•jljl itawa pi. ^jUi ataioa duty, tax, tribute 

^pjjjjl (Fr.) otobla autobus, bus 

J^jUjjI (Fr.) otomdtiki automatic 

j-^jl and J-jj*yil (Fr.) otomobil automobile 

Jl aid i (uLol itydn, Jl aty, IljU ma*(dA 
to come (» or Jl to; J* over s.o.), arrive 
(a or Jl at) ; i_j Jl to bring, bring forward, 
produce, advance, accomplish or achieve; <-* • Jl to bring, give or offer s.o.; to do, perform {a a deed), carry out, 
execute (a e.g., movements); to commit, 
perpetrate (a a sin, a crime); to mention 
(J*; to finish off (J*, also s.o.); 
to finish, complete, carry through, dispose, 
settle, wind up, conclude, terminate, bring 
to a close (J*; to destroy, annihilate, 
eradicate, wipe out (J*; to eliminate, 
carry away, sweep away (J*, do 
away (J* with); to use up, exhaust (also 
a subject), present exhaustively, in great 
detail (J*, elaborate (J* on | 
JL LT as follows; *j*I J* Jl (dkirihi) 
to complete, finish; to spend or use 
up the last of; ^-jUIj ^^-Vl J* Jl 
to destroy everything, wreak havoc ; 
If-I^l »> °^' J' (buyuta) to tackle in the right way, knock on the right 
door; Jj ^ Jjj yu'td min qibali is under- 
mined, weakened, ruined by III to offer, 

furnish, give, afford (<_> • to s.o., 
provide, supply (^ * s.o. with) ; to be pro- 
pitious, be favorable (» for s.o.), favor 
(* B.o.); to turn out well (# for s.o.), be in 
favor (• of); to suit, befit, become (» s.o.), 
be appropriate (• for s.o.); to agree (• with 
s.o.; food) j .^ J? til (kuUuiai'in) every- 
thing was in his favor, turned out well 
for him, came his way IV to bring (a * s.o.; to give (a • s.o.; to grant (a • 
to s.o., bestow (a • upon s.o. | 
• SjJI JT (zakata) to give alms V to origi- 
nate, stem, derive, spring, arise, result 
(jp from); to end (^ with), result (j^ 
in); to get (Jl to), arrive (Jl at); to be easy 
to do, be feasible without difficulty, be 
attainable, go well, progress; to go about (J) gently, cautiously X to ask to 
come, induce to come (• s.o.) 

JU ma'tan pi. ol ma'dtin place where comes from ; place at which one arrives ; 
access; pi. ot. place of origin; origin, 
source, provenance; place where one has 
been or to which one has come; place where starts, where ends 

oT dtin coming, next; following j £j-»*yi 
J^l (usbu') the coming week, next week; 
JVtT as follows 

<^l_»* mu'dtin, mutvdtin favorable, pro- 
pitious, opportune, convenient, suitable 

£»l atta u i a (iJUl atdta) to be luxuriant, grow 
profusely (hair, plants) II to fix up, prepare 
(a; to furnish (a an apartment) 
V to be or become rich, wealthy, to prosper; 
to be furnished 

ti> 12 1 atat furniture, furnishings (of an 
apartment, of a room) 

ti^uu ta'tit furnishing 

ilti ait, ,i*wl alU abundant, luxuriant, 
profusely growing (hair, plants) 

x j\ atara u i (air, SjUl atara) to transmit, pass 
along, report, relate (a, j* from, or 
based on the authority of, s.o.) II to 

affect, influence ( j or J* s.o.,, act 
(j or J* upon), produce an effect, make 
an impression, bare influence (j or J* on) ; 
to induce (phys.) IV to prefer (J* a to), 
like (a more (J* than) ; to hare a pre- 
dilection, a liking (a for), like (a, be 
fond (a of); to choose, deem wise or ad- 
visable (jt to do; to adore (a, * 
8.0., | jX\t 4-ju yT (nafsahu bi-l- 
kair) to wish o.s. well, hope for the best 
for o.s. V to be impressed, be influenced; 
to let o.s. be impressed, be impressible; to 
be moved, be touched (i_j or J by, also 
£*); to be excited, be stimulated; to be 
affected (>~j by, said of materials, e.g., 
iron by acid); to be induced (phys.); to 
follow in 8.0/8 (•) tracks, follow s.o.'s 
example, emulate (• s.o.); to pursue, follow 
up (a a question, a problem) ; to perceive, 
feel (a X to claim a monopoly; to 
possess alone, with the exclusion of others, 
monopolize (t_*; to appropriate (<->, take exclusive possession (<~> of); 
to preoccupy (a, engross (a the 
attention) | *i <i! _rl— -I the Lord has taken 
him unto Himself 

j I atar pi. jUT dtdr track, trace, vestige; 
sign, mark; touch; impression, effect, ac- 
tion, influence (j on); tradition (relating 
the deeds and utterances of Mohammed 
and his Companions); work (of art, esp. 
of literature); ancient monument; jUT an- 
tiquities; remnants, vestiges; (religious) 
relics | jU^/l J* 'Urn al-d. archeology; 
jtf^/l jb museum of antiquities; *J j\ V 
(afora) ineffective, ineffectual; i jt r j J\i 

(rafi) with retroactive force 0«r.); £r+ 

,>* Xu 1^1 asbaha ataran ba'da 'ainin to 
be destroyed, be wiped out, leave noth- 
ing but memory behind; ^e- -W l/l »-iUl (a'a* 
dahu) to destroy completely; »j\ J*, 
*J ' J ( ft ko /* *£"&*) on bis (its) track, at Mb 
heels, after him; immediately afterwards, 
presently, thereupon; ,/V' J* immediately 
afterwards, presently 

./I itra (prep.) immediately after, right 

iSj\ atari archeologic(al) ; archeologist 
(also (^jIjT atari); old, ancient, antique | 
<$./! jiU archeologist; Sjj-I *jJ (Juja) dead 

j 1 aiir egoistic, selfish 

»j\ atara selfishness, egoism 

ji\ atir favored, preferred (JCs- by s.o.), 
in favor {xj* with s.o.); select, exquisite, 
noble; see also alphabetically 

•jUI atara remainder, remnant; faint 
trace, vestige 

Syl. ma'tara, ma'tura pi. JX» ma'dtir* 
exploit, feat, glorious deed 

jv\j ta'tir action, effect, influence, im- 
pression (j, J* on); effectiveness, efficacy; 
induction (phys.) 

ifjvfc ta'tiri produced by induction, in- 
ductive, inductional, induced (phys.) 

jUjl itar preference; altruism; predilec- 
tion; love, affection 

j\S ta'aQur being influenced; agitation, 
emotion, feeling; excitability, sensitivity; 
(pi. -at) feeling, sensation, perception | *>__,* 
jb}\ easily impressed, impressible, sen- 

rfJ^S ta'atturi: ^ytdl ^Jl\ (madhab) 
the impressionistic movement 

o_/l7 ta'aUuriya impressionism 

jUiu-l isti'tar arrogation of a monop- 
oly ; monopolization ; presumption, pre- 
sumptuousness; exclusive power 

jjJU ma'tur transmitted, handed down | 
j_^L <Sji (qaul) and SjjjL if (kalima) 

j j* mu'attir affecting, acting upon; 
effective; impressive; moving, touching, 
pathetic; (pi. -at) influencing factor, in- 

*j*\ look up alphabetically 

LAJI utfiya pi. JjUl aid fin trivet, tripod (in 
ancient times : any one of the three stones 
supporting a cooking pot near the fire) | 
jlj^l iiJtf that which rounds out a number, 
caps, puts the lid on, the crowning 

JJI atala i to consolidate, strengthen II to 
become rich V to be consolidated, be 
strengthened; to become rich 

J?l atl pi. JjJI vlvl (coll.; n. un. I, pi, 
ataldt) tamarisk (hot.) 

JJI atil and JJj* mu'attal deep-rooted; 
of noble origin, highborn 

/I atima a (itm, atam, *-L ma'tam) to sin, err, 
slip V to eschew sin, shun evil; to restrain 
o.b., hold back 

/• I itm pi. *\j\ atam sin, ofFense, misdeed, 

/•U ma'tam pi. r L. ma'dtim* sin, offense, 
misdeed, crime 

-Jb ta'fim sin, offense, misdeed, crime 

fl dtim pi. Ixl atama and -JI aftm pi. 

•Let MtanuT 1 sinful, criminal, wicked, evil; 


Xc I itmid antimony 

^Jl atlr ether 

LJI a/ina Athens 

Lj^j-jI atyubiyd Ethiopia 

J^~j1 atyubl Ethiopian; (pi. -un) an 
Ethiopian | ^j-J^I j ^M' Ethiopia 

^1 aj;a u i (j^-l aj'ij) to burn, blaze, flame 
(fire) II to light, kindle, start (a a fire) 
V = I 

pU-l »U mo' -ujoj bitter, salty water 

rU-l ajjaj burning, blazing, hot 

£>-L. muta'ajjij burning, blazing, flam- 

i-^l ajabxya horologium (Copt.-Chr.) 

^*-l ajara u (ajr) to reward, recompense, 
remunerate (» s.o.) II to let for rent, let 
out, hire out, rent, lease (a ; (with naf> 
aahQ) to hire o.s. out IV to let for rent, let 
out, hire out, rent, lease (* ; to rent, 
hire, lease, hold under a lease (*, 
take a lease (a on) ; to hire, engage, take 
on (• s.o.), engage the services (• of s.o.) 
X to rent, hire, lease, hold under a lease 
(*, take a lease (a on); to charter (* 
a vessel); to hire, engage, take on (• s.o.), 
engage the services (• of s.o.) 

j>-\ ajr pi. j^>-l ujur wages, pay, 
honorarium, recompense, emolument, re- 
muneration; price, rate, fee | jj-Jl j_j*-l 
u. as-8afar fares 

•>r' u i ra nu " e . r »nt, rental; price, rate, 
fee; fixed rate, (official) charge; postage | 
.bjOl lj*-\ postage; JiJl S^l u. an-naql 
transport charges, freight(age), carriage, 

_r>- 1 ajxr pi . » l_^- 1 ujard' 3 hireling ; 
workman, laborer, day laborer; employee 

*jv*-\ ajlra working woman, factory 
girl, female laborer; woman employee 

jj»-tj ta'jir letting, leasing, hiring out, 
letting on lease ; lease | yl*V \j j^r^ ?Jj^* 
(i'dra) Lend- Lease Act 

jLtfl ijdr pi. -at rent; letting, leasing, 
hiring out, letting on lease | jLf^J for 
rent, to let 

•jU-l ijdra pi. -at rent; letting, leasing, 
hiring out, letting on lease 

jUJlJ Uti'jdr rent, lease, tenure 

j_j*-L ma'jur paid, salaried, on the 
payroll, gainfully employed; employee; 
mercenary, venal, hired, bribed 

j*rj* mu'ajjir pi. -un landlord, lessor 

j>-\z~* mugta'jir leaseholder, lessee, 
tenant; employer 

a _^-T ajurr (n. un. 5) baked brick 







^Ul v?djj 


J>-l ajiJa a (a/aJ) to hesitate, tarry, linger 
II to delay, postpone, put off, defer, ad- 
journ (Jl a till) V to be postponed, 
be deferred, be adjourned (Jl till, to) 
X to request postponement (a of; 
to seek to delay (* 

J*-l ajal yes, indeed! certainly! by all 
means ! 

J*-*/ li-ajli or J»-l ^ min ajli because 
of, on account of, for the sake of; for | 
ul J>-V in order that, that, so that; 
1 4* J».| j, therefore, for that reason, on 
this account 

J*-l ajal pi. JU-T ajal appointed time, 
date, deadline ; instant of death ; respite, 
delay | J*-1flj on credit (com.); J»-VI >-< 
short-term, short-time; short-lived; Jl 

, , - ji- J>-l (yairi musamman) for an 
indefinite period, Bine die, until further 

J-»-b ta'jU delay, postponement, ad- 
journment, deferment, respite; appoint- 
ment of a time or date 

J^T djil delayed, protracted; deferred; 
later, future (as opposed to J*-L*) | ^*-U 
•>U-T J\ 'djilan au djilan, *h~\ jl *U.lp j 
sooner or later, now or later on; J*-Wl J 
J»-^lj now and in the future 

iU-^l al-ajUa the life to come, the 

J^rj* mu'ajjal delayed, late, post- 
poned, deferred; fixed in time, deadlined 

5>l ajama, coll. -»-l ajam pi. -at, j-I ujum, 
*L-T djdm thicket, jungle, forest; reeds, 

***■) ajamiya malaria | S-^VK ***j*i 
ba'u4al al-a. anopheles 

j»-T ajin brackish (water) 

»-u*-l ajanda notebook 

7-1 ahha u (ahk) to cough 

i*-l II to make into one, unite, unify (* 
VIII j£\ ittahada see .b-j 

o»-l aAad, f. ^.u-l ihda one; somebody, 
someone, anybody, anyone (esp. in neg- 
ative sentences and questions); -u-V' 
the One (God); Sunday | j»j*-I akaduhum 
every one of them; a*-*^l *y r yaum aZ-a. 
Sunday; t_i*JI 0*-l a. as-m'af Palm 
Sunday; S^^oiJI -U-l a. al-'an^tara Whit- 
sunday; <J»yVI jU dA&i al-iUuf a few 
thousand (2 — 9000; as distinguished from 
o»>IVI oljj* and J^l oil.) 

j-U-1 aAotfi dominical, Sunday (adj.) 
*i-U-l oAadiya unity, oneness 
iU-^l al-dhad the units (maf&.) 
1 j^-l ahina a (ahan) to hate (J* s.o.) 

o-l iAna pi. ^*-l iAan old feud, deep- 
rooted hatred 

% Cj^ see ^jl 

JU-I a£ada u (a&Z) to take (> * from or 
out of); to take (* along; to get, 
receive, obtain (j* a from); to take 
up, seize (a; to grab (u> s.o.,, 
take hold of (*->); to perceive, notice 
(• s.o., said of the eye) ; to gather, under- 
stand, infer, deduce (j- * from), 
read (a between the lines (,>. of); 
to grip, captivate, thrill, spellbind (v 
s.o.); to take up, acquire, make one's 
own (v, e.g., a method); to keep, 
adhere (<-» to), observe, take over, adopt, 
embrace, follow, copy, imitate (i->; 
to accept (v; to take, lead (Jl <_» 
b.o. to); to admonish, urge, drive («-* * 


s.o. to do; to enjoin, impose (.-> • 
on s.o.; to take away (a J* from 
s.o., strip, deprive {* J* s.o. of), 
cut off, bar (a J*- s.o. from); to reproach, 
blame (a J* s.o. for); to hold against 
s.o. (J*) that... (ol), fix the blame fj* 
on s.o., jl for the fact that); to obligate 
(^ J* s.o. to); to learn (J* or je- from 
s.o., *, acquire knowledge (J* or ^ 
from s.o.), ^* i»>\ -U-I (Jilm) to study 
under s.o.; to begin, start (j or i~> with or, with foil, imperf.: to do, prepare, set out, be about (j or ^ 
to do | *u*l -U-l (uhbatahu) to make 
preparations, prepare o.s., get ready; 
o~^i -U-U -U-l (ma'kad) to adopt the same 
course as s.o. else, follow s.o.'s example; 
IJU-U 4L* -U-l to seize s.o., take possession 
of s.o. (a sensation, or the like); *!_,£ J^-l 
(majrdhu) to take its course; <Jl* j*-1 
(moj/isaM) to take one's seat, sit down; 
•jib- JU-I (kidrahu) to be on one's guard; 
J_J-lj aJU-l (Aw*na) to be friendly, be 
nice to s.o. ; tj*&- X>~\ (bi-kdtirihi) to show 
o.s. complaisant toward s.o., try to 
please s.o. ; *J-U »JU-I [bi-danbihl) to 
punish s.o. for hie offense; aAj j>-l (raya» 
Aw) to ask s.o.'s opinion, consult s.o.; 
■uLc t^TjJl .U-l (ukida r~ra'yu) the matter 
was put to a vote; i-^U-b -U-l (bi-asbdbi) 
to embrace, adopt, e.g., v^r"'-! ■**"' 
^jjj*yi SjUai-1 (ha4dra) to adopt Euro- 
pean culture; i-UJU »-U-! (iidda) to deal 
with s.o. severely, give s.o. a rough 
time; *hj* <J^ ^-1 to obstruct s.o.'s 
way, hinder s.o. from moving on; »JU-I 
UjU J* to shoulder, take upon 
o.s.; J »-uJI JU-1 ('udda) to prepare, set 
out, get ready to do; \x^ <dU A>-1 
('dhdan) to put s.o. under an obligation, 
impose a commitment on s.o.; J* -U-l 
Iji. (,>»-) ukida 'aid (hint) girratin to be 
taken by surprise, be caught unawares; 
SLUUj .U-l (muqdbala) to repay like for 
like; ^jiii\ -U-L .^ which cap- 

tivates the heart, a fascinating, thrilling 
thing; _/Lll Li-U-I (mafaru) we got caught 
in the rain; *j~*\^> J^\ (bi-ndpirihi) to 
help s.o., stand by s.o., take care of s.o., 
look after s.o.; *— a! -U-i (nafasahu) to 
draw breath; <uLwl 4_Lc JU-I to take s.o.'s 
breath away ; mJI tl*- 1 (naum) sleep 
overwhelmed him ; b-U JuU (fit- yatftAt) 
to help s.o., stand by s.o. II to lay under 
a spell, enchant, bewitch (• s.o.) Ill to 
censure, blame {<_->, J* • s.o. for; to 
punish (ij, J* a s.o. for); to hold 
(J*) against s.o. (•), resent (Je • in 
s.o.) | ! J-WjJ V Id tu'dkidnl pardon me! 
forgive me! no offense, I hope! VIII -ii^l 
ittakada to take (a; to take on, 
assume (a; to take up, occupy (a; to pass, adopt (a e.g., a resolution); 
to take, single out, have in mind (aa, «» 
s.o. or as); to make use (a of, 
use (a; to imitate, affect (a e.g., 
s.o.'s manner of speaking) ; to make 
(j* a out of s.o. or | ^£-S ikl 
(iaklan) to take on a form or shape; 
leijA ojcl (mauqifan) to take an attitude, 
assume a position; oj">UI jol-dl Aad to 
take the necessary measures; Ijljf iJ^l 
(qararan) to pass or adopt a resolution; 
•Jb-U-1 -Jl^U JisTl to take up new po- 
sitions (troops) 

-U-l akd acceptance, reception; seizure; 
taking out, taking away, removal, etc. | 
<j\j\ o»-l a. ar-ra'y voting, vote; ijj J»-l 
(wa-rodd) discussion, debate, dispute, 
argument; bj Vj l-U-l J^ V »^ (yaqbalu) 
an indisputable matter; »Uacj X>-\ (wa- 
r a£a') give-and-take; traffic, trade; deal- 
ings, relations (esp. business, commer- 
cial); discussion, debate; fight, battle 

aJl^-I ukda spell, charm 

JL>- 1 akld prisoner of war 

•JLsi-l akida booty, spoils 

iU-l akMd captivating, fascinating, 


-U-L ma had pi. JU-L* ma'dkid 2 place 
from which one takes, source ; 
O wall socket, outlet (el.); adoption, 
borrowing, loan ; manner of acting, mode 
of procedure, approach; pi. -U-U source 
references, bibliography (in books); rep- 
rehensible points, faults, flaws, defects, 
shortcomings | ^>J^\ -W-til the simplest, 
easiest approach; 4^ til <--0* easv *° 
handle or to use; see also akada (middle 
of paragraph) 

•JU-1j< mu'dkada objection, exception; 
censure, blame | ! •-bUj* V (mu'dkadata) 
pardon me! no offense, I hope! 

}j*X> ma'kud taken, seized; taken by 
surprise, caught, trapped ; surprised ; 
taken (<-> with), fascinated (t-> by) ; 
** ij>-U in force, valid 

olj_^-U makudtit receipts, takings, 
returns (com.) 

j+\ II to delay, put off, defer, postpone, 
adjourn (*; to hinder, impede, 
obstruct, hold up (a s.o., *, slow 
down, retard (a; to draw out, 
delay (j* a beyond its appointed 
time); to put back (a, » s.o.,, shelve 
(a; to set back (a a watch, a clock); 
to suspend, discharge, dismiss, remove 
(a s.o. from an office) V to be late; to be 
delayed, fall or lag behind (j*) y tarry, 
linger, hesitate; to default (jc on), be 
behindhand, be in arrears (j* with), be 
behind (j* in); to hesitate (j* with); to 
be suspended (from service), be dis- 
charged, be dismissed | ^ dJli -Uj j^^i I 
ul after that, he did not hesitate long 
before he ..., presently, he ... 

_^ akir pi. -tin, -at, j*-\j\ aivdkir* last, 
ultimate, utmost, extreme; end, close, 
conclusion; foot, bottom (of a paper); 
>^l and 5^1 the hereafter \ i>^l jljl 
the abode in the hereafter, the ever- 
lasting abode; «_^-T J( ild dhirihi and 

so forth, et cetera; ^V' j*3 akira l- 
amri eventually, finally, in the end, after 
all; jajJI ^T akira d-dahri forever; _^-T 
oUjJl d. az-zaman time at which the 
Day of Judgment is to be expected, the 

end of the world; 

to the last, 

down to the grass roots, entirely, com- 
pletely, e.g., »^>-T je- j„i (dummira) to 
be completely destroyed, be wiped off 
the map; »j±\ ^ from behind, from the 
rear; ji-\ *J U endless, infinite; _^-T j 
^1 after all, last of all; _*iJI >l_,l 
o. oi-ioAr the end of the month, the last 
ten days of the month; I^T i __ r J, \jj-\ 
last but not least 

•j^-lM al-dkira the hereafter 

y^\ dkar 2 , f. <jj±\ ukrd, pi. comm. j>-\ 
ujcar* (and Ojj±\ dkarun or Cj Uj>- 1 
ukraydt respectively) another, one more, 
j*-^ the other | <Sj±-\ *ja (marratan) 
once more; iS^'iM ^a, _>-^l _>» he also, 
she also, he in turn, she in turn, ^-Ni Ul 
I also; jj^-VI OJtf o\ (in kdnat) other- 
wise; j±\ Jl uT ^ from time to time; 
<Sj*-\ Jl ii- y- (sana) from year to 
year; tSj*-^j *_^» Cr J . (fara) once m a 
while, from time to time; tSj^\ — *Jy 
(awinatan) sometimes — sometimes, at 
times — at times 

iSj*-^ al-ukrd the hereafter 

iSjj»-\ ukraioi of or relating to the life 
to come or the hereafter 

j<*-\ akir last; latest; rearmost; the 
second of two; \j^-\ eventually, finally, 
in the end, after all, at last; recently, 
lately, the other day; j^-VI — JjVl the 
former — the latter | \j>-\ ^^Jj Ij^-I 
last but not least 

jliJ- mi'kar palm which retains its 
fruit into the winter 

j\>-tj ta'kir delay, deferment, post- 
ponement; obstruction, retardation; put- 
ting back, temporary shelving 


_^fa taakhir delay, lag, retardation; 
hesitation, tarrying, lingering; slowness, 
tardiness; backwardness, underdevelop- 
ment (of a country) 

j*~y mu'akkar rear part, tail, end; 
stern (of a ship) ; remainder, balance (of 
a Bum, to be paid later) ; \j*-}* mu'akkw 
ran recently, lately, the other day; at 
last, finally, eventually 

»j*-ja mu'akkara rear, rear guard (of an 
army) ; rear positions or lines (mil.) ; 
stern (of a ship) 

_^-t_* muta'akkir delayed, belated, late ; 
occurring later (jc than); behind, behind- 
hand, in arrears; backward, underdevel- 
oped; lagging, staying behind; defaulter; 
jj_^-LLI the later, or modern, authors, 
writers, or the like (as opposed to by J__il) ; 
Cjl_^-tiil arrears, balance of a sum re- 
maining due after previous payment | 
ij>-lxil ol-dJI (buldan) the underdevel- 
oped countries 

.U^iu-I ukfubuf octopus 

_p.l III to fraternize, associate as brothers 
(« with s.o.) V to act or show o.s. as a 
brother or friend VI to fraternize, asso- 
ciate as brothers 

i-l ak pi. !_j>-l ihwa, jj_j>-l ikwdn 
brother; fellow man, neighbor; friend; 
pi. Ol_^l specif., brethren or members of 
an order; Jlj»-VI religious brotherhood 
of the Wahabi sect, militant in character, 
established by Ibn Sa'ud in 1910 | _^-1 Ij 
my dear friend! *m j>-\ aku tiqa trust- 
worthy, reliable; jJLi £l brother through 
both father and mother, brother- german 

_Uj- I ukt pi. O \y>~ I akawat sister ; 
(gram.) cognate; counterpart | \^J-\ the 
other (of two), its mate, its counterpart 
(after a fern, noun) 

,jj*- Jcuwaiy little brother 

i$j>-\ akatvi brotherly, fraternal 

*j_j>-I akawiya brotherhood (as a re- 
ligious association) 

. U. I ikd' , *_>>- 1 ukuwa brotherhood , 
brotherliness, fraternity 

•jU-l ikawa fraternization, fraternity, 

j-Tl ta'akin fraternization 
j_j»-l akur barn, stable 
_1 adda u i to befall, afflict (» s.o.) 

_l j»\ amr idd a terrible, evil, horrible 

_j_l aduba u (adab) to be well-bred, well- 
mannered, cultured, urbane, have refined 
tastes; — adaba i (adb) to invite (to a 
party or banquet, « s.o.), entertain 
(« s.o.) | i_L <-ol (ma'duba) to arrange a 
banquet, give a formal dinner II to 
refine, educate (• s.o.); to discipline, 
punish, chastise (» s.o.) IV to invite as a 
guest (• s.o.) V to receive a fine education; 
to be well-bred, well-educated, cultured, 
have refined tastes; to show o.s. polite, 
courteous, civil, urbane; to educate o.s., 
refine one's tastes (^ by, through); to let 
o.s. be guided (i_> by) | <jjI i-otf (bi- 
adabihl) to follow s.o.'s moral example adab pi. i_>IjT adab culture, re- 
finement; good breeding, good manners, 
social graces, decorum, decency, pro- 
priety, seemliness ; humanity, humane- 
ness; the humanities; belles-lettres j _uw 
_j_VI toilet, water closet; _-o"Vl _*!* and 
_-o^l fAe ill-mannered, ill-bred, impolite, 
uncivil ; <_r UII _jj^ I ('ammi) popular 
literature; i_j_VI JU-J literati, men of 
letters; -ji-^l * = JS' kulliyat al-a. (= fa- 
culte des lettres) college of arts; _-j!_T 
rules, rules of conduct, e.g., _1>-J' _->l_T 
rules of decorum, etiquette; .-jIjVI de- 
cency, morals 

_J_1 adabi moral, ethic(al); literary [ 
J_l i_»-lj moral obligation; Lj.jUj Lot 



adabiyan wa-mdddxyan morally and phys- 
ically; i-o*^ <*-iil' (falaafa) ethics, moral 

oLol adabiyat literature, belles-lettres 

ULJCjl <ufeio$dna pi. -di toilet, water 

^jil adib pi. #LjI «io6d' a cultured, 
refined, educated; well-bred, well-manner- 
ed, civil, urbane; a man of culture and 
refined tastes; man of letters, writer, 

i-jjl adiba authoress, writer 

iit* ma'duba pi. t-oL ma'ddib* ban- 
quet, formal dinner 

t-jit to* di6 education; discipline ; pun- 
ishment, chastisement; disciplinary pun- 
ishment | w-Ji^l (jJLf majlis at-t. dis- 
cipUnary board 

^jfa ta'tftfei disciplinary; punitive, re- 
taliatory | isAJitl v*» (ya^iya) discipli- 
nary action 

*_j.jb to'aidufc good breeding, good 
manners, civility, politeness, courteous- 
ness, tact 

t_oT ddi& host 

i-oj* mu'addib pi. -un educator ; 
teacher in a Koranic school (Tun.); — 
mu'addab well-bred, well-mannered, civil, 

lji\ vdra scrotal hernia 

3jjjl adirna 2 Edirne, Adrianople (city in 
NW Turkey) 

^iJljji'ifl (Fr. adriatigue) cU-adriyatik and 
dlJljjjVI j*- bakr al-a, the Adriatic Sea 

ijol adama i (adm) to take some additional 

food (a with the bread), enrich (a the 
bread) with some extra food or condi- 

»ljl iddm anything eaten with bread; 
shortening, fatty ingredient 

2 ,ol, i*il (uiam, adama skin 

<jl adim skin; surface; tanned skin, 
leather | ^j^l fjl a. al-ard the surface 
of the earth 

fla! addam tanner 
3 {oT aiam a Adam | -oT ^ i human being 

i^iT ddamt human; humane; poor, 
inferior, meager; (pi. -un, ,oljl auwdim 2 ) 
human being 

L*jT adamiya humaneness, humanity; 

• Ijl adah pi. oljji adawat tool; instrument; 
utensil, implement, device, appliance ; 
apparatus ; {gram. ) particle | S^A- 1 • U 1 
a. oZ-Awjfcm machinery of government; 
._Ju_^rJI ;Ul definite article (gram.); *IaI 
o-LiJ (ton/idiya) executive agency; pi. 
materials, equipment, gear, *^j>~ oljil 
(AarMya) war material; i-LL^-l oljil 
(iktiyafiya) stand-by equipment (tecAn.); 
iJjrU. (manzt/iya) household uten- 
sils, household effects 

JjjV' al-addn (Hebr.) the Lord; Mr (Isr.) 

^jl II to convey, take, bring, lead, steer, 
channel (a, « oru s.o.,, Jl to), see 
that s.o. or {*, » or v) g etfl to MO; 
to bring about, cause, efFect, produce 
(Jl; to lead, contribute, be condu- 
cive (Jl to a result); to amount, come 
practically (Jl to); to tend (Jl to), aim 
(Jl at); to carry out, execute, discharge 
(a; to perform (a a ritual, etc.); 
to do (*-*-' j wajibahu one's duty); to 
fulfill (UJij a function, 5JL- j a mission); 
to accomplish (*jj_j*L a task); to take 
(l^c an oath; UUll.1 an examination); 
to render (<*a>- kidmatan a service, J or 
J! to s.o. ; a e.g., a meaning, a musical 
composition, etc.) | f^-JI &\ (aalam) 
to greet, salute V to lead, be conducive, 
contribute (Jl to results); to be carried 
out, be performed, be accomplished; to 



arrive (Jl at), be lead (Jl to) X to demand, 
claim (* • from s.o. 

»lil add* pi. -at (as verbal noun of II) 
rendering (of a service); pursuit, per- 
formance, execution, discharge (of a 
duty), realization, effectuation, accom- 
plishment (of a task) ; rendition, reading 
(e.g., of a musical composition); fulfill- 
ment; payment f »IjVI j— *- hum al-a. 
good rendition (of a work of art, of a 
musical composition) 

*jjt ta'diya rendering (of a service); 
pursuit, performance, execution, dis- 
charge (of a duty), realization, effectua- 
tion; accomplishment (of a task); ful- 
fillment; payment 

i$j£* mu'addan assignment, task, func- 
tion ; sense, meaning, signification, import, 
underlying idea 

jl t<£ 1. (introducing a verbal clause) (and) 
then; iili il id ddka (also written iilil) 
then, at that time, at the same time, in 
doing so; 2. (conj.; temp, and caus.) as, 
when; since, as, the more so as, because; 
jl il id anna since, as, in view of the fact 
that; for, because 

Mil ida 1. (introducing a nominal clause 
the subject of which may be expressed 
by v with foil, genit.) and then, and 
all of a sudden; (with noun in nomina- 
tive case or with <_>) there was . . . , 
and all of a sudden there was . . . ; 
2. (conj.) when; if, whenever; whether, if 
(introducing indirect questions); L. lil 
when, whenever; lil VI (illd) unless, if 
not; except when 

2 lil (oil) idan then, therefore, in that case, 
hence, consequently 

jljT adar 2 March (month; Syr., Leb., Jord., 

*jil adina a to listen (Jl to s.o.); to allow, 
permit (j J s.o.; to hear, learn 

(<_> of, be informed (i~» about) II to 
call (<_* to), esp. to call to prayer (I^-Jlj) ; 
to crow (rooster) IV to announce, make 
known («_j, ^ • to s.o., inform, 
notify (» s.o.); to call to prayer; to call 
upon s.o. (•), urge, admonish, exhort 
(• s.o.) to do (i_j); to herald (<y or a; to foreshadow (i_j; to be on 
the verge (jl of doing | -U^aJIj oiT 
(JljjJlj) (zawdl) to show signs of the 
imminent downfall (end); oLaJIj JJJI oiT 
(lailu bi-ntisdf) it was close to midnight 
V to herald, announce («_j X to ask 
permission (j to do, rarely «_j); 
to ask permission to enter (J* s.o.'s 
house), have o.s. announced (J* to s.o.); 
to take leave (,y of s.o.), say good-by 


oil idn permission, authorization; Oil) 
ia\ if God choose, God willing; (pi. jjil 
udun, olijil udundt) (postal) order | jil 
-U^rOl pi. Jb^Jl oUjil postal money order; 
c-y-JI oil do. 

oil udun, udn f., pi. jliT addn ear; 
handle (of a cup) | J*,J>\- ji^l ulpl 
(wusfd) middle-ear infection, otitis media 

jlil addn call to prayer 

oil udaina little ear; ear lobe 

oiU ma'dana, oil* mi'dana pi. jil. 
ma'ddin 3 minaret 

jljjl iddn declaration, proclamation, 
announcement (i_j of | Apb Ul-bl 
tloJi-l indicating that the conversation 
is (was) ended 

OjiU ma* dun authorized; slave with 
limited legal rights (Isl. Law) ; = jjitt 
^ji. (Sar'l) official authorized by the cadi 
to perform civil marriages (Isl. Law) 

iJjiL ma'dunlya leave, furlough {mil, 
Syr.); license, franchise (Syr.) 

jij* mu'addin muezzin, announcer of 
the hour of prayer 


Oil tdan i 

. »lil 

ifi! a£»ya a to suffer damage, be harmed 
IV to harm, hurt, wrong (• s.o.); to mo- 
lest, annoy, irritate, trouble (• s.o.) J V 
j jjj Id ytt'di innocuous, harmless, inoffen- 
sive V to suffer damage, be wronged; to 
feel offended, be hurt 

^il adan, »lil adah, Jjjl adiya damage, 
harm; injury; trouble, annoyance, griev- 
ance, wrong, offense, insult 

*jlil idaya damage, harm, harmful- 
ness, noxiousness 

»liil Ida' harm, damage, prejudice; 
offense, hurt; grievance, nuisance 

j>J* mu'gm hurtful, harmful, injuri- 
ous, detrimental, prejudicial; annoying, 
irksome, troublesome; painful, hurting, 
offensive, insulting 

jjljl aratlql and £j\j\ pi. iJuljl ardtiqa 
a heretic (Chr.) 

t/ljT drdmi Aramaean; Aramaio 

wijt ariba a {arab) to be skillful, proficient 
(«_< in; — araba % to tighten (a 
a knot) III to try to outwit (• 8. o.) 

»yjl arab pi. <->ljT drab wish (j for), 
desire, need (j of; purpose, aim, 
goal, end 

i_>jl *r& pi. <->ljT drab limb | Ljl Ljl «Sj* 
{mazzaqaku) to tear to pieces or to 

ojl trfia skill, resourcefulness, clever- 
ness, smartness 

*jjl urba pi. <_jjI «roi knot, bow 

t^-jji arift skillful, resourceful, clever, 

(^jjU ma'rafc pi. vj'-* ffto*ori6 8 wish, 
desire; object of desire, purpose, aim, 
goal, end 

Jrij' arbll 2 Erbil (the ancient Arbela, city 
in N Iraq) 

iSJ\jjj\ artuwdzi artesian (well) 

1 i*jl II to sow dissension (ju between, among) 

2 i*jl irt inheritance, heritage; estate (of 

iS £'*yj I urtuduksl orthodox ; 4™£* j^J j V 1 
the Orthodox Church 

S'2^j^\ *jj\ ar-rum al-urtuduks the 
Greek Orthodox Church 

£jl arijaa(araj, fi_j\arij) to be fragrant V do. 
£j' aro? fragrance, sweet smell 
r-jl art? fragrant, sweet- smelling 
£jl arij fragrance, sweet smell 

£»-jl II ta'arjaka to rock, swing 

«-jti. muta'arjih fluctuating 
^i*-jVl al-arjaniin Argentina 

jj>*-jl wrj««w» purple 

(jl^»-jl urjuivdni purple(-colored) 

J>r->' popular spelling (eg.) of j>r ./ 'i r °- 
poz (q.v.); Punch (in a Punch and Judy 

jr-jl II to date (a a letter, and the like, »_j 
with a date); to write the history of (a) 

£j!j ta'rik dating (of a letter, etc.); 
tdrtk pi. f„j\ji iawarxk 2 date; time; his- 
tory; chronicle, annals | !tJ-l £j\j 
haydh biography; curriculum vitae; £jIj 
*U- {'dmm) world history; £jUJI »UU the 

^jlj tariki historic(al) 

rjy* mu'arrik pi. -un historiographer, 
historian, chronicler, annalist; — mu* 
'arrak dated 

J^>-jl arkabil archipelago 

lT-j' (&ex o)V ) pi- ^-'j' ardkina archon, pi. 
notables (Chr.-Copt.) 


i^ojl irdabb (now usually pronounced ardabb) 
pi. i_jjIjI arddib 2 ardeb, a dry measure 
[Eg.; = 1981) 
ijijl irddbba cesspool 

JjjVl al-urdunn Jordan (river and country) 

ijijl urdunnl Jordanian | LJjjV' 4&-J.I 
ijT'UI a/-mamfajka aj-w. ai-Aaiiwt^a the 
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (official 

jljjjl (Fr. ardoise) arduwaz slate 

1 jjl arz (n. un. «) cedar 

a jjl ar«2« rice 

^jl arasa i (ars) to till the land 

^-Jjl trri* and arts peasant, farmer 
lt>\j2z*-j\ aristztqrafi aristocratic; aristocrat 

*A?\ J h*'j\ aristuqrdtiya aristocracy 

_jk-jl arisen Aristotle 

^jl arS indemnity, amercement, fine, pen- 
alty; blood money (for the shedding of 
blood; Isl. Law) 

^ji-jl ^yijl (Gr. aQxtsniaxoTiog) archbishop 

jjj_ijl (Fr. archiduc) archduke, i*jJ--ljl 

^j\ ard f., pi. (j^t,)! aradin, Oj-^ji aradun 
earth ; land, country, region, area ; terrain, 
ground, soil | Ji-J! ^jV (sufla) the 
nether world; 3-JaU ^jVl (muqaddasa) 
the Holy Land, Palestine 

^ijl arrfi terrestrial, of the earth; 
soil-, land- (in compounds) ; situated on 
or near the ground, ground (adj.); earth- 
ly; underground, subterranean 

i5>- t^»j' o>fd\ Saukl artichoke 

^jl arad (coll.; n. un. o) termite; 

l~Jj\ ardlya pi. -at floor; ground 
(also, e.g., of a printed fabric, of a 

painting); ground floor, first floor (tun.); 
storage, warehouse charges 

f jy*j I ardurum 2 Erzurum (city in NE 

iLjl (also *l»jjl) urfa pi. i»jl wraj (J»jjl) 
battalion (formerly, Eg.; mil.) 

Ui»jl arfaqa pi. -d( heresy (CAr.) 

■jjIj see *jj 

j^jl wrpwn pi. jilj! aragin 2 organ (mus. 

Jjijl urgul, argvl a wind instrument (re- 
lated to the clarinet, consisting of two 
pipes of unequal length) 

jjl ariga a to find no sleep II to make 
sleepless (• s.o.), prevent s.o. (•) from 

jjl araq sleeplessness, insomnia 

iS^ji arika pi. ittljl ard'ik 2 couch, sofa; 

iLSjl arglla pi. jXijI aroj/tJ 3 (syr.) water 
pipe, narghile 

^oJjl irlandl Irish 

V>' arama i to bite 

fjl urram molar teeth | ajV' jj*- 
(harraqa) to gnash one's teeth (in anger) 

I. jjl aruma, uruma root, origin; stump 
of a tree 

j»jU mVram root (of a tooth) 

2 fljT aram (= *Tj1 pi. of /> rt'm) white 

j-jVI al-arman the Armenians 

J>jl armani Armenian (adj. and n.) 

Lu-jl armeniyd Armenia 
ijljjVI al-arndwut the Albanians 
^jLijI arndwuti Albanian 

^jl arnab f., pi. ._Jlj! ardnib 2 hare; rabbit | 
j.u* ^jl (hindi) guinea pig 

3Jjl arnaba female hare, doe | <Jj\ 
Jju ^ I a. al-anf tip of the nose ; nose, 
muzzle (of an animal) 

dLjj\ (Turk, ornek) urnxk pi. dUljl ardnik 2 
pattern, model; form, blank 

\jjj\ urvhba Europe 

ijjj\ urubbi European (adj. and n.) 

\$jl ary honey 

1 jjT drl Aryan 

ij jT dnya Aryanism 

l^jl arihd Jericho 

jl azza u i (jj\ aziz) to simmer; to hum, 
buzz; to whiz, hiss; to fizzle; to wheeze 

jj\ aziz hum(ming), buzz(ing); whiz- 
zing, whizz, whistle (e.g., of bullets) 

*._■»_; 1 azaba i (azb) to flow, run (water) 

■_>1>. mi'zdb pi. »_-Jjt- ma'azib 2 and 
*_jI>* mizdb pi. »_-ijL« mayaztb* drain; 
gutter, eaves trough 

'wtjl izb dumpy, pudgy, stocky; small man 

liLjVl al-uzbak the Uzbeks 

jjl azara i (azr) to surround (* II to 
clothe {» s.o. with an jljl izar q.v.); 
to cover, wrap up (» s.o., a; to 
strengthen, brace (» s.o., * Ill to 
help (« s.o.); to support, back up, 
strengthen (» s.o.) V and VIII to put on 
an izar {see below), wrap o.s. in an 
izar VI to help each other; to rally, 
unite, join forces 

jjl azr strength | 0J jl a-1 Sadda azrahu 
or b jJ' «>■ -^ ( m * n ozrihi) to help, support, 
encourage s.o., back s.o. up; Sadda az* 
ruhu to be energetic, vigorous, lusty, 

jljl izar m. and f., pi. jjl uzur loin- 
cloth; wrap, shawl; wrapper, covering, 

jjt* mi'zar pi. jjL ma'dzir 2 apron; 
wrapper, covering, cover 

Sjjlj* mu'dzara support, aid, assist- 
ance, backing 

jjU ta'dzur mutual assistance 

(J»jl azifa a (azaf, J»jjl uzuf) to come, ap- 
proach, draw near (a time) 

jjl azaqa i (azq) to be narrow V do. 

Jjjt* ma'ziq pi. ojl* ma'dziq 2 narrow 
passageway, narrow pass, strait, bottle- 
neck; predicament, fix, dilemma, critical 
situation, also ^j- Jjt* (Jww*?) 

Jjl azal pi. JljT dzdl eternity (without 
beginning), sempiternity 

Jjl azall eternal, sempiternal 

iJjl azaliya sempiternity, eternity 

(•jl V to be or become critical, come to a 
head (situation, relations) 

i*jl azma pi. azamdt emergency; crisis | 
*ij'jj ^J^ {wizariya) cabinet crisis 

fjbta'azzwm: JJU-I fjfc critical 
development, aggravation of the situation 

(•j ju ma'zum victim of a crisis 

j^j\ izmir 2 Izmir (formerly Smyrna, sea- 
port in W Turkey) 

Js-jl izmil pi. J-i'j' azdmtl 2 chisel 

Ojjl (Engl.) az6t azote, nitrogen 

J jjl azdti nitrogenous 

^jl III to be opposite (*), face (* s.o., 

Jjl izd'a (prep.) opposite, face to face 
with, facing; in front of; in the face of 
(e.g., of a situation); as compared with; 
»ljl> bi-iza'i opposite, face to face with, 


facing; in front of; Aj\ J* 'a& ««'» 
in the face of (e.g., of a situation) 

1 U -T as myrtle 

"^T pi. -at ace (playing card) 

*j:\ II to found, establish, set up (*, 
lay the foundation (* for) V to be founded, 
be established, be set up 

^1 us$ foundation, basis; exponent 
of a power {math.) 

^U asds pi. ,j— 1 urns foundation 
(also, of a building), fundament, ground- 
work, ground, basis; keynote, tonic 
(mus.) | ^-U J* (with foil, genit.) on 
the basis of, on the strength of, on 
account of, according to; ,>. *J ,_y^ V 
;»J (asdsa, fiihha) completely unfound- 
ed (news, rumor) 

^Ul asdsi fundamental, basic; ele- 
mentary ; essential ; principal, chief, main | 
„,Ul Jr ib a J ar ) cornerstone, foundation 

oL-UI euasiy&t fundamentals, prin- 

u ^ ! Jj tasis founding, foundation, estab- 
lishment, setting up, institution; ground- 
ing, laying of the substructure (arch.); 
pi. -at facilities, utilities; institutions 

-^-b ta'stii founding; foundational, 
fundamental | iS ^Jj ^M (majlis) con- 
stituent assembly 

_*-£. mu'assis founder 

; . , , _ :. mu'assasa pi. -at foundation, 
establishment; firm (com.); institution; 

ol~-Ni al-asban, al-isbdn the Spaniards 

JL-1 isbdni Spanish; (pi. -tin) Spaniard 

f\*J\ isbdnak spinach 

lJL-1 isbdniyd Spain 

Ju^\ isbidaj and ^-L-*' isbidaj white lead, 

j3>-l (It. 8-pirito) itbirto alcohol 

*LJ--I isbalifa epaulet 

c«-l see J c— 

JlJli-! istdliki static (el.) 

il^-l (Fr. stade) istdd Btadium 

jL-1 ustdd pi. lAJUl aadiida master ; teacher ; 
professor (academic title); form of ad- 
dress to intellectuals (lawyers, journal- 
ists, officials, writers and poets); ledger 
(com.) | Jip^i ili-W (a'zam) Grand Mas- 
ter (of a lodge); yf^\ il^Vl title of 
the Rector of Al Azhar University; il^-l 
^f (kursi; Eg.) and ^_£, iUJ (Syr.) 
full professor; ^^ *>b ib-l (Syr.) asso- 
ciate professor; fyiu j* iU-*l (mutafarrig ; 
Eg.) part-time professor (holding an 
office outside the university) ; ^ U . ib-1 
(mua&'id) assistant professor (Eg.; Syr,); 
J\j SlsJ (Eg.; Syr.) visiting professor; 
Jii-I J ;jj"UI > (jaded) they are masters of 

liiliJ ustddiya mastership; professor- 
ship, professorate 

JjJlzJ istanbuP Istanbul, Constantinople 
JjjUJ istanbitii of Istanbul 

ilr-'Sl al-dsitdna, *Jb^VI al-astdna, alistdna 
Constantinople, Istanbul 

jjcl istabraq brocade 
j«J|JU iatr&tiji strategic 
J tJL-l uaturdlt Australian 

Uljwl usturaliya Australia 

JJjUl iMarlinl sterling j JJ^-I *±r pound 
sterling; JJ^-^I <*i*^ miTi^a* al-i. ster- 
ling area 

•jL^-l see >a\ 

<jji-l (It. stoppa) tow, oakum; ootton waste 

_*o>i-l (It.-Engl. *(t«Ko) i8tudiyQy>\.£A*yi r }y*\ 
istudiyOhdt studio; atelier 

flnO-"' istokholm Stockholm 

L>_jiJ (Engl.) isWniyd Estonia 

C-jJLL-I istiydttt steatite, soapstone (min.) 

£^J look up alphabetically 

o-l X to display the courage of a lion (J* 

-U-l asad pi. jul usud, usd, iv-l usud, 
jL-T daoii lion; Leo (astron.) | .uVI »'j 
leontiasis (med.) 

\^\ asara i (asr) to bind, fetter, shackle, 
chain (» s.o.); to capture, take prisoner 
(• s.o.); to captivate, fascinate, hold 
spellbound (. s.o.), absorb, arrest (* the 
attention) X to surrender, give o.s. up 
as prisoner 

s*\ asr (leather) strap, thong; cap- 
ture; captivity | ^\ ;xi iiddat al-a. 
vigor, energy 

•j~\ usra pi. j^,\ usar, -at family; dy- 
nasty; clan, kinsfolk, relatives; — asirra 
Bee j^ 

•^L bi-asriki entirely, completely, al- 
together, ^fcy-L lj»U all of them came, 
they came one and all 

jUI tsar (leather) strap, thong; cap- 
tivity; captivation, enthrallment | Jj 
•jt-l j to be subjected to, fall into 
the clutches of 

>-> asir pi. *\j*\ usard' 2 , tfjJ\ asra, 
jjUl asara prisoner, captive, prisoner of 


•^u-l asxra pi. -at female prisoner, slave 

-T di 

dsir winning, captivating, fasci- 

nating; captor 

jj-U ma'sur captivated, fascinated, en- 
thralled (^> by) 

a » -r -l asirra see j j* 

*hj~{* look up alphabetically 

J^'l^-I isrd'il 2 Israel | JJl^-l ^ banu i. 
the Israelites; JJI^I Hj* daulat i. the 
State of Israel 

JJ' j- ' isrd'ili Israelitish ; Israelite ; 
Israeli (adj. and n.); oLL'l^l Judaica 

J^lj-I israfil* Israfil, the angel who will 
sound the trumpet on the Day of Res- 

<-rO~*' «*ru6 lead (metal) 

JjJlLJ is$anbul 2 Istanbul, Constantinople 

JJa-l isfabl pi. -at stable, barn 

U*J (It. stoppa) usfubba tow, oakum 

.-jVJa-l as}urldb astrolabe 

( _ r il*-l istaqis pi. -dt element 

iil^L-l usluumna pi. -a* column (arcA.) ; 
cylinder (ma(A.; of an engine); phono- 
graph record; — pi. ,>IU asafin 2 high- 
ranking, prominent personalities; stars, 
celebrities, authorities, masters (e.g., of 
art: ji)\ ,>i.L-l a. al-fann) 

jljk-l us\uwdnl cylindric(al) 

3j_jW-I u^wra pi. jJ*Ll asd/ir* legend, fable, 
tale, myth, saga 

t^j_j]*^ w^wrt fabulous, mythical, leg- 

JjL-l iu^u2 pi. J-UUI <wdfi/ a fleet; squadron 

□ J*-1 ws/d (colloq. for ibJ) pi. ol^L-l 
u«/awdf master; foreman, overseer; also 
form of address to those in lower callings, 
e.g., to a cab driver, coachman, etc. 

J*J\ asija a (asaf) to regret (J* or J, 
feel sorry (J* for), be sad (J* about) V do. 

,_iJ aaaf grief, sorrow, chagrin, regret | 
!.UJ lj u« asafdhl oh, what a pity! 
it's too bad! >Ju.^i bj wa-yd UU-aaafi 
(or only ^i-^J) unfortunately; .JwlM £• 
and ,_iJ j£i 6>-teH» oso/in do. 

,_iJ mil and ^i-J o«/ regretful, sorry, 
sad, grieved, distressed 
iJ*J& taassuf regret 
^jJT deif regretful, sorry, sad | *£ j 
jj ji (gaira dsifin) I left him without 
regret," I was only too glad to leave him 
»_U Jjj-L ma'auf 'alaihi mourned 
(esp. of a dead person, = the late la- 

Ju.> mu'tif distressing, sad, regret- 

JaJcj. muta'aaaif sad, sorry, regretful; 
\J*Jc* sorry! 

iULu.1 w/07iai and £l«J ts/anafc spinach I 
jjj ilili.1 (rumi) garden orach (Atri- 
plex hortensis, 6o(.) 

i - , 1 '<• - I as/aW asphalt 

_|JUl is/an;, w/unj sponge 

^iiJ u/anp spongy; porous 

jlxj-l Ufindan maple (6of.) 

-Ixj-I m/MSi white lead, ceruse 

j.i.1 is/in pi. u;' 1 - 1 "»/»»* wed 8 e 

Jyiyu.1 M?ar6u{»: Jyjyt-I i/v- (morad) 
scurvy (merf.) 

.JiiJ iwgu/ pi. 1BUI aaaqi/a, JiSLA aaaqif 
bishop | iiiUlM j4j archbishop 
1JL-I episcopal 
Lii.1 uaqufiya episcopate, bishopric 
j^ , '. .1 xutjumri, iaqumri mackerel (zoo!.) 

JJ-I isjil an Oriental variety of sea onion 

j£J\ (Engl.) wfetf sketch 

IxJiS^-l w/fcoftaoa Scotland 

^.ukSCJ iakottandi Scottish, Scotch 

lO wfciia pi. JfU o*iW seaport, commer- 
cial center (in the East) 

*l£-l iskamUt stool, footstool 

JujjX^J isianAirfina 1 Iskendcron (formerly 
Alexandretta, seaport in S Turkey) 

ojJuC'VI al-iskandariya Alexandria (oity in 
N Egypt) 

LibrSCI tikandinafiya Scandinavia 
LI II to sharpen, point, taper (» 
JJ asai (coll.) rush (oof.) 
1U.I orato pi. -a* thorn, spike, prong; 
point (also, e.g., of a pen = nib); tip of 
the tongue 

«-W ^jj-'' <d-hurut al-aaallya the 
letters j, ^- and ^-» 

J_J aail smooth | J-.I Jtf- IJcadd) smooth 

*JLI osdTa eliptic, oval form 
J-.J* mu'owoZ pointed, tapered 

J^-jU (variant of JjJbJ) ialdmbuli of 

jJ ^u.1 ialanda Iceland 
.J see *,- 

jjjtili- I aamanjani sky-blue, azure, cerulean 
,jf\ aamara Asmara (capital of Eritrea) 
CJ.J - ! aamani, iamant cement 
J^-l aamanti cement (adj.) 

/-.I osana * u and asina a to become brackish 

^ aain brackish 

(_,J and jj-l) U osa u {flaw, U asan) to 
nurse, treat (» a wound) ; to make peace 
(ju between, among); — ^ aaiyfl (u- 1 . 


L.I <wan) to be Bad, grieved, distressed 
II to console, comfort (• b.o.); to nurse 
(• a patient) III to share (one's wordly 
possessions, • with s.o.), be charitable 
(• to s.o.); to assist, support (<s.o.); to 
console, comfort (. s.o.); to treat, cure 
(», medically) V to be consoled, 
find solace VI to share the worldly 
possessions; to assist one another, give 
mutual assistance 

Lff-I »»an grief, sorrow, distress 

•j-l uaum, iswa example, model, pat- 
tern | ^ l_y,\ tuwatan bi following the 
model or pattern of, along the lines of; 
in the same manner as, just as, like 

•LL ma'sdh pi. ^L ma'arin tragedy, 

V-LJ ta'siya consolation, comfort 

•Llj. muwdtdh (for mu'asih) consola- 
tion; charity, beneficence 

jl>.l uwar, uawar pi. jjUI oaJuitr 1 , SjjU 
tudwira bracelet, bangle 

jljJ aswan* Aswan (city in S Egypt) 

r.^-1 asfi; Sweden 

jrj-\ atuji Swedish 

^1 see _^-l 

L.T dwya Asia | ^^1 L.T (fugrd) Asia 

tfj—T atiyawi Asiatic Asian (adj. and 

J.j— I asyuf Asyftt (city in oentral Egypt) 

*— il V to be mixed, heterogeneous, motley 
(a crowd) 

i.UI uidba pi. ,_JUI aU& mixed, 
motley erowd 

SjUil ifbUiya' Seville (city in SW Spain) 
O^il ilbtn pi. j, ; UI see Jj 

^Jl afara « (a*) to saw (»; — i to 
file, sharpen with a file (* n to 
mark, indicate, state, enter, record (<; to grant a visa; to provide with 
a visa (J» 

^il aiar liveliness, high spirits, exu- 
berance; wildness; insolence, imperti- 

yi\ aHr lively, sprightly, in high spirits, 
exuberant; wild; insolent, impertinent, 

jlii. mi'iar pi. jj.\j, mawalir' saw 

j»ifc ta'Slr issuance of an official 
endorsement; official endorsement; visa 

Sjjiti ia'kn pi. -ex visa | .,_,_,. j^f 
/. muriir or jL^-l ;^it transit visa " 

jJJ. mu'aUir indicator, needle (of a 
measuring instrument) 

jij* mu'alSar jagged, serrated; mark- 
ed, designated ( v by, with) 

Jil ti/a pi. Jilil aSafin awl, punoh 

oLSI uindn potash; saltwort (Salsola kali; 

i— I u£na mom 

j^i! aifir Assyria 

lij^il osilri Assyrian (adj. and n.) 

t^-^l o^is pi. u^^l u^us flowerpot 

■U.I II to close, shut (a door, eto.) 

j~»l ifT pi. jL.T 4>ir covenant, compact, 
contract; load, encumbrance, burden; Bin; 
pi. jL*T bonds, ties 

>jj\ Sairo pi. ^Ijl auxSsVr 1 bond, tie 
(fig., e.g., -VjJI ^.Ijl a. aZ-waW bonds 
of friendship); obligation, commitment 

J,k»l »rfaM pi. -dl stable, bam 

jl+Ul ifjahan' Isfahan (oity in W oentral 


U afvta « fJU <*&>) to be or become 
firmly rooted; to be firmly established; 
to be of noble origin II to found (», 
give (») a firm foundation, establish 
the foundation or origin of (») V to be 
or become firmly rooted, deep-rooted, 
ingrained; to take root, be or become 
firmly established; to derive one's origin 
(j. from) X to uproot, root out, extir- 
pate, exterminate, annihilate (»; 
to remove (> an organ by a surgioal 
operation) | ~U J-U (VI***) to 
eradicate, eliminate radically 

J^l <xl pi. Jj^l «*U root : tnmk (of 
a tree); origin, source; cause, reason; 
descent, lineage, stock (esp., one of a 
noble character); foundation, fundament, 
basis; the original (e.g., of a book); — 
pi. J>-.l «*** principles, fundamentals, 
rudiments, elements (e.g., of a science); 

rules; basio rules, principles, axioms; 

real estate, landed property; assets (Jin.) ; 

_ -j^\ ojAwi originally, primarily; 

(with neg.) by no means, not at all, not 

in the least | J-.1I I j originally, at first; 

«ii|| J_^.l u. al-fiqh the i foundations 

of Islamio jurisprudence, i.e., Koran, 
Sunna, qiy&s (analogy) and ifmt (con- 

sensus); (j-^j 

Jj^l assets and liabili- 

Jw.1 (mu<ia'o/o) double- 

ties; U*Li< 0_y* . ■ 

entry bookkeeping; J^m v~ W"" 060 ) 

properly, in conformity with regulations 

J-.I ostt original, primary, primal, 
initial; genuine, authentic, pure; basio, 
fundamental, principal, ohief, main | ^ 

JVVI (js<»<>) °° 8t P rice; '^-"^ ol *^' 
(pMI) the cardinal points (of the com- 
pass); J^l iJ* ('oAkJ) cardinal number; 
L.I j-i» ('utfw) regular member 

Jj_l upSIi in accordance with the 
rules, conforming to prevailing prin- 
ciples; traditional, usual; legist 

j_J affl pi. .*-! W^' of P" re ' 
noble origin; original, authentic, genuine; 

pure; proper, actual; firm, solid; sound, 
reasonable, sensible; of strong, unswerv- 
ing character-, steadfast; deep-rooted; 
native, indigenous | J-.KI J-^ 1 the 
actual reason; JjA J*-l * Bound > 
unerring judgment ( 

J^l afiL pi. JL.T dfai, JSL-I a**"* 
time before sunset, late afternoon 

yUl afoto firmness, steadfastness, 
strength of character; nobility of descent, 
purity of origin; ofalatan immediately, 
directly, personally | Jj\ «IU a. ar-ra't, 
clarity and firmness of judgment; ju- 
diciousness ; *-* & « L-H V spontaneously, 
of one's own accord, in one's own name, 
personally, privately (as opposed to 
,ji & «Ub); iLJj «IU osfiafcm «»- 
niyabatan directly and indirectly 
il_Jj (o'sito pedigree, genealogy 
J-,b (o'osjraf deep-rootedness 
JUSL.I isK'«« extirpation, extermina- 
tion, (radical) elimination; removal by 

J^tu muta'aetU deep-rooted, deep- 
seated; chronic (illness) 
iJ.1 afit the moaning bray of a camel 
■>l ofara i u (off) and II to bend, curve 

>l ifor pi. -dt, >l «J«r frame (also, 
of eyeglasses); tire (of a wheel); hoop 
(of a barrel, etc.) 

; jlU ifaro rim, felly (of a wheel) 
rtjlU tfari framelike, hoop-shaped 
'ijtl see jjl» 

;U>I utMvlla a variety of pigeon 
UjjU ojrfin = OjjUi 

iJLiiTU.^1, jJJtVI al-afiantik, al-afUmtiq the 

JUWU aftofi?i and ^LbM <«W At- 



uJtl «.«*» satin; (pi. ^Jiy ^^ at]aS( 
volume of geographical maps 
is-U»l afloat Atlantic 

J«J1-I ofianfi Atlantic | Jtltyl JJ.I (W) 
the Atlantic Pact 

(jl»l ojtu sea turtle 

Ul a*!, UT <jja p i. oi^i ^ OM ^ &ga _ ]ordj 

master, sir; eunuch, harem chamberlain 

Ji>VI al-igrig, SjUVI al-agariqa the Greeks 

ji>l »yrijt Greek, Grecian (adj. and n.) 

u±-i\ agiupua August (month) 

^•1 V to grumble, mutter in complaint (a. 

ol uff dirt (in the ears or under the 
Mils), earwax, cerumen 

J»l m# interj. expressing anger or dis- 

iJul o/a/ displeasure; grumbling, grum- 

^iit" ta'affuf displeasure; grumbling, 

i j«M ctf-i/ran/ the Franks, the Europeans | 
£.>VI JtA; Europe 

j?jM ifranjl European 

uK>l i/ransf French; i^yi the French 
language; Uj_J_^l the French 

>>l ifriz pi. >jlil o/Srfe! frieze; edge; curb- 
sidewalk | a^l yj\ ,-. o/.^^^ p]at . 
form (of a railroad station); .LJU. I yj\ 
molding (arch.) 

Li>l "friqa f. and Li^il ifrlqiya, now usually 
pronounced a/rfjijra f. Africa | Li^l 
VUJI (iamaliya) North Africa 

JL- il '/<<?•, now usually pronounced 
afriqt African; (pi. -fi„, «jUI afariqa) an 

j._j»To/t>J» bravo! well done! 

,>ji-il »/*,»«„, ;/«•„«„ wormwood, ab- 
sinthe (Artemisia absinthium; hot.) 

&i\ ifiin pi. Oi-Uf a/aim' litany (CAr.) 
6UiVI aj-a/j™ the Afghans; Afghanistan 
iU-JUil afganistan Afghanistan 
jUil a/yani Afghan (adj. and n.) 
Jil «/?, M /^ pi. juT S/Sy horizon; range 
of vision, field of vision; pi. distant 
lands, faraway countries, remote regions- 
provinces, interior of the country (as' 
distinguished from the capital) | JUT 
jjJjVI S. ol-ard the remotest parts of the 
earth; «y| JUT a. al-bilad the outlying 
portions of the country; jlftl iUi W , 
dad aha. foreigners, travelers 
Jil n/qi horizontal 

JliT a/aqi coming from a distant 
country or region 

jlil affaq wandering, roving, roaming; 
tramp, vagabond 

■iiil afaka i <„/i) and a/ika a (ifk, afk, afak, 
4>>l Mfulc) to he, tell a lie 

ilil ifk and !£jl afika pi. iUUI a/a'.V 
lie, untruth, falsehood 

ilUI a#3£ liar, lying 
Jil afala u i ( Jyl „/«) to go down, set (stars) 

J,il «/« setting (of stars) 

Jil of!/ transitory, passing 

OjWil a/Ji^Cn 1 Plato 

j»l a/on stupidity 

0;il o/tn and oyL ma'/fin stupid, 
foolish, fatuous; fool 

JJJI a/andf pi. -i ya gentleman (when refer- 
ring to non-Europeans wearing Western 
clothes and the tarboosh); (after the 
name) a title of respect (eg.); ! f ^l a fan. 
dim/ Sir! (eg.) ajandiml (I beg your) 
pardon? What did you say? 


jfjl (It. awocato) awhatS advocate, lawyer, 
attorney | c/^H X^ 1 representative of 
the attorney general (= Fr- <•««»« 

o^\ afyun opium | OjJMI C J-. ^ ai " a - 

si «w» pi- -« oka > a weight ' in Eg ' = 

1.248 kg, in Syr. = 1-282 kg 
^j^. see cJj 

Ol>l uqhuwan pi. ^ ««<•*»!' "^^ 
•^1 ojnrfHtfln composite medicament | y 
' 'j-&jK\ **» «I-°- pharmaceutics, phar- 

JjiUjSI aqrabadini pharmaceutic(al) 

JJI ogtf cottage cheese 

julil iqlid look up alphabetically 

Bl ajfama to acclimate, acclimatize, adapt, 
adjust II fa'ajtoma to acclimatize (o.s.) 

Jil iqlim pi. fJlil ogaJim" climate; area, 
region; province, district; administrative 

district (Eg.; = hj.<*V. ^ country ' 

provinces (as distinguished from the 

Ijl iqlimi cUmatic; regional, local; 
territorial | 3-JW '^ ( mi V ah) terri " 
torial waters 

.Oil igitd pi. Jullil hj» key 

jJJI iqlidis- Euclid 

fJ JI wpHim pi. ^ <V inim ' hypostasis, 
divine person within the Trinity (C*r.); 
constitutive element 

«!jil (Gr. eixtuv) ijilna icon (Chr.) 

L^jjLSl uqyanuslya Oceania 

jjS"! aife&JS Akkadian 

;_r iS"l akadimiya academy 

jjS\ okt&rir October 

jTI II to assure (. J s.o. of, o\ that); to give 
assurance (» J to s.o. of); to confirm 
(», a view) V to be or become, 
convinced, convince o.s. (j. of; to 
reassure o.s., make sure (j. of; to 
be sure (^of); to be urgent, imperative, 

xTt ta'kld pi- -« assurance; confirma- 
tion; emphasis; aTtU- most certainly 1 
of course ! 

jTb to'afotai assurance, reassurance 
iS\ akU certain, sure; firm (resolve); 
definite (desire); urgent, imperative 
(need); U/l aiidan certainly! surely! 

AS> muakkad certain, definite, sure; 
o5"ti. muto'attM convinced (,> of) 
i/l afara i (akr) to plow, till, cultivate (> 
the land) 

jS-l aiMr pi. -«n, :/l oiora plowman 
Kf\ ukra pi. /I «J»r °»U (for playing) 
i Lc^fl eizema eczema (m«J.) 
J" I tail im'aJ its X-rays 
I_£-T1 extra 
1 ^^i"! oksiien oxygen 
juT I oismfa to oxidize, cause to rust II to'aiv 
soda to oxidize, rust, become rusty 

j__ri uknd pi. Vf * a * ilP * ide 
I jjji-TI Oxford 
^^_j I oksiien oxygen 
^_TI ifair elixir 
j£ \ akuff see JxS 

^\akalau (aU, $1 ™a'kal) to eat (. ; 
to eat up, consume, swallow, devour, 
destroy (»; to eat, gnaw (» at), 

eat away, corrode, erode (»; to 
spend unlawfully (,, enrich o.s., 
feather one's nest (» with) |_^all U» Jf| 
V^J (dahru, iariba) to be old and worn 
out, be timeworn; LJI JTl (riio) to take 
usurious interest; , : .-C ll Jfj; . | . , 
ya'lamu mm aina tu'kalu l-'katif he 
knows how to tackle the matter properly; 
.jU. «JS"I (jiHuis) his skin itched; j Jf| 
0*" (join) to eat off a plate; U». JS"| 
(SojgaAS) to encroach upon s.o.'s rights 
II and IV to give s.o. (.) (.) to eat, 
feed (» . s.o. Ill to eat, dine (. with 
s.o.) V to be devoured, be consumed; to 
be eaten away, corrode, undergo cor- 
rosion; to become old, worn, timeworn, 
full of cracks; to be destroyed by cor- 
rosion VI = V 

Jfl oH food; meal, repast; fodder, 
feed | JTl/l «i> jw/ a ( j. a . ^ning r00m . 
(«?•) j~JI Jtt o. aJ.&aAr land washed 
away by the sea or the Nile (as opposed 
to ^Jl c> , 

JS"I ubd, ukl food; fruit | j£\ JT to 
bear fruit 

«*"! aWu pi. akalat meal, repast; — 
ukla bite, morsel 

OJITI M fcH prurigo, itch eruption 

JK" I attffl, JTI otB, Jy" | am vora . 
cious, gluttonous; hearty eater, gour- 
mand, glutton 

JH. tbo'W pi. JTC ma'«a« food, 

JS"t te'aUid wear; corrosion; erosion 

JS"6 tfiM wear; corrosion; erosion 

JKo'l i'tikdl erosion (geol.) 

JS"Taiii eater 

«JS T aWfa gangrenous sore 

J,TL ma'M eatable, edible ; pi. cj VjTU 
food, foodstuffs, eatables, edibles 
Js l> iro'aitf table companion 
JSTi. mtito-oiM and JTt mt , to -«ia 
corroded; eroded; worn, timeworn; full 
of cracks; rusty, rust-eaten 

^jjjiS I iWirfij clergy (CAr.) 

VjjJJ"! iUlrMya clericalism 
i3j;JS"l ikliriki cleric(al) 

&&& I iklimlci clinical 

tfi atom pi. -*. r ri «*„, j-, ufcm> 

f* ' ***» Ml. f\ akam) hill; reef- 
heap, pile | U.1^ L U-VI .\jj (w ara-J> 
something's fishy I there is more to it 
than meets the eye 

J I ill pact, covenant; blood relationship, 

'VI o-ld and LI a-mi see I o 

! VI aid see '^Jl 

"VI oZH(= Vol ante) lest, that... not, in 
order that . . . not, so as not to 

•VI Hid (= V 01 in la) unless, if not; except, 
save; (after negation:) only, but, not 
until | 01 VI HIS anna except that ..., 
yet, however, nevertheless (also intro- 
ducing main clauses); Ijl VI Hid iga 
unless, if not; except when; Vlj wa-illa 
(and if not =) otherwise, or else; y. } VI 
Hid wa-huwa (with a preceding negation) 
unless he ..., except that he ...; j. L, 
01 VI wa-md hiya Hid an (with following 
verb in perf.) it was not long until...; 
presently, forthwith; J~ ... 01 VI > L 
wa-md hiya Hid an ... halts no sooner 
had he ... than ..., e.g., ^ 01 VI ^ U 
J-» J., (hamma) he had no sooner made 
his plan than he carried it out 

K-VI alaskd Alaska 

uVI aldy and ^VT Slay pi. -of regiment 



1 <_JI alaba u i (alb) to gather, join forces, 
rally II to incite (J* » s.o. against) V to 
rally, band together, plot, conspire (J* 

2 <_-JVl Jl~r jibal al-alb the Alps 

uUVl al-albdn the Albanians 
UUI alhaniya Albania 

i-l abbreviation of »^T Jl ila akirihl and 
so on, etc. 

jaJI alladl, f. Jjl allati, pi. m. ^JJl alladina 
f. JSUI a/Zatf, JI^UI allawdti, J^JI aWa'i 
(relative pronoun} he who, that which; 
who, which, that | Jllj Udj! jja ba'da 
l-lutayyd wa-llati after lengthy dis- 
cussions, after much ado 

^-IjJl (Fr. Alsace) alzds 2 Alsace (region of 
NE France) 

^Jl II to belittle, disparage (J* s.o.) 

1 1 _JJI alj pi. ,J»_jJi uluf, J»VT dldf thousand; 
millennium [ UJj^ Jj^l (mu'allafa) or 
i-iJ^ J»*i/T thousands and thousands; 
<J>ji VI olj-lp 'aSardt al-u. tens of thou- 
sands; Js^JVI £j\l* mi' at al-u. hundreds 
of thousands 

JJl alfi; JJI _u. ('id) millennial cele- 
bration, millenary 

2 >JJI alif name of the letter I | ajL J[ -jjl j* 

from beginning to end, from A to Z; 

e»Lj 4iJI tjjjo (wa-yd'ahu) he knows it 
from AtoZ; »L Jl ABC 

3 i_jJI alif a a (alj) to be acquainted, familiar, 
conversant (a with ; to be on 
intimate terms (a with s.o.); to be or get 
accustomed, used, habituated (* to) ; to 
like (a, be fond of (a); to become 
tame II to accustom, habituate (a » s.o. 
to; to tame, domesticate (a an 
animal); to form (a e.g., a committee, 
a government); to unite, join, combine, i 
put together (jo different things); to I 

compile, compose, write (a a book) V to 
be composed, be made up, consist (j* 
of); to be united, be combined VI to be 
attuned to each other, be in tune, be 
in harmony ; to harmonize ( « with) 
VIII to be united, be linked, be connected; 
to be on familiar, intimate terms (._> 
with); to form a coalition (pot); to fit, 
suit («, go well, agree, harmonize 
(« with); to be well-ordered, neat, tidy 
X to seek the intimacy, court the friend- 
ship (* of s.o.) 

i_jJi ilf pi. tj'ifl ulldf intimate; close 
friend, intimate, confidant; lover 

iiJI ulfa familiarity, intimacy; friend- 
ship, love, affection ; union, concord, 
harmony, congeniality 

«_iJI alif familiar, intimate; tame, do- 
mesticated (animal); friendly, amicable, 
genial; (pi. <JuVl aid* if 2 ) intimate, close 
friend, associate, companion 

■J»jJl aluf familiar, intimate ; tame, 
domesticated (animal) ; attached, devoted, 

vJJU ma'laf object of familiarity 

*_iJlj ta'llf formation (e.g., of a govern- 
ment); union, junction, combination (jo 
of separate things); literary work; com- 
position, compilation, writing (of a book, 
of an article); (pi. ^JJL" ta'dllf 2 , iJJly) 
work, book, publication 

lJJU to* aluf harmony; familiarity, 
intimacy, mutual affection; comradeship, 

(J»"^jI i'tildf concord, harmony; agree- 
ment (« with); union; coalition, entente 


(j"iWl i'tildfl coalition- (in com- 
pounds) | HJiWl »j'jj coalition cabinet 

<Jjji U nutluf familiar, accustomed ; 
usual, customary; custom, usage 



,_iJj- mu'allif pi. -un author, writer; — 
mu'allaf composed, consisting, made up 
(j* of); written, compiled; (pi. -at) book, 
publication; see also 1 ( JJl alf 

,_i)t. mtUa'dlif harmonious 

jll alaqa * (alq) to shine, radiate, flash, 
glitter, glisten V and VIII do. 

jll alaq brightness, brilliance 

jVl allaq bright, shining, brilliant, ra- 
diant; glittering, flashing, sparkling 
jjt tcfaUuq glow, radiance, effulgence 

jit* muta'alliq bright, shining, bril 
liant, radiant 

jjj&\ elektrdni electronic | jjj&\ Ji* C«?0 
electronic computer 

*il alima a {alam) to be in pain, feel pain; 
to suffer (<_> from II and IV to 
cause pain or suffering {• to s.o.), pain, 
ache, hurt (» b.o.) V = I; to complain 

11 alam pi. *VT alam pain, ache, 
Buffering, agony j SjLju ^"\ (nafsdnlya) 
mental agony; *^l £^1 usbu" al-d. 
Passion Week {Chr.) 

Jl allm aching, sore; sad, grievous, 
painful, excruciating ; hurting 

ib ta'aUum sensation of pain, pain, 

lj* mu'lim aching, painful; sad, griev- 
ous, distressing 

it* muta'aUim aching, painful ; in 
pain, suffering, deeply afflicted ; tormented 

■fVI ild-ma see Jl 

^-111 almas [al sometimes interpreted as 
definite article) diamond 

l)UVI al-almdn the Germans 

JUI almdni German; (pi. -«n, uUI al* 
man) a German 

Ulil almaniya Germany 

iJlil almaniya German character or 
characteristics, Germanity 

*JI II to deify (• s.o.), make a god of s.o. (•) 
V to become a deity, a godhead; to deify 

4)1, »Vl Hah pi. UT dliha god, deity, 

«*VI ilaka pi. -at goddess 

J. I, >VI il&hi divine, of God; theo- 
logical; oL»VVI al-ilahiy&t theological, 
spiritual concerns | oL»VVI U- 'Hm al-i. 

a\ alldh Allah, God (as the One and 
Only) | iija 41 li-Uahi darruka exclamation 
of admiration and praise, see jj 

^1)1 aUahumma God! | Vi ^ (*«a) 
unless, were it not that, except that, or 
at best (after a negative statement); 
til jUl (ida) at least if or when; if only; 
m ^111 (na'am) by God, yes ! most 
certainly ! 

L*j]l uZuMya divine power, divinity 

*Jt to'KA deification, apotheosis 

*JT alih (pagan) god 

UT dliha pi. -d* goddess 

^1 dlihi divine 

dt* muta'aUih divine, heavenly 

Oj*^JI etc., see oy»V 

1 (^]l) VI aid u to neglect or fail to do, not to 
do (j, desist, refrain (j from | j lo«*- jfli V (jahdan) he will go 
to any length, he spares no effort, goes 
out of his way for IV to swear | J* jT 
ul 4 ..^ f he promised himself that he . . . 

»^1 fio* oath 
yT(Fr. AaHo) hello! 
Ljyll aluminyd and tf~*>ll oJuminyom alu- 



1 JI ild (prep.) to, toward; up to, as far as; 
till, until; jl Jl (conj.) until j «^T Jl 
(dkirihi) and so forth, et cetera; <iJUj Jl 
besides, moreover, furthermore, in ad- 
dition to that ; -i£ Jl till tomorrow ! 
♦Liiil Jl (liqa') good-by! fl\ tlama 
(— U Jl) up to where? how far? J- Jl 
till when? how long? J* jJUl ('anni) 
get away from me! away with you! 
<iJ!i >JU Jl (jdnibid.) besides, moreover, 
in addition to that; d\ Jl li* moreover, 
furthermore; liJIi j* Jl (gairid.) and the 
like; *Jl L*j and the like, et cetera; 
(-JI) *J1 j*j (wa-man) and other people 
like that; i^JUi (addressing the reader) 
now here you have ...; here is (are) ...; 
following is (are) ..., e.g., U ^jUJI Jlj 
in the following, the reader will find 
what...; <jj>1\ Jl dSjf v^W (uslub 
'ibrani) a Btyle of Hebrew approximating 
Arabic; lllj Jl Vj l-i» Jl V neither this 
way nor that way, belonging to neither 
group; jJUl j-^ll it's up to you, the 
decision is yours 

*>VT did* (pi. of Jl ilan) benefits, bless- 

*5JI alya, ilya pi. alaydt fat tail (of a sheep) ; 

•jLJI iliydda Iliad 

1 A awi or? (introducing the second member 
of an alternative question) 

9 jJ ama pi. *UI imd', £>\j*\ amawat bond- 
maid, slave girl 

8 *l amma u (amm) to go, betake o.s., repair 
(a to a place), go to see (• s.o.); — (**L1 
imdma) to lead the way, lead by one's 
example (• s.o.); to lead (a s.o.) in prayer; 
— (ly-l umuma) to be or become a 
mother II to nationalize (* V to 
go, betake o.s., repair (* to a place), go 
to see (• s.o.) VIII to follow the example 
(^ of s.o.) 

[»l umm pi. 0I4J ummah&t mother; 
source, origin; basis, foundation; original, 
original version (of a book); the gist, 
essence of; pi. oLpI matrix 
(typ.) J jJ-l pi u. al-hibr cuttlefish, Bquid; 
j-J-i A u. al-hamn {magr.) nightingale; 
JjiA-l A u. al-kulul river mussel («ooi.)j 
jL.jj fl u. durmdn Omdurman (city in 
central Sudan, opposite Khartoum); A 
^I^JI u. ar-ra'a skull, brain; cerebral 
membrane, meninges; ^r*ij'j Aij' 1*' u - 
ar6a' uw-ar&a'tn centipede; Six" A u. 
$amla{ta) this world, the worldly pleas- 
ures; i>*" ft; 6*-i*- *J-*a»» or *^* |»Ij with 
one's own eyes; uT^II A and *-. >US3I |»l the 
first sura of the Koran; <£^UI A u. al-gurd 
Mecca; ^li^ll A also: the original text 
of the Book from which Koranic revela- 
tion derives; the uncontested portions 
of the Koran; jt^Jl A u. al-wafan capital, 
metropolis; ial^i-l ol+J the most im- 
portant events ; Ctjji-\ <z.\+»\ matrix (typ.); 
JJLJ.I oL^.1 the main problems; 0(4* I 
JJUiiJI the principal virtues 

i*l timwd pi. A umam nation, people; 
generation | x*£- i*l Mohammed's com- 
munity, the Mohammedans; I-wdl /V' 
(muttahida) the United Nations 

i/l ummi maternal, motherly; illiterate 
uneducated; (pi. -tin) an illiterate 

<_.! ummiya ignorance; illiteracy; see 
also under '^jj-i 

^\ umami international 

<*_y\ umuma motherhood; motherli- 
ness, maternity 

>LI amdma (prep.) in front of; in the 
presence of J fl*^l Jl (amdmi) to the 
front, forward, onward, ahead; ^j i 
jl VI *AA (iUd an) he had no other 
alternative but to ...; **LI ^jUj (waqafa) 
to oppose, resist, Btop, check 

t/UI amdmi front, fore-, anterior, for- 
ward, foremost j 1-.L.I *kiJ (nu<#a) outpost 


pLl imam pi. « I a'imma imam, 
prayer leader ; leader ; master ; plumb 

i*Ll imdma imamah, function or office 
of the prayer leader; imamate; leading 
position; precedence 

-*u ta'mim pi. -<3( nationalization 

1 U1 a-md see I a 

*LI a»imd (with foil. Ji /a) as to, as for, as 
far as... is concerned; but; yet, how- 
ever, on the other hand | -Uj LI (6a' du) 
(a formular phrase linking introduction 
and actual subject of a book or letter, 
approx. :) now then . . ., now to our 
topic: ... 

3 Ll immd if; Llj — LI be it — or, either — 
or (also j\ — LI) 

jjtljvti imbaratur emperor 

t£jjb\j*\ inibaraturi imperialist (ic) 

*jj_jLl_rwl imbaraturiya empire, im- 
perium; imperialism 

jk 7 »\ ambir pi. ^oLI amdbir 2 ampere (el.) 

J— *l imbiq = £m\ 

C*.l ami crookedness, curvedness, curvation, 
curvature; weakness 

•ul amad pi. jLT dmdd end, terminus, 
extremity ; period, stretch or span of 
time, time; distance | Xm .ul JL. for a 
long time (past); j-^I j^s short-dated; 
of short duration, short-lived; short- 

j*\ amara u (amr) to order, command, bid, 
instruct (• s.o. »_j to do, commission, 
charge, entrust (• s.o. •_> with or to 
do ) ; — amara, amura v (HjLl 
imdra) to become an emir II to invest 
with authority, make an emir (• s.o., 
J* over) III to ask s.o.'s (•) advice, 
consult (• s.o.) V to come to power; to 

set o.s. up as lord and master; to behave 
like an emir; to assume an imperious 
attitude; to be imperious, domineering 
VI to take counsel, deliberate together, 
confer, consult with each other; to plot, 
conspire (J* against) VIII to deliberate, 
take counsel (l-» about); to conspire, plot, 
hatch a plot (^ against s.o.) | »jA> j+£\ 
to carry out s.o.'s orders 

ja\ amr 1. pi. j-ljl awdmir 2 order, 
command, instruction (<~> to do; 
ordinance, decree; power, authority; 
{gram.) imperative | JU j»\ ( r dlin) royal 
decree (formerly, Eg.) ; J» j»\ {'aliy) 
decree, edict of the Bey (formerly, 
Tun.); ij^jli _^l ordinance having the 
force of law (Tun.); at Ulj j-VI (uxz-n- 
nahtf) pi. ,_j*I>JIj ^IjVl (lit.: command 
and interdiction, i.e.) sovereign power; 
full power(s), supreme authority; ±± jy j*\ 
(delivery) order (com.); iJ^I c^ at your 
disposal, at your service. — 2. pi. jjj 
umur matter, affair, concern, business | 
£jlj j*\ (accomplished) fact; j^ j*\ 
common knowledge; j*^t\ Jjl j at first, 
in the beginning; L ^ (amrin) for 
some reason or other; tii-Lf* ^, s j\ ^^Jl 
isn't it so? iJi.i5~ j-*lMj LI (amma wa-l- 
amru) things being as they are, there will, 
no doubt, ...; j*\ j* ^xj \^ (min amrin) 
whatever may happen; however things 
may be; jf^*' ,>j _>* he has two pos- 
sibilities (or alternatives); ^Xl\ ^\ which 
(introducing a relative clause the ante- 
cedent of which is another clause); t5- iS 
»j»\ qndiya amruku it's all over with him; 
in the latter and similar phrases, «^»l is a 
frequent paraphrase of "he" 

j*\ immar simple-minded, stupid 

»^*l imra power, influence, authority, 
command 1 £j*\ c*£- under his command 

»jLI amara pi. -at, J\»\ amair 2 sign, 
token, indication, Bymptom, mark, char- 

ijLI im&ra position or rank of an 
emir; princely bearing or manners; prin- 
cipality, emirate; authority, power j !jU 
j»JI i. al-bahr offiee or jurisdiction of an 
admiral, admiralty; jlf J*-U oljL.1 (». 
«. ( umd») Trucial Oman 

>-l amir pi. »lj*l wmarti' 1 commander; 
prince, emir; title of princes of a ruling 
house; tribal chief | j"ifl _>•! (alay) com- 
mander of a regiment (formerly, Eg.; 
approx.: colonel; as a naval rank, 
approx.: captain); •I^.Vl jwl approx.: 
major general (Tun.); jUJI >*l (Eg. 
1939) approx.; admiral, jl**Jl *^l _^T 
(£9. 1939) approx.: fleet admiral; >*l 
j^JI a. aJ-ftaAr admiral (when referring to 
a non-Arab officer of this rank; Eg. 1939 
approx.: vice-admiral); j$"y\ j»J\ jwl 
or JiftVI jUJI j«-l fleet admiral (when 
referring to a non-Arab officer of this 
rank); »jjJII jwl a. al-liwa' (Ir., since 
1933) brigadier; <-JI .I^J jJ a. 2. aJ- 
'a«*a commandant of the Bey's palace 
guard (formerly, Tun.); i^wjil jwl o. al- 
mu'minin Commander of the Faithful, 

•ji*l amira pi. -at princess 

i^^-l amiri (and D <js* miri) gov- 
ernment(al), state-owned, state, public ] 
<^-r-l u^jl (<w£) government land («Sfyr.); 
oj**Vl i*-Lil government press 

jLI amnwir constantly urging, always 
demanding (lj to do; inciting, in- 
stigating I •j-JIj SjUVi ,j~iJl (na/a, «u') 
the baser self (of man) that incites to evil 

jj-t; ta'mur soul, mind, spirit; peri- 
cardium (anat.) \ jj*U\ ^lp\ pericar- 
ditis (med.) 

•j*\}* mu'dmara pi. -at deliberation, 
counsel, conference; plot, conspiracy 

jAj ta'ammur imperiousness, domi- 
neeringness; imperious deportment, over- 
bearing manners 

j-"& ta'amur joint consultation, counsel, 
deliberation, conference; plot, conspiracy 

jUsJl i'timdr deliberation, counsel, con- 
ference; plot, conspiracy 

IjUlu-i isti'mara (frequently written 
•jl*i-l) form, blank 

jJ amir commander; lord, master; 
orderer, purchaser, customer, client | 
jjfcUt j^}\ absolute master, vested with 
unlimited authority 

jjAa ma'mur commissioned, charged; 
commissioner; civil officer, official, esp., 
one in executive capacity; the head of 
a markaz and qiem (Eg.) | ^j-J^Ji j_pl* 
commissioner of police ; 4-jlLcU jjX> 
(tafiisa) receiver (in bankruptcy; jur.); 
15^-1 jjaU m. al-haraka traffic manager 
(railroad); 5-i-^JI j>*U m. at-ta$fiya re- 
ceiver (in equity, in bankruptcy; jur.) 

ojj-t* ma'murlya pi. -at order, in- 
struction; errand; task, assignment, mis- 
sion; commission; commissioner's office, 
administrative branch of a government 
agency, e.g., SJLiS *ij_>*t* (qatfd'iya) 
judicial commission charged with juris- 
diction in outlying communities (Eg.) 

bjj&A muta'amirun conspirators, plot- 

Ojj£j* mu'tamirun conspirators, plot- 
ters; members of a congress, convention, 
or conference, conferees 

jtj* mu'tamar pi. -at conference; con- 
vention, congress | ^LJI j£y> m. a$- 
§ulk peace conference 

'Aj*\ II ta'amraka to become Americanized, 
adopt the American way of life, imitate 
the Americans 

jjJ^.1 amarillis amaryllis (bot.) 

l£jj^l amrikd (formerly, also Uj^J) America] 
l~ijJr\ Kjj*I (janubiya) South America 



5-ij*' amriki American; (pi. -fin) an 


j&^'l/l al-amrikan the Americans 
iJKjj-I amrtkani American; (pi. -fin) 

an American 

(j^.1 amfu (but ace. L*l amsan) the day 
past, yesterday ; the immediate past, 
recent time; — amsi (adv.) yesterday; 
recently, lately, not long ago | ,j~»VIj 

bi-l-amsi yesterday; not long ago; 


JjlM amsi l-awwal two days ago, the 
day before yesterday 

L— *l umsiya pi. -at, ^*U1 amasiy eve- 

flijwi amstird&m Amsterdam 

j£*\ amSir the sixth month of the Coptic 

ul imma' and «*>l imma*a characterless 
person; opportunist, timeserver 

JJ amaZa w (amo/) to hope (a or <-> for), 
entertain hopes (* or «-» of) II to hope; 
to expect (,y a of s.o.); to raise 
hopes (• in s.o.), hold out hopes (* for 
s.o.), give (• s.o.) reason to hope or 
expect | Ijtfi. *UI (kairan) to let s.o. hope 
for the best V to look attentively (a, j 
at), regard, contemplate (a, J; 
to meditate; to consider, think over, 
ponder (a, j reflect (a, j on) 

J* I amal pi. JL.T am&l hope, expec- 
tation ( j of, also .->) | c-olf J* I 
fallacious hope 

J*L ma'mal pi. J.X. mo*amt7 a hope 

J*U to'ammui pi. -di consideration ; 
contemplation; pi. c>^*U meditations 

J-T dmil hopeful 

J*J* mu'ammil hopeful 

Jj-U ma'mul hoped for, expected 

J-tu muta'ammil contemplative, med- 
itative, reflective; pensive, wistful, musing 

^»\ amuna u (iiUl amdna) to be faithful, re- 
liable, trustworthy; — amina a (amn, uUI 
oma») to be safe, feel Bafe (,y or a from) 
II to reassure (• s.o.), set s.o.'s (•) mind 
at rest; to assure, ensure, safeguard, 
guarantee, warrant, bear out, confirm, 
corroborate (Jc, a; to insure 
(Jiji-^ J-i against fire); to. entrust (» to 
s.o., J*; to say "amen" (Jp to 
IV to believe (*_> in) VIII to trust (. s.o.), 
have confidence, have faith (« in); to 
entrust (J* * s.o. with, to s.o. 
X = VIII; to ask for protection, for 
a promise of security, for indemnity 
(. s.o.) 

<yl amn safety; peace, security, pro- 
tection | fUl j-'iH ( r dmm) public safe- 
ty; j-Vl jU-j the police 

oUI aman security, safety; peace; 
shelter, protection ; clemency, quarter 
{mil.); safeguarding, assurance of pro- 
tection; indemnity, immunity from pun- 
ishment | 4>i ol*l J (a valedictory phrase) 
in God's protection! 

^..l amin pi. »L.I umand' 2 reliable, 
trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright, hon- 
est; safe, secure; authorized representa- 
tive or agent; trustee; guarantor (Jp of); 
chief, head ; superintendent, curator, 
custodian, guardian, keeper ; chamber- 
lain; master of a guild (Tun.); {mil.) 
approx. : quartermaster -sergeant (Eg. 
1939) | Jj^l ,>,VI (awwal) Lord Chamber- 
lain (formerly, at the Eg. Court); jS 
•L.VI approx.: Chief Master of Ceremo- 
nies (ibid.); o_^il ,>*' a - al-maJcTxin ware- 
house superintendent; stock clerk; ^-1 
iJj^Jl j* a. 8trr ad-daula and ^-Jl ^*\ 
a. as-sirr permanent secretary of state 
(Syr.); jj-U-Jl j^\ a. a&-$unduq and 
Jlil j\J treasurer; cashier; *£*Ull &*\ 
mayor (esp. Ir.); *U ,>J ( r amm) sec- 
retary general; <_-zSCH ,>-.! a. al-maktab 
(formerly) a subaltern rank in the Eg. 
navy (1939) 


^*l amin ament 

oL.1 amdna reliability, trustworthiness ; 
loyalty, faithfulness, fidelity, fealty; in- 
tegrity, honesty; confidence, trust, good 
faith; deposition in trust; trusteeship; 
(pi. -at) deposited in trust, a de- 
posit, trust, charge; secretariat f iiLl 
Jj-u^JI a. as-sunduq treasury department ; 
<*U ij U I ('amma) secretariat general ; 
oUUVI oj£ makzan al-a. baggage check- 

j^L ma* man place of safety, safe place 

^.Jj ta'mtn securing, protection; assur- 
ance ; safeguarding ; reassurance ; ensuring ; 
guaranty, warranty; security, surety; in- 
surance | (_^£r1 Cp*u (ijtimd'l) social 
security; Jj^J-I -U* Jwtl (didda) fire in- 
surance; SLA-1 J* j>*Ij (haydh) life insur- 

jU I tmdn faith, beUef {<_j in) 

jUJl t'Jimdn trust, confidence; credit 

jLSL-l tdfi'man trust, confidence 

,^.i amin peaceful 

j_j^U ma'mSn reliable, trustworthy 

<-U j*J* mu'amman 'alaihi insured 

^J* mu'min believing, faithful; be- 

y:j* mu'taman entrusted (J# with) ; 
confidant; sequestrator (jur.) 

omnibus omnibus, bus 

1 t 5_^.l amawi of or like a bondmaid or hand- 

*<S_y\ umaivi Ommiad (adj.) 

5-.1 j~> banu umayya the Ommiads 
L-.1 amiba amoebae 
Jlj\-1 amiral admiral 
K*jwl, 45j**l amerika, amerika America 
*JI_^*I amirdliya admiralty 

J ijl on (conj.) that; — in 1. (conj.) if; jlj 
«>a-»n although, even though, even if; 
o\j — b\ be it — or (be it); VI Md 
(= V ul) look up alphabetically 2. (par- 
ticle) not, esp. in the phrase V' j* ul 
in huwa ilia (f. VI j> ul) it is nothing but, 
it is no more than 

2 jl anna (conj.) that; *j\ le t bi-ma annahu 
since he (it), because he (it); *j\ J* 'aid 
annahu while he (it), whereas he (it); 
introducing a main clause : however, 
yet; *jl lillij that is to say, namely, to 
wit; — inna (intensifying particle in- 
troducing a nominal clause) verily, 
truly (in most cases not translated in 

Ul innamd but, but then; yet, how- 
ever; rather, on the contrary 

3 jl anna i (,>jl antn, oliu ta'n&n) to groan, 
moan (,y at) 

*j\ anna pi. -at moan, groan | ol*Tj will 
wails and laments 

jo I anin plaintive sound, wail; groan, 

JUl andni egotistic; egoistio(al), self- 

*Jl3l andnlya egoism, selfishness 

J^iUVI al-anddul Anatolia 

^LjlJl ananas pineapple 

._Jl II to blame, censure, reprehend, up- 
braid (• s.o.) 

i—jju ta'nib blame, censure, rebuke 

Lil (pronounced amba) Abba, a high ecclesi- 
astic title of the Coptic Church, preceding 
the names of metropolitans, bishops, 
patriarchs, and saints (< Afipa) 

jLjl anbar pi. _rlil anabir 2 , ju\j\ andbir 2 ware- 
bouse, storehouse, storeroom 


^Ljl (Turk, oribasi) onbasi a mil. rank: cor- 
poral (formerly, Eg.); ^Lj\ J-5^ approx.: 
private first class (Eg.) 

i_j_jjl, <>j?\ see i^J 

t y s u\ inbiq alembic 

cJ! anta, f. anti thou, you (2nd pers. sing.); 
pi. m. JjI antum, f. ,jjl antunna you 
(2nd pers. pi. and polite form of address); 
dual £1 antumd both of you 

liijl anta-dd it's you! 
iiUȣjul antikkana museum 

iSC-wl an/i&a pi. -at (eg.) old, old-fashioned, 

u^*JjI anfimiin antimony 

dJl anuta u (HJjjl uniita) to be or become fem- 
inine, womanly, womanish, effeminate 
II to make feminine; to effeminate, make 
effeminate ; to put into the feminine form 
(gram.) V to become feminine (also gram.) 

^\ unta pi. iUI indt, jUl anata fem- 
inine; female; a female (of animals); 
uLiiV al-untaydn the testicles 

tjjij\ untatvi womanly, female, women's 
(in compounds); effeminate, womanish 

*J_jj I unuta femininity, womanliness 

-ijJlj ta'nit the feminine, feminine form 

iJJ* mu'annat (gram.) feminine (adj.) 
{^jijj jjj I antrobolojiya anthropology 
^Ljil injas (syr.) pear 
IJ&fl (It. Inghilterra) ingillera England 

>Lf^l al-ingriiz the English 

^Jrd*; I ingzlizi English ; Englishman 

J_*:l tnj'tj pi. J-*-lil andjil 2 gospel 

J-jfl injlli evangelical; evangelist 
LLf I injiliya evangelical creed 

^Aj^l al-andalus Spain 

L_ajjJjI induniaiyd Indonesia 

^jjl am«a a and anusa u (una) to be com- 
panionable, sociable, nice, friendly, ge- 
nial; *j ^f-il to like s.o.'s company, like to 
be together with s.o.; to be or get on 
intimate terms (>_j or Jl with s.o.) ; 
to be used, accustomed, habituated (Jl 
to); to perceive, notice, find (* a quality, 
j, j» in s.o.); to sense, feel, make out, 
recognize (*, j in, at) [ *ij^A- ^l 
(li-hadltihl) to like to listen to s.o. II to 
put at ease ; to tame III to be friendly, nice 
(» to s.o.); to entertain, amuse (e> s.o.) 
IV to keep s.o. {•) company; to en- 
tertain, delight, amuse (* s.o.); to per- 
ceive, discern, make out (with the eyes; 
a; to sense (*; to find, see, 
notice, observe, e.g., LLiSji <lj ^T he saw 
that he was duly qualified, that he was a 
capable man V to become incarnate (Son 
of God) X to be sociable, companionable; 
to get on familiar terms, become inti- 
mate; to become tame; to be friendly, 
nice, kind (o to s.o.) ; to accommodate o.s., 
accustom o.s., settle down; to be familiar, 
familiarize o.s., acquaint o.s. (<~> or Jl 
with); to inform o.s., gather information 
(<_j about); to take into consideration, 
take into account, bring into play (<->, draw upon (i_j); to listen 
(J to, heed (<-j an opinion) 

^Jl una sociability; intimacy, famili- 
arity, friendly atmosphere 

^Jl unal: ^1 >. 
anklebone (anat.) 

(ka'b) talus, inner 

iJ J\ ina (coll.) man, mankind, human 

lS J>\ insl human; human being 

^U nda (coll.) and ^Ul unda people 

CjjAj ndaut mankind, humanity 

j^-UI andexy (pi.) people, human beings, 

^^1 ants close, intimate; close friend; 
friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite, cour- 

jUJl insdn man, human being | jl—jl 
^.*]l ». al-'ain pupil (of the eye) 

*jL-ji insdna woman 

(jLJl insdni human ; humane ; humani- 
tarian, philanthropist 

aJLjI insdniya humanity, humaneness; 
politeness, civility; mankind, the human 

4-Jlj* mu'anasa intimacy, familiarity, 
friendliness, geniality, cordiality; socia- 
bility; conviviality 

^bl inds exhilaration ; friendliness, 
geniality ; familiarity, intimacy, cordi- 
ality; sociability 

(jJlj ta* annus incarnation (Chr.) 

^UUl i'tinds social life, sociability 

i-jTanisapI. -at, j^Jljl awdnis 2 young 
lady, miss 

,j*yU ma'nus familiar, accustomed 

^pjti™. musta'nis tame 

,Jj\ (Engl.) in£ inch 

ij-^Ail (It. acciuga) anSuga (eg.) anchovy 

5-TlLil anfdkiya 2 Antioch (ancient city in 
Syria; now Antakya, in S Turkey) 

l y r ji J \u\ onf5loji ontologic(al) (philos.) 

uijl anija a (anaf) to disdain, scorn (^.,, 
1 to do ) ; to reject haughtily 
(a X to resume, renew, recommence 
(a; (jur.) to appeal (a a sentence) 

ijej\ anf pi. oliT dndf, (j^Jl unuf nose; 
spur (of a mountain); pride j <ki\ Jy 
ragma anfiM in defiance of him, to spite 
him; 4jijl jS (anfahu) to humiliate s.o., 

put s.o.'s nose out of joint; *_iiVi V-L- 
stuck-up, haughty, proud 

Jjl anfi nasal 

iill anaf a pride; rejection; disdain 
(j- of 

Ji^jl anuf proud, haughty, stuck-up, 
BupercOious, disdainful 

oLiL-l isti'ndf fresh start, recom- 
mencement, renewal, resumption, re- 
opening (also, of a legal case); appeal 
(jur.) | UljJk-l >Ji (qaddama) to appeal, 
make an appeal {jur.) 

jLjU--I istindji of appeal, appellate; 
L#LiL-l isti'ndfiyan by appeal 

.JuT dnif preceding, above | jf-UI iJuT 
(difcr) preceding, above, above-mention- 
ed; lijT dnijan previously, above, in the 

t_iJ£. mu'tanaf primordial, virginal 
state; beginning 

ij*jm\ (Ft. Anvers) anvers Antwerp (city in 
N Belgium) 

Ij-jUjI influvxinzd influenza, grippe 

jjl aniga a to be neat, trim, smart, spruce, 
comely, pretty; to be happy (i_> about), 
be delighted (<_j by) IV to please (* s.o.) | 
•^1 <iijj (iai'u) he hkes the thing 
V to apply o.s. eagerly and meticulously 
( J to) ; to be meticulous, fastidious, 
finical; to be chic, elegant 

iiLil andga elegance 

Jjl aniq neat, trim, spruce, comely, 
pretty; elegant, chic 

3y I anug Egyptian vulture (Neophron 
percnopterus) | Ji^VI Jl = i ^ jpl a'azz 2 
min baidi l-a. (lit.: rarer than the eggs 
of a vulture, i.e.) approx.: scarcer than 
hens' teeth (proverbially for rare) 

jjl> ta'annug elegance 

& l 


jj£. mu'niq, gy> muniq pretty, come- 
ly, winsome, nice, pleasing 

jiU» muta'anniq chic, elegant 

»jju\ anqara Ankara 

l _ r Aju\ anqalis eel 

dljT dnuk lead (metal) 

^jli&l inkiSdrl pi. -*ya Janizary 

IJ\Kjl, Sjll^jl (It. Inghilterra) ingilterd, in* 
giltera England 

UfS-"j!& V I aJ-angrfosafc#Sn the Anglo- Saxons 

V>- ^-yJ^V al-angloaaksunlya Anglo- 

>J&VI cU-ingliz the English 

i$>Kjl inglizi English; Englishman 

^.aJxil ankalls eel 

>UVl al-andm and fli^l (coll.) mankind, the 
human race 

jo^c't unmudaj model, pattern; type, ex- 
ample; sample, specimen 

jj-cl anamun anemone (bot.) 

*JI and i to mature, become ripe; to draw 
near, approach, come (esp. time) | ul *J Jl 
it is (high) time that he; esp. in negative 
statements: uL Jl a-lam ya'ni? isn't it 
about time . . . ? V to act slowly, proceed 
unhurriedly, bide one's time, be patient 
X to take one's time, hesitate (j in, 
with); to wait 

Ji anan pi. #ljT and' (span of) time, 
period j JJI »LiT j (laili) all night long; 
jlfJl J)\Jr\j JJI »LiT dnd'a l-laili wa- 
afrdja n-nahar by day and by night 

l\j\ andk deliberateness ; perseverance, 
patience | »UVI J_jt ful al-a. long-suffer- 
ing, great patience; «UVI Ji_>l» long-suffer- 
ing (adj.) 

•lil ina* pi. *jT aniya, o\j\ awdnin 
vessel, container, receptacle | aUUI LjT 
d. ap-ta'dm table utensils, dishes ; mess kit 

ut ta'annin slowness, deliberateness 

ulu muta'annin slow, unhurried, de- 

a JI anna (interrog. part.) where... from? 
why is it that...? why? where? (place 
and direction) ; how ? wherever ; how- 
ever | ... V I <J Jl j (alia) and why shouldn't 
he ... ? 

(j_j— m\ ariisun, jj—jT aniseed 

L*Ji anlmiyd anemia | O &?*■ ^*^' perni- 
cious anemia (med.) 

»T ahi! IaT dhanf (interj.) oh! 

i_~a! II to prepare, make ready, equip (J *, » 
s.o., for) V to be ready, be pre- 
pared; to prepare o.s., get ready; to 
equip o.s., be equipped (J for) 

i_»l uhba pi, !_-»! uhab preparation, 
preparedness, readiness, alertness; equip- 
ment, outfit, gear | i-j^I v»i u. al-harb 
mihtary equipment; J^^i i-*t Jp ready 
to set out; jl.ui-.Vl <-** J* fully prepared; 
on the alert (mil.) ; *— a! JU-I to make one's 
preparations, get ready 

(-•Ul ihdb skin, hide 

._-*Ij ta*ahhub preparedness, readiness; 
(pi. -at) preparation 

•^jkli. muta'akhib ready, prepared 

JaI akala u i (Jy»l -uAu/) to take a wife, get 
married; — ahila a to be on familiar 
terms (i_j with); — pass, ukila to be in- 
habited, be populated (region, place) 
II to make fit or suited, to fit, qualify 
(J a, * s.o., for); to make possible 
(a J for s.o., enable (a J s.o. to do, make accessible (a J to s.o.; 
to welcome (i_j s.o.) V to be or become 
fit, suited, qualified (J for ; to 


take a wife; to marry, get married X to 
deserve, merit (*, be worthy (a of) 

J»l ahl pi. -fin, JUI ahdlin relatives, 
folks, family; kin, kinsfolk; wife; (with 
foil, genit.) people, members, followers, 
adherents, possessors, etc.; inhabitants; 
deserving, worthy (J of; fit, suited, 
qualified (J for); pi. JjIaVI, JUlfl the 
natives, the native population | c^Jl JaI 
a. al-bait members (of the house, i.e.) 
of the family; the Prophet's family; 
jlojl JaI the people living in the house; 
ii^-l JaI o. al-kirfa people of the trade; 
oaU-I JaI a. al-hilf people pledged by oath, 
members of a sworn confederacy; JaI 
I^i-'l a. al-feibra people of experience, 
experts; «k— i-Jl JaI a. as-safsafa Soph- 
ists; i-Jl JaI a.assunna the adherents 
of the Sunna, the Sunnis; jj)\j j-J.1 JaI 
a. al-madar wa-l-wabar the resident pop- 
ulation and the nomads; IaU-jJI JaI a. 
al-ivajdha people of rank and high social 
Btanding; ^+-j "^aI ahlan wa-saklan wel- 
come! iil> :>Ul ahlan bika welcome to 
you! J^-j J*l l>jli j J he is a welcome 
guest in our house 

JaI ahli domestic, family (adj.); na- 
tive, resident; indigenous; home, na- 
tional { JaI ilJjj national bank {Eg.); ^j>- 
i-UI (harb) civil war; 5Ja! «*£*£ (makkama) 
indigenous court (Eg.); JaVI »UiSJ! (qa4d*) 
jurisdiction of indigenous courts; rUl'ill 
JaVI (intaj) domestic production; iJJj 
JaI (waqf) family wakf 

LUI dhliya aptitude, fitness, suitable- 
ness, competence; qualification | <JlaV 
ojjUJI the civil rights; «-i*VI J*f le- 
gally competent ; i-U V I f -^ legally incom- 
petent, under tutelage 

JaT dkil and J^au ma?hul inhabited, 
populated (region, place) 

O^U}* mu'ahhilat qualifications, abil- 
ities, aptitudes 
J»ts* muta'ahkil married 

JaIx™. mtuta'hU worthy, deserving, mer- 
iting; entitled 

^LUI iklilaj myrobalan, emblie (fruit of 
Phyllanthus emblica L.; bot.); ellipse 

^^nJUaI ihlilaji elliptic(al) 

j\ au or; (with foil, subj.) unless, except 

1 (i-»jl) i— >T aba u (a«6, *jj\ auba, ^Ll iyab) 
to return ; u uT to catch , contract , 
suffer, incur, be in for, be left 
with, get one's share of 

Vj' $ Jr - m * rt ^^* aubin from all 
sides or directions; •-»_>■* j »->j' J*" i> 
(iva-?aubin) do. 

*ij\ auba return 

i_jLI lyofi return { ULIj OUi dah&ban 
wa-iyaban there and back; back and 
forth, up and down 

<_;L wia'ot place to which one returns; 
(used as verbal noun:) return | >~>X»j '-jj*'* 
coming and going 

2 yjT look up alphabetically 

I jj\ and I ^ jl (It. opera) dpwd opera ; 
opera house 

Cj^jI (Ft.) 6pdret operetta 

Ojl (Fr. aout) August (month; magr.) 

^-ijjjjl (Fr. autobus) otobls autobus, bus 

i_!»l_^-_jjj1 (Fr.) otograf pi. -at autograph 

^Ijijjjl otuqrdZfi autocratic 

JIjUjJjI (Fr.) otomatlkl automatic 

Jjj*Pj' (Fr.) otombil automobile 

Jjjl (Fr.) otel pi. -at hotel 

£jl auj highest point, acme, pinnacle; cul- 
mination, climax; apogee (astron.); peak 
(fig. ; of power, of fame) 


•T ah albumen, eggwhite 
O o^ oMn albumin 

(ijl) if ada u (aud) to bend, flex, curve, 
crook (a; to burden, oppress, weigh 
down (« b.o.}; — Jjl aivida a (amad) to 
bend; to be bent V to bend; to bow 
ojl auda burden, load 

ijl awad: ojL j.Ij to provide for b.o.'s 
needs, stand by s.o. in time of need; 
aijl >-IjI (awadahu) do.; to support s.o., fur- 
nish s.o. with the means of subsistence 

jljl uwdr heat, blaze; thirst 

\jjj\ urubbd Europe 

jjjl urvbbl European 

J-ljjl uruSalim* Jerusalem 

&jj\ (= ILjl) urfa pi. ijl ura£ battalion 
(formerly, Eg.; mil.) 

t^j*jj\ urugwwdy Uruguay 

IJwSjjl (It.) orkestrd orchestra 

iLjjjl (Turk, ornek) urnik pi, dJLjijl ardmjfc 2 
sample, specimen; model, pattern; form, 

IjjjjI urubbd, bjjjl Europe 

tijjjl urufi&i European 

<^l>rJJj' urugwway Uruguay 

Jjl II (eg.) to ridicule (J* s.o.), make fun of 
s.o. (J.) 
jj\ iwazz (coll.; n. un.) goose, geese 

^.T as myrtle; see also alphabetically 

L'ljwjl ustur&liyd Australia 

b^u-jl (It.) austriyd Austria 

jLj\ Oslo 

jjx-jl «5fd see Lj L-l 

<J>j\ uSlya pi. ^Ijl awdSin prayer, oration 

«*T d/a pi. -at harm, hurt, damage, ruin, bane, 
evil; epidemic, plague; plant epidemic 

J»jJ- ma'uj stricken by an epidemio 

djjj\ (Engl.) ovirdl overalls 

j (i5j') jT H a u to bring a.o. (J*) bad luck, 
cause discomfort or hardship (J* to) 
II to burden (» s.o.) with unpleas- 
ant, troublesome or difficult 

3 «jl see ol 

3 ^UjjI utvaiqdt (dimin. of olijl) short times; 
good times 

(jJLJjl, ^jjLJjl oqiydnuSy oqiydnus ocean 

5-ijl wjtya pi. -dtf ounce, a weight of varying 
magnitude (Eg.: 37.44 g; Aleppo 320 g; 
Jerusalem 240 g; Beirut 213.3 g) 

jjjjlTfl (Fr. occasion) okazyon clearing sale, 
special sale 

Lil^^jl ukrdniya Ukraine 

j^^Sj\ (Fr. oxygene) oksiztn oxygen 

(Jjl) JT dla u (aul, JU ma'dl) to return, re- 
vert (Jf to); to go back, be attributed, be 
attributable (Jl to), spring, derive (Jl 
from) ; to lead, conduce, tend ( Jl to), 
result eventually (Jl in); to come or go 
eventually (Jl to s.o.), pass into the 
hands of (Jl) | Jl j*^\ JT the long and 
the short of it was that . . . ; Jl JjUJ.1 <u JT 
(mafdfu) he eventually got to the point 
where ... II to interpret, explain (* 

JT dl family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan; 
companions, partisans, people ; mirage, 
fata morgana 

<jT dla pi. -at instrument, utensil; tool; 
apparatus; device, implement, appliance; 
machine | IJ J-\ O^T d. al-hiss sensory 
organs; ijjLJc *JT (bukdriya) steam engine; 
ji-\ <IT d. al-jarr tractor; y-'-fr *JT (ja* 
hannamlya) infernal machine; 4-j_^- i)T 
{Harbiya) instrument of war; <llij3*d\ *Jl 


motor, engine; i-^U- ill calculating ma- 
chine; SAJ-i 5jT a. al-hiydka power loom; 
iLUi-'l ijT sewing machine;^!; ill radio; 
Uilj *JT hoisting machine, crane, derrick; 
pump; ^»— IJI ill and *ii»— . ill (muaaj> 
fctna) heater; _/j--dl 3jT (photographic) 
camera; i*LL!l *lT printing press; J-*ll *1 T 
d. al-gasl washing machine; ^>tJl *M 
incubator; Jliu-VI ^T receiver, receiving 
set (radio); »^i«i« 5jT (mitga/Zira) distilling 
apparatus, still; iliS^II *J1 and 5-JK" <)T 
typewriter; j|(2JI *_-*! <JT a. Za'6 al-qimdr 
slot machine; Li--j* <J T (miWMjiya) mu- 
sical instrument; 4-JsJl UT alarm; siren; 
horn (of an automobile); #lf* UT (jjawtmd') 
(fig.) tool, creature, puppet 

jT all mechanic(al); mechanized; mo- 
torized; instrumental; organic | Jl£il^ 
(mihrdt) motor plow; iJ VI o1_>UI (quivat) 
motorized troops; ijT iT,*- (haraka) a 
mechanical movement 

ijT dliya mechanics 

JVl dldti pi. iJVT dldtiya (eg.) mu- 
sician; singer 

Jji aunval 2 , f. Jjl wid, pi. m. -«n, JJljl 
auid't/ 2 first; foremost, most important, 
principal, chief, main; first part, be- 
ginning; (with def. article also) earlier, 
previous, former; see also under Jj | 
Jj^l uLJVi (insdn) primitive man; vir^ 
Jjl physician-in-chief; Jj'jVI, OjJjVI the 
forebears, forefathers, ancestors; JJljl 
J +Z}\ a. aS-Sahr the first ten days of a 
month, beginning of a month; lj* JjV 
li-aiwvali marratin or JjVI «_/JI for the 
first time; *Jjl j*, iUljl j* since its be- 
ginnings, from the very beginning; j- 
»j^\ Jl Jjl (afctrt'Ai) from beginning 
to end, from A to Z; jS$\ Jjl awiwla 
l-amri at first, in the beginning; JjVI 
JjVLi each time the first available; L. Jjl 
(awiwla) the moment when, just when; 
at the very outset of; JjVI j- jS"\ 
(aktara) more than before 


Vjl awwajon first, firstly, in the first 
place; at first, in the beginning | JjL Vjl 
and Vjti Vjl by and by, gradually, one 
after the other, one by one; \_r*-\j Vjl 
and I^Tj Vjl (dkiran) first and last, alto- 
gether? simply and solely, merely 

Jjl awwali prime, primary, primordial, 
original, initial, first; elemental, funda- 
mental, basic, principal, chief, main; 
elementary; primitive, pristine, primeval) 
3Jjl i-jJU (madrasa) elementary school, 
grade school; HJjl s\j* (mawddd) raw 
materials; Jjl iJm ("adad) prime number; 
<Jj\ »jy\i (jatura) pro forma invoice 

SJjl awwallya pi. -at fundamental 
truth, axiom; primary constituent, es- 
sential component, element; precedence; 

Jjl ayyil, iyyal, uyyal pi. JJLl aya'tP 

iibl iydla pi. -at province; regency 

iljJLI ailula title deed (jur.) 

J L. madl end ; outcome, final issue, 
upshot ; result, consequence | J U- 1 j 
J Hi Jj at present and in the future 

JjjU ta'wll pi. -at interpretation, 

»Vjl uld'i, dhijl, tiiJVjl uld'ika these; those, 
pi. of the demonstr. pron. li and jJIi 

^ljl olimbi Olympic | i_ijVl ^^ VI the Olym- 
pic games 

jLIjI olimbi y ad Olympiad 

jjjl ulu (pi. of jj) owners, possessors, people 
(with foll.genit. : of) | j*^\ jJjl u. l-amr 
rulers, powerful leaders; jJUIIj Ji-I jjjl 
u. l-hall wa-l-'aqd (lit. : masters of solv- 
ing and binding) do.; uliJI jJjl u. $-§a'n 
the responsible people 

1 [»ljl uwdm thirst 

■fjl ohm (el) 


(j-jj*i*jl omni&fi* omnibus, bus 

J il>T dn time; eft I oi-fina now | oT j and 
.u-lj jT j at the same time, simultane- 
ously; _^T J! jT ^ (oifcaro) from time to 
time; j*^j oT ^u U (wa-akara) and 
jT a*i IjT sometimes, at times, now and 
then, once in a while; UTi UT gradually, 
by and by, little by little; iijTj — LiT 
(Hwinatan) sometimes — sometimes, at 
times — at times; uftl Jj qabla l-ana 
before, previously, formerly ; uSJ U-l-ana 
and oft! J»- hatta l-dna until now, hith- 
erto, so far; ofti .u* ba'da l-dna from 
now on, henceforth, in the future; &> 
I Op La* jVI mt'n al-ana fa-p&'idan do. 

J&T ana'uftn that day, at that time, 

iilojT Snagdka that day, at that time, 

Oj\ aun calmness, serenity, gentleness 

a\j\ avian pi. JtfjT oun'na time | JJ 
Ailjl prematurely; <bljl J at the right 
time, timely, seasonably, *jljl j* J at 
the wrong time, untimely, unseasonably; 
ti_fl\ ,>j from time to time; Sij^ll Jy 
tfj^'j (wjra) and ^^-l -U* *jT (fitutnotow, 
ukra) at times, sometimes; ^j*-lj — **jT 
sometimes — sometimes, at times — at 
times; b\fi\ CM (fdta) it is too late; 
b\ji\ uT (ana) the time has come, it is 
time (J for, to do 

■iljjl look up alphabetically 

^iljjl onbaH corporal, see ^LJl 

( tJ \) 3 aha u and II to moan, sigh V to 
moan, sigh; to sigh with admiration (J 
over), exolaim "ah!" 
•jl avnoah (interj.) oh! 
*T aki, UT ahan, »1j1 uvnodhi oh! 

i»T aha pi. -at sigh, moan; pi. OUT 
sighs of admiration; rapturous exclama- 

»j\S ta'awwuh moaning, sighing; admir- 
ing exclamation; plaintive sound, wail 

i$j\ awd t to seek refuge, seek shelter ( Jl at a 
place); to go (Jl to bed); to betake o.s., 
repair (Jl to a place); to shelter, house, 
put up, lodge, accommodate, receive as 
a guest (a, a s.o., II to shelter, 
lodge, put up, accommodate, receive as 
a guest (« s.o.) IT to seek shelter (Jl at 
a place), to retire (Jl to a place); to 
betake o.s. ( repair (Jl to & place); to 
shelter, house, put up, lodge, accommo- 
date (« s.o.) 

»1^jl iioa' accommodation, lodging, hous- 
ing, sheltering 

ffji* ma'wan pi. jT. ma'awin place 
of refuge, retreat, shelter; abode; resting 
place; dwelling, habitation | JJ ^jl* 
(laili) shelter for the night; doss house 

^jT j,l ibn awa pi. ^jT cJti bandt d. 

UjTaya, coll. J[ ay, pi. -dt sign, token, mark; 
miracle; wonder, marvel, prodigy; model, 
exemplar, paragon, masterpiece (j of, 
e.g., of organization, etc.); Koranic verse, 
*•&- 1 J'M J (<*y a4-dihr) the verses of 
the Koran; passage (in a book), utter- 
ance, saying, word ; oUl (with foil, genit.) 
most solemn assurances (of love, of 

'jl ay that is (to say), i.e.; namely, to wit 

\$l I yes (with foil, ^ilj yes, indeed! yes, by 

*^\ ayy, f. iA ayya (with foil, genit. or suffix) 
which? what? what kind oft whoever, 
whosoever ; any, every, no matter what . . . ; 
(with neg.) no; Ui ayyumd whatever, 
whatsoever | £j&* lA, ulT \A ayyan kdna, 
ayyatan kdnat whoever he (or she) is, no 
matter who he (or she) is; uK" ,> ^1 ayyu 
man kdna whoever it may be, whosoever; 
JL- tfl J* (ayyi hdlin) in any case, at any 

rate, at all events, by all means; -U-l_> ^1 
ayyu wdhidin any one; oLi jl UU *J u! 
t»7ia ZaAiZ Sa'nan ayya Sa'nin it is of the 
greatest importance (lit.: it is of im- 
portance, and of what importance!); ^t\ 
uUI Ul o u'jiba bihx ayyama i'jabin 
how much he admired him! he admired 
him greatly; jLil Lei *_L JJl aqbala 
'alaihi ayyama iqbalin he showed the 
greatest interest in it 

\j\ iyya with nominal suffix to express the 
accusative | ul ilL! take care not to ..., 
be careful not to . . . ; j- liLl , j ill> I beware 
of...! iJLilj (dial, wayyak), »Uj (wayyah) 
with you, with him 

jLI see 2 j\ 

jjl II to back, support (» s.o., a a claim, an 
aspiration, etc.); to confirm, corroborate, 
endorse (* news, a judgment, etc.) 
V = pass, of II 

xJj ta'yid corroboration, confirmation, 
endorsement, backing, support 

j-. r jjOjI (Fr. hydrogene) idrozen hydrogen 

dj^-jjjj} ILj (qunbula) hydrogen bomb 

l _rl air pi. jjil uy-ur penis 

2 j[>_\ ayyar 2 May (Syr., Leb., Ir., Jord.) 

jlyl Iran. Iran, Persia 

jly I Irani Iranian, Persian; (pi. -un) 
a Persian, an Iranian 

\x$j\ irlandd Ireland 

<sx$j\ irlandi Irish; (pi. -un) Irishman 

Jlj-I (Engl.) eriydl aerial, antenna 

^j-Ij^ izis Isis 

^1 ayisa a (j-LI iytw) to despair (j^ of 

^Ll jyoa despair 

i_jj-ijl (Fr. icharpe) sash 

( ( _^»jl) ^T o^a i to return, revert (J! to; to become (Jl 

LojI aidan also, too, as well, likewise, 
equally ; again ; in addition, besides, 

LJILjI %$aliya Italy 

(JlWl i/d/t Itahan; (pi. -un) an ItaUan 

*j_jiil (Gr. eIxqjv) vquna and *-i>*i' iquniya 
pi. -at icon (CAr.) 

dLI aifc (coll.; n. un. ;) thicket, jungle 

2 Jjl and iJU see Jjl 

"JjLI artfiJ 3 September {Syr., Leb., Ir., 

3 il_jLl ailula title deed (?'ur.) 

fjrl) >T dma t: c^-jj ^y. A (zaujattht) to lose 
one's wife, become or be a widower, *i~J 
L$*-jj j* (zaujiha) to lose one's husband, 
become or be a widow 

<r I aima, *jA uyum and f u to* 
'ayyum widowhood 

<■! ayyim pi. /■M at/d'im 8 , ^Ul aya"nn2 
widower, widow 


atwam* see 


Let ayyuma see *^1 ayy 

1 ( l >') ^ " na * *° come « approach, draw 
near (time) | OlyiM oT (auxin) the time 
has come: jl *J uT it's time for him 

jT see jjl 

^1 atna where? (= at or to what 
place?) | j.1 j* min aina where ... from? 
j\ Jl where? (= to what place?) ^ j& j-J 
how far we still are from..., worlds 
separate us from ... (fig.); iJli ,> l-i* ,>_' 
what is this compared with that! 



^\ al-ainu the where; space (philos.) 

l(o! ainamd wherever 

uLI ayyana when? (conj.) when 

2 j>\ II to ionize (a V to be ionized (el.) 

Ojjl iydn pi. -at ion 

^jIj ta'yin ionization 

j. Is* mMfa'ayytn ionized 

*jl ifti, tAa, thin (interj.) well! now then! all 
right ! 

Ifl ayyuka, with fern, also 1^1 ayyatuhd 
(vocative particle) . . . ! 

<_j_^jI ayyub 2 Job 

Ujjji^i al-ayyubiyun the Ayubites 
*jA aiwam 2 see f jj 
^jjI see 2 j>\ 

2 jljjl twan pi. -dt recess-like sitting room 
with a raised floor, usually opening on 
the main room or courtyard through an 
arcade; eatrade 

1 i_j abbreviation of <_jL chapter 

2 uj bi (prep.) in, at, on (place and time); 
with (indicating connection, association, 
attendance); with, through, by means 
of (designating instrumentality or agency, 
also with pass. = by); for ( = at the 
price of); by (= to the amount of); by 
(introducing an oath) | JJJL bi-l-lail at 
(by) night, jlfJl* bi~n-nahdr during the 
daytime, by day; j^!j Vlr' Samdlan 
bi-Sarqin northeast ; c— m j \^i fa-bihd 
VM-ni'mat in that case it's all right ; 
jl J (J -J it is not my intention to ...; 
i]\Xt iJt* Jidda bi-daka now we are even, we 
are quits; SpLj .tS-tfJJ {majiihi) an hour 
before his arrival; l-» "with" frequently 
gives causative meaning to a verb, e.g., 
*^i k j _ r i^ (lit.: to rise with, i.e.) to 
boost, further, promote; Jl aj *L 
to cause s.o. to arrive at, lead s.o. to; 
for its use as copula after negations, etc., 
see grammar; "& bi-ld without; ul lc 
bi-md anna in view of the fact that; 
since, as, inasmuch as, because; <ui Lc 
bi-md fihi including 

At bd' name of the letter l-> 

IAj oo&d pi. ol^jjlj bdbaimt, otjliL pope; papa, 
father, daddy 

(£jjIj babaun, <£jLl; papal 
o^jLj bdbawiya papacy 

1 UL ba'ba'a to say "papa" (child) 

2 jiji bu'bu' root, source, origin; core, heart, 
inmost part; pupil of the eye, also 
,jwJt jiji b. al-'ain 

JjL. babiV 1 Babel, Babylon 
JjL bdbili Babylonian 

*jL bdbih the second month of the Coptic 

7rji\j babuj pi. pri|_j* bawdbij 2 slipper 

jjAi bdbur pi. -at, ju\ji_ bawablr 2 (= jji)j) 
locomotive, engine; steamship, steamer 

£y\i bdbunaj camomile (bot.) 
ds-Jlj bdtieta batiste 
j^jtb bdtolSji pathologic (al) 

U-_jJ_jjIj bdtSlojiya pathology 

jUijIj bddinjdn and <jU^L» baidinjdn (coll.; 
n. un. 3) pi. -at eggplant, aubergine 



^L bar pi. -at bar; taproom 
a jlj fea'ara a to dig a well 

Jj bi'r f., pi. jLT dbar, jli 6t'dV well, 

«j_Jj fcu'ra pi. jJj 6w*ar center, seat 
(fig.); site; pit; abyss 

Cjj-SIjLj (Fr. parachute) bdrdsut parachute 

t$lj*ijl> bdrdguwdy Paraguay 

(J_jjju see i3j{j 

4-SjL (Ft.) barkek parquet, parquetry floor 

*lijb. see £jj 

•jlj bdra pi. -at para, (coin) 

jjjL bdrud saltpeter; gunpowder 

SjjjLj bdruda pi. -bjl_^i 6aw>dria' a rifle, 

j-jjLj 6orw 2 Paris 

^jU fcariat Parisian 

JL bdz pi. ut.}« &£san< and JU ba'z pi. JjJj 
fiu'iiz, jl j« bi'zdn falcon 

jljU faazfir pi. -at bazaar 

cJjIj bazo/t basalt 

-UjjjIj bdzuband bracelet 

^Jj 6a'2«a w (^t* &a*«) to be strong, brave, 
intrepid; — lJ J^ ba'iaa a (j-Ji 6a' a) to 
be miserable , wretched VI to feign 
misery or distress VIII to be sad, worried, 

Jff-jJI {J Jj bi'sa r-rajulu what an evil 

^-b ba's strength, fortitude, courage, 
intrepidity (as verbal noun of ^Jj 
ba'usa); harm, hurt, injury, impairment, 
detriment, wrong | ^r-ul -b-Li courageous, 
brave, intrepid; <u ^L ^ {ba'sa) there 
is no objection to it; unobjectionable; 
not bad, rather important, considerable, 

e.g., 4. ^-L V ^Li* (kammlyat) consider- 
able quantities ; ^L V (ba'sa) never 
mind ! it doesn't matter ! it's all right ! 
^' t/'H *^ ** doesn't matter that . . . ; 
?i_r"H ti' a y^ w 6o**t». ? what does it 
matter? what of it? ,y ^u 4_L ^-jJ 
(ba'aun) he will be none the worse for ... ; 
iU* (^.L V (6a' sa) it won't do you any 
harm! don't worry! don't be afraid 

l _ r Ju obj bandtu bi'a calamities, ad- 
versities, misfortunes 

^--Jj 6u'a, »b-b 6a**a* a , ^jJj &u'm£ 
and ^-Jj bu'sd pi. ^Jjl ofe'ws misery, 
wretchedness, suffering, distress 

( _ r j£ 6o'is pi. »Ujj &w'o*d' a miserable, 

^jJlj 6a* w miserable, wretched 
J-Uj (Ft.) boatSl pastel 
J^L feoaiZ bacilli 

^ili &<z£ senior, chief (in compounds) 

^ jLtf'lj boSfaufiS and Jlj jbflj approx. : 
master sergeant (formerly, iJj?.) 

-5^ L bd&hoMm physician-in-chief 

^j-ij^, bdSrayyta a naval rank, approz. : 
petty officer 3rd class (Eg.) 

,_jtOlj bdSkdtib chief clerk 
Jlirlj bdSmuftl chief mufti (Tun.) 
^iLir-U bdimufoUiS chief inspector 
,_,-'' I rl; bdS-muhandia chief engineer 
Lib 6a^fd pi. olj-iU bdSawdt (oljLib) pasha 

jjib 6oioy, &a&g pi. J^ bawdMq* sparrow 

jjXiUI al-baSqird the Bashkirs 

^S>-ilj see _^xi» 

^b (Engl.) 6o$ pi. -at bus, autobus 

j^l»b bdfun concrete, b6ton 


*p1j baga celluloid; tortoise shell 

uU-fUl al-bdkist&n Pakistan 

Jli-TL Pakistani (adj. and n.) 

] Jlj bal whale {zool.) 

a 3Jb bala pi. -at bundle, bale 

jUli baltd pi. Cj\jU\j balfowat, ^^ baldft 
overcoat; paletot 

_jJ1j (It. ballo) ball, dance 

JjJL bdlun balloon 

jUUI jj^ juzur al-baliyar the Balearic Is- 

*JL (Fr.) bdleh ballet 

L»li and JL.L bdmiya gumbo, okra (Hibiscus 
esculentus L., 6o(.,a popular vegetable in 

jL see bji 

"*J\jy\j LiLi jfoaa banoramiya (= Fr. &ran 
panoramique) cinemascope screen 

*ij_Jj ba*una the tenth month of the Coptic 

t$1j 6ay, f . IjLj 6aya pi. -at formerly, in Tunisia, 
a title after the names of the members 
of the Bey's family 

jUI jU dor al-bay (formerly) the Tuni- 
sian government 

ju babr pi. j_j-j bubur tiger 

»U-j babgd* 2 (and babbagd* 2 ) pi. oIjLa-j babga* 
wot parrot 

C-j 6ot(a u t (6aW) to cut off, sever {*; 
to complete, finish, achieve, accomplish, 
carry out (*; to fix, settle, de- 
termine (*, decide (*, j on II to adjudge, adjudicate, award 
(* VII to be cut off; to be finished, 
be done; to be decided | j-VI £~ul Jj 

t^Mj <m it's all over between him and 
them, they are through with each other 

C-j bait settlement, decision; bj battan 
definitely, once and for all 

o batta pi. -at adjudication, award ; final 
decision; *zJ\ al-battaia and o battatan 
definitely, positively, decidedly, esp. with 
negations: absolutely not, definitely not 

Jj batti definite, definitive 

ILL battlya, bittiya pi. JIjj batatly 
barrel ; tub 

lJli> batdtan decidedly, definitely, pos- 
itively, categorically, unquestionably, ab- 

C-*i*j tabtit adjudication, award 

oL; bait definite, definitive | ti»L *l. 
(man') categorical interdiction 

% Jj batara u (batr) to cut off, sever (*; 
to amputate (*; to mutilate, render 
fragmentarily (a a text) VII to be cut 
off, be severed, be amputated 

Jj batr cutting off, severance, sepa- 
ration; amputation 

Jj\ abtar 2 curtailed, docked, clipped, 
trimmed ; imperfect, defective, incom- 
plete ; without offspring 

jb battar cutting, sharp 

j\> batir cutting, sharp 

jj~* mabtur broken, abrupt, un- 
connected; fragmentary, incomplete 

2 *\ji bitrd" 2 , batra'* Petra (ancient city of 
Edomites and Nabataeans; ruins now in 
SW Jordan) 

iJjo batralc patriarch 

Jjji batrul, bitrol petroleum 

•ill abta'~ an assonant intensifier of *^-J 
ajma' 2 all, altogether, whole, entire 

«Jlj bdti* strong; full, whole, entire 


ik> II to cut off (a 

1 Jij batcUa i u (bail) and II to cut off, sever 
(a; to make final, close, settle, 
make conclusive, clinch (a V to 
retire from the world and devote one's 
life to God («il Jl); to be pious, chaste 
and self-denying; to live in chastity 
VII to be cut off, be curtailed, be docked 

Jj=j batul virgin; J>uil the Virgin Mary 

J,j2i batull virginal 

iJjzt batuliya virginity 

Jic* mutabattil an ascetic, a recluse; a 
pious, godly man 

a V>=j batuld birch tree 

ti-j batta u (bait) to spread, unroll, unfold 
(a, e.g., a rug); to scatter, disperse 
(a ; to disseminate, propagate, 
spread (a, e.g., a spirit, an ideology, 
a doctrine); to sprinkle (a a on); to 
let s.o. {«, also J) in on (a, esp. on a 
secret) ; to broadcast, transmit by radio | 
jj-*JI £-j to peer around; fUIVI £j to 
plant, or lay, mines IV to let (» s.o.) in 
on a secret (a) VII to be spread; to be 

ti-j batt spreading, dissemination, prop- 
agation; grief, sorrow 

jo batara i (batira a) and V to break out with 
pimples or pustules (skin) 

jw batr pi. jjij butur (n. un. iju batra 
pi. baiardt) pimples, pustules 

jo batir, j& batir pustulate, pimpled 

j£j bataqa i u (with _^S\ an-nahra) to open 
flood gates so that the river will overflow 
its banks VII to break forth, burst out, 
well out, pour out, gush out; to emanate, 
proceed, spring (^ or ^ from) 

3U«I inbitdq outpouring, effusion, out- 
pour, outburst; emanation 

*«f bajiha a (bajah) to rejoice (lj at) V to 
vaunt, flaunt (w, boast, brag (uj of) 

«*J tabajjuh bragging, braggery 

M^< mutabajjih braggart 

•Osfi bajda, bujda root, source, heart, es- 
sence, basis | j**ifl !-tf the heart of the 
matter, the actual state of affairs, the 
true facts; l^Jbfi j-l j> (*&» bujdatiha) he 
knows the job from the ground up, he is- 
the right man for it 

jt\ abjar 2 obese, corpulent 

,j^£ bajasa u i (bajs) and II to open a 
passage (for the water), cause (the water) 
to flow V and VII to flow freely, pour 
forth copiously, gush out 

( _ r jfi bajs, u ^j~ baps flowing freely, 

mjt baja' (n. un. ») pelican 

Jjtf II to honor, revere, venerate, treat with 
deference (• s.o.), show respect (• to 
s.o.); to give precedence (J* a or • to 
s.o. or over) V to be honored, be 
revered, be venerated 

Jatf bajal syphilis (*>.) 

Jjj^J tabjil veneration, reverence; def- 
erence, respect 

J*w mvbajjal revered, respected; ven- 

jtf bajama i (bajm, rj£ bujum) to be 
speechless, dumfounded 

^ II to clinch (a a nail) 

6 bahha a (bahh, **£■ bahak, -rj£ buhuh, 
?\£- bahdh, *>-j& buhuha, i>-Utf bahaha) 
to be or become hoarse, be raucous, 
husky, harsh (voice) II and IV to make 
hoarse (» s.o.) 

i& buhha hoarseness 

f\ abakh* hoarse 


mabhuh hoarse 


**jt II tabahbaha to be prosperous, live in 
easy circumstances; to enjoy o.s., have 
a good time 

rj^. bahbuh gay, merry 

*>-j^ buhbuha middle; life of ease 
and comfort, prosperity, affluence | J 
j* <>-_^ amidst 

^•w mvbahbah well-to-do, prosperous ; 
enjoying an easy, comfortable life 

C~£ baht pure, unmixed, sheer; exclusive, 
also j* VI c^; l^ fcoAfcrn merely, solely, 
purely, exclusively, nothing but . . . 

j>£ buhtur stocky, pudgy, thickset 

i$J*£- bukivri stocky, pudgy, thickset 

£-4 bahata a (baht) to look, search (* or 
jp for, seek (* or ^; to do 
research; to investigate, examine, study, 
explore (* or ^, less frequently 
with j or J*), look into (* or jc); to 
discuss (a a subject, a question) III to 
discuss (» with b.o., J a question) VI to 
have a discussion, discuss together; to 
confer, have a talk (*. with s.o., J 

•L£- bakt pi. *l>j*i buh&t, Cj\jj£, iUI 
abhdt search (^ for), quest (^ of); 
examination, Btudy ; research ; investi- 
gation, exploration; discussion; treatise; 
(pi. il^l) study, scientific report (j on) 

ti-il^ bahhat pi. -un scholar, research 

4jI^ bahhata eminent scholar 
ut^w mabhat pi. <i^-L. mabahit 2 sub- 
ject, theme, field of investigation or dis- 
cussion, object of research ; research, 
study, examination; investigation 

*i»~L* mubakata pi. -at negotiation, 
parley, conference, talk, discussion 

ti.*-L bdhit pi. -un and iU: buhhdt 
scholar, research worker; examiner, in- 

J&- bahtara to disperse, scatter (*; 
to waste, squander, dissipate (a 
II tabaktara pass, of I 

•j& bahtara waste, dissipation 

jv**~* mubahtir squanderer, wastrel, 

1 J & bahira a to be startled, be bewildered 
(with fright) 

2 j£- II to travel by sea, make a voyage IV do. ; 
to embark, go on board; to put to sea, 
set sail, sail, depart (ship); to go down- 
stream, be sea-bound (ship on the Nile) 
V to penetrate deeply, delve (j into); 
to study thoroughly ( j a subject) X =V 

j& bahr pi. jU: bihdr, jj£ buhur, J&\ 
ubhdr, j£ I abhur sea ; large river ; a 
noble, or great, man (whose magnanim- 
ity or knowledge is comparable to the 
vastness of the sea); meter (poet.) \ j 
j£- in the course of, during, ^iL- _^ j 
(sanatain) in the course of two years, 
within two years ; J*-_jill jjJLj V ' j**Jl 
(abyaa', mutatvasafy) the Mediterranean 
(sometimes shortened to ^ajVI j*-4\)i 
jJiUI ^ b. al-balfiq the Baltic Sea; 
V>^' j£ b. al-janvb the South Seas; 
^V1 j^S\ the Red Sea (also f^Ull _^ 
b. al-qulzum); jj^\ ^ b. al-kazar the 
Caspian Sea (also J LwSOl ^x-Jl); rjj\ j£ the Mediterranean; j^-V1 _^*Ji 
(aswad) the Black Sea ; oLi&l j£ b. 
az-zulumat the Atlantic; J^J j£ b. lu\ 
and c-J.1 j>*^\ (mayyit) the Dead Sea; 
JJI j£ (eg.) the Nile 

j> ^*JI al-bahrain the Bahrein Is- 

Jl_^ bahrdnl of the Bahrein Islands; 
4JjL*Jl al-bahdrina the inhabitants of the 
Bahrein Islands 

,jj£- bahri sea (adj.), marine; maritime; 
nautical; naval; navigational; (in Eg.) 
northern, bahriya (with foil, genit.) north 



of; (pi. -un, *) sailor, seaman, mariner | 
_/**-* iSj* approx.: seaman apprentice 

{Eg.) ; *ij>*$ C>\jH\ {quuxit) the naval 
forces; *j^ oULJ (nabdtdt) marine flora, 
water plants 

iy: bakriya navy 

;^i fioAro pond, pool 

jU^ bahhdr pi. -un, »jl£ fcaAAara sea- 
man, mariner, sailor; pi. SjU crew (of a 
ship, of an airplane) 

ij& buhaira pi. -at, j\£ bakd'ir 2 lake; 
(tun.) vegetable garden, truck garden 

<j\j£- buhrdn crisis {of an illness); cli- 
max, culmination (also, e.g., of ecstasy) 

j»Ji tabahkur deep penetration, delv- 
ing (S ix&o a subject), thorough study 

j*~~» mutabakhir thoroughly familiar 
(j with); profound, erudite, searching, 

jLt bahlaqa: *- 
gaze ( j at) 

jl^ {'aiTMitAt) to stare, 

*£ t' ^ a % ^ a % exce llent! we U done! bravo! 

2 '•£ baJeJca u (bakk) to snore; to spout, 
spurt, squirt (a; to sprinkle, splatter 
((_> a with) 

*>-ljc bajckdka nozzle 

ii-Jc (e^.) bukkejca squirt, syringe 

limj mibakka nozzle 

tlji 6a&( luck; a kind of lottery | c^JI J-ti 
unlucky; c-*JI ■>_>- bad luck 

.^-jc 6afci( lucky, fortunate 

o^i--> mabkut lucky, fortunate 

J& II tabaktara to strut, prance 

jjc II to vaporize, evaporate (a; to 
fumigate (a}; to disinfect (a; 
to perfume with incense, expose to aro- 

matic smoke (a V to evaporate 
(water); to volatilize, turn into smoke or 
haze; to perfume o.s., or be perfumed, 
with incense 

jU: bukar pi. -at, lj£\ abJcira vapor, 
fume; steam 

(£;U: bukari steam (adj.), steam-driven 

j_jjc bajcur incense; frankincense | jy£ 
fj* b. maryam cyclamen (bot.) 

j£\ abkar* suffering from halitosis 

•^>w mibkara pi. _^-L« mabdkii a (also 
■at) censer; thurible; fumigator 

/»J tabklr fumigation 

j^S tabakkur evaporation, vaporiza- 

«_^Ij bdkira pi. j>-\ji baioakir* steamer, 

ljt-ji buwaikira small steamboat 

( _ r Je bakasa a {baka) to decrease, diminish, 
reduce (a; to lessen (e.g., «uJ 
qimatahu the value of ; to disregard, 
neglect, fail to heed (a 

Ij j£ baka too little, too low; very low 

( _ r *-L» bdkta Bmall, little, trifling, un- 

bakMS pi. ^ii^Lii bakdSiS 2 tip, gratuity 

Je. baka a a {bak') with <u- iJ : to kill o.s. 
(with grief, anger, rage) 

jitl abkaq 2 , f. »UuC bajcqd' 2 one-eyed 

Jk bakila a (bakal), bakula u (bukl) to be 
niggardly, be stingy (i_> with, ^ or 
J* with regard to s.o.), scrimp (je-, J* 
s.o., i_> for), stint (i_j in, ^ or J* s.o.), 
withhold (jt, J* from s.o., <_> VI to 
give reluctantly, grudgingly (jc, J* to 
s.o., <j 

JJ£ bukl avarice, cupidity, greed 


JJc bafcll pi. »^ bukald' 2 avaricious, 
greedy; miser, skinflint 

*Uw mablpala oause of avarice, that 
whioh arouses avarice or greed 

jjc 6ufcnu? pi. jiUc bakdniq* kerchief, veil 
(to oover the head) 

.b badda u (badd) to distribute, spread, 
disperse II to divide, distribute, spread, 
scatter, disperse (a; to remove* 
eliminate (*; to waste, squander, 
fritter away, dissipate (a V pass, 
of II; X to be independent, proceed 
independently (*_> in, e.g., in one's opinion, 
i.e., to be opinionated, obstinate, head- 
strong) ; to possess alone, monopolize 
(*_*; to take possession (<~> of s.o.), 
seize, grip, overwhelm, overcome (*-> s.o.; 
said of a feeling, of an impulse) ; to dis- 
pose arbitrarily, highhandedly (<_> of; to rule despotically, tyrannically, 
autocratically (<_* over) 

-u budd way out, escape | jS^ J lil 
ul ^ ^ (bvddun) if it is inevitable 
that . . . ; .b V (budda) definitely, cer- 
tainly, inevitably, without fail; by all 
means ; j* -b 1/ it is necessary, inescapable, 
unavoidable, inevitable, c- *J Jj V he 
simply must do it, he can't get around it; 
M JS* ,> min hitti buddin in any case, at 
any rate 

-bib I abadid* (pi.) scattered 

J*\S tabdid scattering, dispersal, dis 
persion; removal, elimination; waste, 

aI-lU istibddd arbitrariness, high- 
handedness; despotism; autocracy; ab 

^IaJu-I tstibdddi arbitrary, highhand 
ed, autocratic, despotio; oLal^Ju*! istib* 
dddiyat arbitrary acts 

a-L* mubaddid scatterer, disperser 
squanderer, wastrel, spendthrift 

J-i— - muatabidd arbitrary, highhanded, 
autocratic, tyrannical, despotic; auto- 
crat, tyrant, despot | *Aj JJL-. (6t-m'<« 
yihi) opinionated, obstinate, headstrong 

\jj bada'a a (*Xi bad') to begin, start (<~> or 
j with, a; » with s.o.; with 
foil, imperf.: to do or doing 
respectively); to Bet in, begin, start, 
arise, spring up, crop up II to put (a, J* before else), give preced- 
ence or priority (a to, J* over else) III to begin, start ( v, » 
with regard to s.o.), make the first step, 
take the initiative or lead (<-* in, • 
toward s.o.), e.g., fi&l> »]*{» (kalam) to 
accost s.o., speak first to s.o. IV to do or 
produce first (a, bring out (* 
new) | -Uw Uj [gJU L. ma yubdi'u wa-ma 
yu'idu he can't think of a blessed thing 
to say; -l*jj ^.Lj he says or does every- 
thing conceivable VIII to begin, start 
{ v with 

»-b bad" beginning, start | *oJt -L* from 
the (very) beginning; l»JUj Ijj* -i*i (*aw* 
danuxt'bad'an) or*Jjj J* o_j* ('audahu 'aid 
bad*ihi) or »0j Jl I^p {ila bad" in) he did 
it all over again, he began anew 

•1-b bad'a, ^jJb badVa, IAjli btddya 
beginning, start | ^Vl i^-h j in the be- 
ginning, at first 

S.U badSa beginning, start; first step, 
first instance | »-b «*Ijj badd'ata bad"in 
right at the outset, at the very be- 

JIoj bvda'l primitive 

\x r » mabda* pi. ^L. mabadi'* be- 
ginning, start, starting point; basis, foun- 
dation ; principle ; invention ; pi. prin- 
ciples, convictions (of a person); ideology; 
rudiments, fundamental concepts, ele- 
ments j ^iLII t-^5" kutub al-m. elementary 


J4-* mabda'i original, initial; funda- 
mental, basic; LJjl* mabdaiyan origi- 
nally; in principle 

f\xj\ ibtidd* beginning, start; novitiate 
{Chr.) | ,y ♦IoijI ibtidd'an min from, 
beginning ..., as of (with foil, date) 

J|-UjI ibtida'i initial; preparatory, ele- 
mentary, primary ; of first instance (jur.) ; 
original, primitive [ v'-^ **^ (mahr 
kama) court of first instance; jI-UjV' J*d\ 
elementary education; v'-^' *-»jA» (mad* 
rasa) lower grades of a high school, 
approx. : junior high school (as dis- 
tinguished from iijj\j); 3-JIjsjI i-sl^-i (&a* 
Jidda) approx.: junior high school grad- 
uation certificate 

JpL bddi* beginning, starting | _^Vi £plj 
bddi'a l-amr and j-VI tp^ J in the begin- 
ning, at first; &\j\ jjIj j right away, 
without thinking twice, unhesitatingly; 
».u ^j jiL bddi'a d\ bad'in above all, 
first of all, in the first place, primarily; 
•^"i ^iUI al-badi'u dikruhu (the person 
or thing) mentioned at the outset, the 

IfJc-* mubtadi* beginning; beginner; 
novice {Chr.) 

T-U-* mubtada* beginning, start; (gram.) 
subject of a nominal clause 

l jX> badara u to come unexpectedly, by sur- 
prise; to escape (,y> s.o.; e.g., words in 
excitement) III to come to s.o.'s (») 
mind, occur to s.o. (*) all of a sudden, 
strike s.o. (idea, notion) ; to embark, 
enter (Jl upon or set out (Jl to do without delay; to rush, hurry (Jl 
to s.o., to a place); to hurry up (<_j with, Jl jjL with foil, verbal noun: 
to do promptly, without delay, 
hasten to do; to fall upon s.o (») 
with (u>), accost, assail, surprise (l^ • 
s.o. with; e.g., ii-U ?'$£-> ej-sb to 
snap rudely at s.o.); to react, respond (Jl 

to | JpjJI jU£l Jl jilj (injdzi l-wa'd) 
to set out to fulfill a promise VI jiLj 
jmJ}\ Jl (dihn) to suggest itself strongly, 
be obvious ; to appear at first glance as if 
(jl); 01 j^aS Jl j-iLj (dihni) it occurred 
to me all of a sudden that . . . ; -«JJI Jl jaLl 
(fahm) to be immediately understood 
VIII to hurry, rush, hasten (* to); to get 
ahead of s.o. (»), anticipate, forestall 
(» s.o.) | :AJli Uj-UjI before she could say 
a word he exclaimed . . . 

jJj badr pi. jjJj budur full moon 

»jJj badra pi. badarat, jIoj bidar huge 
amount of money (formerly == 10,000 
dirhams) j Jlj*bM olj-U enormous sums 
of money 

j\x> baddri hurry! quick! 

« j j L. mubadara undertaking, enter- 

ajiLj bddira pi. j*\ji bavxidir* herald, 
harbinger, precursor, forerunner, first in- 
dication, sign; unforeseen act; stirring, 
impulse, fit (e.g., of rage); blunder, mis- 
take; jil_^j stirrings, impulses | j*- 5jj>L 
6. Jcairin a good, or generous, impulse 

2 jXj baidar pi. j*Lj bayadir* threshing 

fjj-4 an< l ^jjM (Turk, bodrum) badrum, bad* 
run pi. -at basement 

9Jj bada'a a (bad") to introduce, originate, 
start, do for the first time (*, be the 
first to do (*); to devise, contrive, 
invent (a II to accuse of heresy 
(* s.o.) IV = I; to create (*; to 
achieve unique, excellent results (j in); 
to be amazing, outstanding (j in 
VIII to invent, contrive, devise, think 
up (* X to regard as novel, as 
unprecedented (a 

9--U bad' innovation, novelty; creation) 
taj*j U^U bad" an wa-'audan repeatedly 



9-Oj bid' pi. 5-l-ul a&dd' innovator; new, 
original; unprecedented, novel | f-u V 
la bid'a no wonder! jl f-b "^ &? fitd'a are 
no wonder that . . . ; j* 9Jj else than; 
unlike, different from 

«Jj fitd'a pi. f-b fttda' innovation, 
novelty; heretical doctrine, heresy; pi. 
creations (of fashion, of art) | p-oji J*l 
ahl al-b. heretics 

£-U badl'y f-Oj 6wi* unprecedented, 
marvelous, wonderful, amazing, admira- 
ble, singular, unique; creator | «jjjl ic 
*\lm aZ-6. the art or science of meta- 
phors and (in general) of good style 

*»jjj badl'a pi. »j\x> bada'i' 2 an aston- 
ishing, amazing thing, a marvel, a wonder ; 
original creation 

^yait badTi rhetorical 

f-Ajl abda' % more amazing, more ex- 
ceptional; of even greater originality 

*\ai\ *6da' creation, fashioning, shap- 
ing; a marvelous, unique achievement; 
uniqueness, singularity, originality; crea- 
tive ability 

O^l-i*' ibdd'i romantic (lit.) 

Ov^I-M' ibda'iya romanticism (lit.) 

£0-* mubdi' producing, creating; crea- 
tive; creator; exceptional, unique, out- 
standing (in an achievement, esp. of 
an artist) 

f--tu. mtibtadi' innovator; creator; her- 

i3-L» look up alphabetically 

J-b badala u to replace (<-< a, by), 
exchange (.-> a for) II to change, 
alter (a * to), convert (a a 
into); to substitute (a for, .-» or 
<y, exchange, give in exchange 
(a, wor,}* for); to change (a 
HI to exchange (a • with s.o. IV to 
replace (^ a by), exchange (i_* * 

for else); to compensate (a u • 
s.o. for with else), give s.o. (•) (*) in exchange for (<j) V to change; 
to be exchanged TI to exchange (a, 
also words, views, greetings) X to ex- 
change, receive in exchange, trade, barter 
(<-> a and a «_; for); to replace (a 
»_* and a lj by), substitute (<_j a and 
* >»> for else) 

(J-b badal pi. JUI abdal substitute, 
alternate, replacement; equivalent, com- 
pensation, setoff; reimbursement, rec- 
ompense, allowance; price, rate; (gram.) 
appositional substantive standing for an- 
other substantive | *jJj^-\ Jjj 
allowance for food; X>_jJlJ\ Joj 6. o*- 
safariga travel allowance; iilJL-V' Jaj 
subscription rate ; J^i-JI J-b expense 
account, expense allowance 

Jjj badala (prep.) instead of, m. place 
of, in lieu of 

j- 1/-4 badalan min in place of, in- 
stead of, in lieu of 

SJjb badla pi. badalat, Joj bidal suit 
(of clothes); costume | >^-l iJ.b b. al- 
hammdm bathing suit ; 5-r, <Jaj (fas' 
miya) uniform; SJlu^iS ^Oj (tairifdtiya) 
full-dress uniform 

*J-b badaliya compensation, smart 

JIjj badala (prep.) instead of, U JI.U 
(conj.) instead of {being, doing, etc.) 

JjJj badil pi. »V-b budala' 2 substitute, 
alternate (^p or ^. for); stand-in, double 
(theat.); (f. 5) serving as a replacement or 
substitute | iL-b Ijji* (mafraza) reserve 
detachment (mil.) 

JIjj baddai grocer; money-changer 

ill -b badddla culvert ; pipeline ; tele- 
phone exchange, central 

D JjL* mabadil 2 see Joj 

JjAJ to&cftZ change, alteration 


5J.iL. mvbadala pi. -a( exchange | oV^L. 
ijjljf ((i;anyo) commercial exchange, 
trade relations 

ijljjl ibddl exchange, interchange, re- 
placement («_* by), substitution (^ of); 
change; phonetic change 

Jj_j tabaddul change, shift, turn; 
transformation ; transmutation, conver- 

JiI_J tabddul (mutual) exchange | 
a">LJI JiLJ (. as-saldm exchange of greet- 
ings; ^l^i-'i JjLJ thought transference, 

J 1x1*1 istxbddl exchange, replacement, 

Jx* mvbdih &\i\j^j\ J-u.* 
wdndt automatio record changer 

JjLu mutabadal mutual, reciprocal 

ux baduna u and badana u to be fat, corpu- 

j-U badan pi. (jtjjl abdan, o-bl ofit&m 
body, trunk, torso 

ti-U badani bodily, corporal, physical 

iiloj fiadana corpulence, obesity 

^-u badin pi. (JJj budun stout, cor- 
pulent, fat, obese 

ijjjj buduna corpulence, obesity 

ojL badin pi. ox 6wd» stout, corpulent, 
fat, obese 

•X badaka a to come, descend suddenly (* 
upon s.o.), befall unexpectedly (• s.o.); 
to surprise (» s.o.) with (^>) III to 
appear suddenly, unexpectedly (^ » 
before s.o. with VIII to extem- 
porize, improvise, do offhand, on the 
spur of the moment (a 

a*1x badaka spontaneity, spontaneous 
occurrence, impulse; simple, natural way, 
naturalness, matter-of-factness ; i» Ix badd* 

hatan and ialxJLj all by itself, spontane- 

i^Jj badiha sudden or unex- 
pected ; improvisation ; impulse, inspi- 
ration, spontaneous intuition; intuitive 
understanding or insight, empathy, in- 
stinctive grasp, perceptive faculty | J* 
if-oJI all by itself, spontaneously; off- 
hand; <fjiJ[ j-^U- quick-witted, quick at 
repartee; S^U- i-x presence of mind 

^r X badihi and ^x badahl intuitive ; 
self-evident; a priori (adj.) 

~<~fX* badihiya pi. -at an axiom, a fun- 
damental or self-evident truth; truism, 
commonplace, platitude 

•tfix bacla'ih 2 fundamental or self- 
evident truths 

(jx) lx badd u to appear, show, become 
evident, clear, plain or manifest, come 
to light; to be obvious; to seem good, 
acceptable, proper (J to s.o.) Ill to show, 
display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare 
openly | SjIxJU ^jlj ('addwa) to show 
open hostility IV to disclose, reveal, mani- 
fest, show, display, evince (a; to 
demonstrate, bring out, bring to light, 
make visible {a; to express, utter, 
voice (a | j 4jTj ^xl (ra'yahu) 
to express one's opinion about; lJ.j ^OjI 
(ragbatan) to express a wish or desire 
V = I; to live in the desert VI to pose as 
a Bedouin 

jX badw desert; nomads, Bedouins 

tfj'Xi badawi Bedouin, nomadic; rural 
(as distinguished from urban); a Bed- 

*ij X badawxya pi. -at Bedouin woman, 
Bedouin girl 

Six badak pi. oljJj badawdt whim, 
caprice; ill-humor 

«jlx badawa and biddwa desert life, 
Bedouin life; Bedouinism, nomadism 



•I.U baida' 2 desert, steppe, wilderness, 

»ljjl ibdd* expression, manifestation, 

aL bddin apparent, evident, obvious, 
plain, visible; inhabiting the desert; pi. 
;U bvdah Bedouins 

*j aL bddiya desert, semidesert, steppe ; 
peasantry ; (pi. j Ij> bauwdin) nomads, 

ij 6a^o- « (60^) to get the better of (*), 
beat, am pass (• s.o.) 

Oj bad$, and jL fioid slovenly, untidy, 
shabby, fiHhy, squalid 

Sili badjlda slovenliness, untidiness, 
shabbiness, dirtiness, filth 

IJu fioia'a a to revile, abuse {J* s.o.), rail 
(J* at s.o.); — xii 6od»'a a, j Jj frarfu'a « 
to be obBcen* bawdy 

•^0j badV disgusting, loathsome, nause- 
ous, foul, dirty, obsoene, bawdy, ribald 

•Vxt badd* and !»1Jj badaa obscenity, 
ribaldry, foulness (of language) ; disgust, 
loathing, aversion, contempt 

^jj badaka a to be haughty, proud 

i-Xt badak luxury, pomp, splendor; 
haughtiness, pride 

£iU b&dik pi. ijl^i baw&dik* high, 
lofty; proud, haughty 

jX> badara u {badr) to sow, disseminate (a, seed, also fig. = to spread) II to 
waste, squander, dissipate (a 

j\j badr pi. jjXt budur, j\h bid&r 
seeds, seed; seedling; pi. jjJu pips, pits, 
stones (of fruit) 

»ji badra (n. un.) a seed, a grain; pip, 
pit, stone (of fruit); germ; (fig.) germ 
cell (of a development, and the like) 

j\\i bid&r seedtime 

jXS tafylir waste, squandering, dissi- 

ji— mvbaddir squanderer, wastrel, 

i5Xj look up alphabetically 

Jjj badala » u {badl) to give or spend freely, 
generously (a; to sacrifice (a; 
to expend (a ; to offer, grant (a | 
•04*- Joj (joAda/tu) to take pains; Jij 
li^ff do. ; I^pLi JT JX {kuUa musaadatin) 
to grant every assistance; ,^'—11 JX to 
make efforts; J i*U*Jl Ji to obey s.o., 
defer to s.o.; JU Jf Jij (fcuKa paZin) and 
J=*- J tr - ^^.* *^' ^M *o spare no 
effort, go to any length, give everything, 
pay any price for or in order to; Ji 
*4*-j »L. (nuf a u*/iA»At) to sacrifice one's 
honor; (j'ili jp or) 01W d>>) <«ij JJj to 
sacrifice o.s. for s.o.; 4*-«j Jij (ww'aAfi) 
to do one's utmost, do one's best V to 
fritter away one's fortune, be over- 
generous; to prostitute o.s. (woman); to 
display common, vulgar manners VIII to 
wear out in common service, make trite, 
-vulgar, commonplace, to hackney (a; to abuse (a; to express o.s. 
in a vulgar manner, use vulgar language; 
<Ju JJbl to degrade o.s., demean o.s., 
sacrifice one's dignity 

JJu badl giving, spending; sacrifice, 
surrender, abandonment; expenditure; 
offering, granting 

t}\t badja suit (of clothes) 

J.L. mibdal pi. JiU* mabafiiP slipper; 
pi. JiL* casual clothing worn around 
home I <JSL- j dH so-and-so in his 
private life 

JlJbl ibtid&t triteness, commonness, 
commonplaceness ; banality; debasement, 

Jib b&4U spender 



JJLu mutabaddil vulgar, common 

J-lu* mubtadal trite, hackneyed, banal, 
common, vulgar ; everyday, common- 
place (adj.) 

x j barra {1st pen.' perf. barirtu, barartu) a i 
(birr) to be reverent, dutiful, devoted; 
to be kind (. or i_> to s.o.); to be chari- 
table, beneficent, do good (<_< to s.o.); to 
obey (• s.o., esp. God); to treat with 
reverence, to honor ( v or • the parents) ; 
to be honest, truthful; to be true, valid 
(sworn statement); to keep (<~> a promise, 
an oath) II to warrant, justify, vindicate; 
to acquit, absolve, exonerate, exculpate, 
clear (*, » s.o,, | ■_* <^-j jj (wajhahu) 
to justify o.s. by IV to carry out, fulfill 
(a, a promise, an oath) V to justify 
o.s.; to be justified 

j birr reverence, piety; righteousness, 
probity; godliness, devoutness; kindness; 
charitable gift 

j barr and jb barr pi. jlj-l abrdr and 
Ijj- barara reverent, dutiful (t_> toward), 
devoted (^ to); pious, godly, upright, 
righteous; kind 

ijw mabarra pi. -at and jL. mabdrr 2 
good deed, act of charity, benefaction; 
philanthropic organization; charitable 
institution, home or hospital set up with 
private funds 

j jZ tabrlr justification, vindication 

j\j barr reverent, faithful and devoted; 
see also under j barr above 

jjs* mabrur (accepted into the grace 
of the Lord, i.e.) blessed (said of a 
deceased person) 

jjy mubarrir pi. -at justification; 
excuse | <J jj^ V (mubarrira) unjusti- 

*/ barr land (as opposed to sea), terra firma, 
mainland; open country; \j barran out, 

outside | \j£j \j barran tva-bahran by 
land and sea 

,3 j barri terrestrial, land (adj.); wild 
(of plants and animals) j SJL *jj #jL- 
(sayydra, md'iya) amphibious vehicle 

Ly barriya pi. ijj\j bardriy open 
country; steppe, desert; see also Aj 

J\j barrdni outside, outer, exterior, 
external ; foreign, alien 

3 j burr wheat 

My bara'a a (*j bar 1 ) to create (*, said 
of God) 

»j bar* creation 

"*jj bariya pi. -at, Uj> bardyd creation 
(= that which is created); creature; see 
also V. 

^jUl al-bdri' the Creator (God) 

2 [$j- bari'a a (U\j bard'a) to be or become 
free, be cleared (j* from, esp. from guilt, 
blame, etc., Jl toward s.o.); to recover 
(,y from an illness) II to free, clear, 
acquit, absolve, exculpate (» s.o., ^ from 
suspicion, blame, guilt) | J^-J\ 3*-L* \j 
(sdhata r-rajul) he acquitted the man 
IV to acquit, absolve, discharge, exculpate 
(• s.o.) ; to cause to recover, cure, heal 
(• s.o.) | 4i*i \j\ (dimmatahu) to clear 
s.o. or o.s. from guilt, exonerate s.o. or 
o.s. V to clear o.s. (j- from suspicion, 
from a charge), free o.s. (j- from respon- 
sibility, etc.), rid o.s. (^ of); to declare 
o.s. innocent, wash one's hands (j- of); 
to be acquitted X to restore to health, 
cure, heal (« s.o.); to free o.s. (^ from), 
rid o.s. (j- of) 

»j bur' and *jj buru* convalescence, 

*iSj barV pi. »L^I abriyd' 2 , *\j burn', 
bird' free, exempt (j* from), devoid 
(t> of) ; guiltless, innocent ; guileless, 
harmless; healthy, sound 



*\j hard* free, exempt {,> from) [ 410 
i> *lj* (dimmcrfuM) he is innocent of... 

U\j bar a a being free; disavowal, with- 
drawal; innocence, guiltlessness; naivete^ 
guilelessness, artlessness; (pi. -at) license, 
diploma, patent | fjj^-l **'./ patent on 
an invention; -Li^JI l»\j exequatur {a 
written authorization of a consular officer, 
issued by the government to which he 
is accredited); iiJl u\j b. at-tiqa {Tun.) 
credentials (dipl.) ; l*\j J* harmless ; 
without guilt, innocent 

*Sju tabri'a freeing, exemption; acquit- 
tal, absolution, discharge, exoneration 

•tjL* mubdra'a mubarat, divorce by 
mutual consent of husband and wife, 
either of them waiving all claims by way 
of compensation (Isl. Law) 

»\j\ ibra' acquittal, absolution, release; 
release of a debtor from his liabilities, 
remission of debt (hi. Law) 

»tr^-l iatibrd*: JJ-I »ijc-l iat. al-hamol 
the ceremony of selecting and purifying 
the Host before Mass (Gopt.-Chr.) 

tf'jr'ji baraguw&y Paraguay 

Jj jljJI al-bndzil Brazil 

tSJ^j t (Ft- brasserie) br&aerx beer parlor, 

f\j Prague 

diUI_r (Ft. paravent) baravdn folding screen 

L>lj- bttahmd Brahma 

*ij birba and Jj birbd pi. j\j bardbi 
ancient Egyptian temple, temple ruins 
dating back to ancient Egypt (eg.); 
labyrinth, maze 

jfi-j barbate pi. f\j bardbik 1 water pipe, 
drain, culvert, sewer pipe 

j j barbara to babble noisily (e.g., a large 
crowd), jabber, mutter, prattle 

jj-l\ al-barbar the Berbers 

tfjj barbari Berber (adj.); barbaric, 
uncivilized; — (pi. *j\j barSbira) a 
Berber; a barbarian 

*ij j barbariya barbar(ian)ism, barbar- 
ity, savagery, cruelty 

jjCa mutabarbir barbaric, uncivilized 

j-uj- look up alphabetically 

iJmj barbii (syr.) tube (of a narghile, of an 
enema, etc.) 

]aij barbafa to splash, paddle, dabble (in 

dj>j (It. barbone) barbuni, also Ojtj red 
mullet (Mullus barbatus; zool.) 

tjj see *jj 

^j-mj barbxa barbel (zool.) 

JLwj- burtugdl Portugal 

JUJ_r burtugdli Portuguese 

\}\juj burtuqal, o\mj burtuqdn orange 

Jlijy burtuqdli, JUjj- burtuqdni orange, 
orange- colored 

Ijj burtun pi. ^\j baratin* claw, talon 

*ry V to display, show, play up her charms 
(woman); to adorn herself, make herself 
pretty (woman) 

V-r. our J pl« kjj buruj, r\j\ abrdj tower; 
castle; sign of the zodiac | +\£-\ rj b. 
al-hamdm pigeon house, dovecot ; rj 
•Lit 6. al-miyah water tower 

'*»-jlj bdrija pi. rJy. baicdrij 2 warship, 
battleship; barge 

1 ( _ r -U-jOI ^_-*J la'b al-birjaa a kind of equestrian 
contest, joust, tournament 

a ( _ r x»-jJl ol-birjia Jupiter (ostron.) 

J»-_f barjol pi. J*-ly barajil? compass, (pair 
of) dividers 



~*+j burjuma pi. j-\j bar&jim* knuckle, 
finger joint 

~j bariha a (^Ij- bar&h) to leave (* or ,y a 
place, Jl for), depart (a from, Jl on 
one's way to); with neg.: to continue 
to be (= Jlj) | J rj; L. he is still in ...; 
Li *y U (paniyon) he is still rich; ^j 
•LU-'I (Jfafa?) the matter has come out, 
has beoome generally known; ryj 1j* 
to come and go II to beset, harass, 
trouble, molest (>-* s.o.) Ill to leave 
(a a place, Jl for), depart (a from, Jl on 
one's way to) 

~\j bardh departure; cessation, stop; 
a wide, empty tract of land, vast expanse, 
vastness; U-ly barahan openly and 
plainly, patently 

gjUj tabdrih' agonies, torments (e.g., 
of longing, of passion) 

«^-jL* mubaraha departure 

-yli 6dn'A (showing the left side, i.e.) 
ill-boding, inauspicious, ominous (as 
opposed to ^l-); rjUl al-bdriha yester- 

i^jUl al-barihata yesterday 1 5*-jUI *LJJI 
[lailata) last night; 1»-jU1 Jjl aunuala 
l-b. the day before yesterday, two days 

*-j* mvharrih violent, intense, ex- 
cruciating, agonizing (esp., of pains) 

<i fj\* mubarrah biki stricken, afflicted, 

Vay barada u to be or become cold; to cool, 
cool off (also fig.); to feel cold; to cool, 
chill (*; to soothe, alleviate (* 
pain); — baruda u to be or become cold 
II to make cold (a; to refrigerate 
(a; to cool, chill (*, also fig.); 
to soothe, alleviate (» pain) V to refresh 
0.8., cool o.s. off; to be soothed, be 
alleviated VIII to become cold, cool off 

ij bard coldness, chilliness, coolness; 
cooling; alleviation; cold, catarrh 

>j barad hail, ijy barada (n. un.) 

ajj barud collyrium 

ijj burtid coldness, coolness, chilliness; 
emotional coldness, frigidity 

•*jj buruda coldness, coolness, chil- 
liness ; emotional coldness, frigidity | 
j»JI tijj b. ad-dam cold-bloodedness 

Ai^j bardiya ague, feverish chill; see 
also below 

*\*j btiradd** ague, feverish chill 

•i\j barrdda cold-storage plant; re- 
frigerator, icebox 

Juju tabrid cooling, chilling; cold 
storage, refrigeration ; alleviation, mit- 
igation | -u>JI jl+r jahaz at-t. cold- 
storage plant, refrigerator ; Oj jdl ii^i 
gurfat at-t. cold-storage room 

ijL barid cold ; cool, chilly ; easy ; 
weak; stupid, inane, silly, dull; dunce, 
blockhead | UjU\ ^>l (harb) the cold 
war; ojU 1*-^. an easy prey; jjIj J^* 
( f aiS) an easy life; ojb it (hujja) a weak 
argument; ijb iJ (tibg) light, mild to- 

zjv mvbarrid cooling, refreshing; pi. 
•at refreshments (beverages, etc.) 

jjw mvbarrad cooled, chilled 
l *j barada u to file (a a piece of metal, etc.) 
jly barrdd fitter (of machinery) 
*}\j birada fitter's trade or work 
*jly burdda iron filings 
sj\* mibrad pi. jjL* mabdrid 2 file, rasp 

■i^ burd pi. s\j\ abrdd garment 

lij burda Mohammed's outer garment 
Lliy burddya curtain, drape 



*>j- IV to send by mail, to mail (a a letter) 

x>_j barid poet, mail | ^^-1 Ap jJ! (jawivi) 
air mail 

jOjj- fearfcfi postal; messenger, courier; 

*ijjb look up alphabetically 

'ji_r Jwrrfi, burdi papyrus (6o(.) 

SjV. &o»*diya pi. -at papyrus | ob jjJl 1* 
't/m aJ-6. papyrology 

iSlij; bardaq pi. Jj^Iy barddiq* jug, pitcher 

£>jJI t-J Ia'6 aJ-6. bridge (game) 

£jy bardaka to polish, burnish (a 

iAj"/ bwdaq&S (= jiy^) marjoram 

•jjj^r (Fr. ftorrfure) fcardtfra curbstone, curb 

Sfti_r barda'a pi. £il^_ iani^' 1 saddle, pack- 
saddle (for donkeys and camels) 

^iij- barddi'i maker of donkey sad- 
dles, saddler 

iij'*j btrdaun pi. ^ ilj- frard^tn 1 work horse, 
jade, nag 

l jj baraza u to come out, show, appear, come 
into view, emerge; to jut out, protrude, 
stand out, be prominent (also fig.); to 
surpass, excel (J» s.o.) II to cause to 
come out, bring out, expose, show, set 
off, accentuate (a; to excel, surpass 
(j J* s.o. in), stand out (j for), dis- 
tinguish o.s. (j by) III to meet in 
combat or duel (• s.o.); to compete in a 
contest (■ with s.o.) IV to cause to come 
out, bring out, expose, make manifest 
(a; to publish, bring out (a a book, 
etc.); to present, show (a e.g., an identity 
card) T to evacuate the bowels VI to vie, 

jjj bur&z prominence, projection, 

J I j- birdz excrement, feoes; competi- 
tion, contest, match (in sports) ; duel 

~*'jj buraiza (birSza; eg.) ten-piaster 

jy I abraz* more marked, more distinc- 
tive; more prominent 

•jjL* mttbtiraza competition, contest, 
match, esp. in sports; duel; fencing 

J I j- 1 ibr&z bringing out, displaying, 
setting off, accentuation ; production ; 

Jjb b&riz protruding, projecting, sa- 
lient; raised, embossed, in relief; marked, 
distinct, conspicuous ; prominent (per- 

jjv. mubarriz surpassing (J* s.o.), 
superior (J* to s.o.); winner, victor (in 

JjL. mub&riz competitor, contender; 
combatant, fighter; fencer 

*> j t (Ft- prise) briz pi. -at (plug) socket, wall 
plug, outlet (syr.); \jj bariza pi. 'J\j 
bariTiz* do. (eg.) 

*'jy) look up alphabetically 

4 jlj^ barazdn trumpet 

£jj barzaJf pi. j-jlj. bar&zik? interval, gap, 
break, partition, bar, obstruction; isth- 

Jjjj burzuq sidewalk 

l A»j birs&m pleurisy 

*f-tj} look up alphabetically 

9 f^j biraim olover, specif., berseem, Egyp- 
tian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.; 

l J.j buri-p\. J.\j\ abr&S mat 

J-j\ obraS* spotted, speckled 



% <J.j \ look up alphabetically 

c~2-j biriit: c~*j ,j*~> (bai$) soft-boiled 

Ai^LS^ barHldna Barcelona (seaport in NE 

J. j barSama to stare, gaze (Jl at; to 
rivet (> 

~*pj barSama riveting 

Aij t burtem and oLij; (n. un. •) pi. -at 
wafer; Host (Chr.) 

ltLij> burSama rivet 

^ lij- 6«ridmj» riveter 

is^Jv burSamjiya riveting 

X sj*j bari#a a (bara$) to be a leper 

^j burp wall gecko (Tarentola mau- 
ritanica, tool.) 
^j baraf leprosy 

ij+j -\ abrap 2 leprous; leper | ,j*j) pL-* 
8&mm a. wall gecko 

K^j burfa stock exchange 

^j baratfa u {^jj burv4) to germinate, 
Bprout (plant) 

jj*j barfuz: *ij»*)\ J^y, &• al-bahtiya fore- 
castle, crew quarters (on a merchant 

*U_r barfa'a (**bj barfa'a) to gallop 

$»j barfala (ULU^ barfala) to bribe (» s.o.) 
II tabarfala to take bribes, be venal 
JJ»_r birfil pi. J^ly barofi/ 8 bribe 

1 ]*j barfama to rave, talk irrationally 

(•jUy burfUm, barfum trunk of an 

2 jUty barfaman pi. -5/ (*yr., eff.) tall earthen 

or glass vessel (for preserves, oil, etc.) 

fj bar a' a a to surpass, excel (• s.o.); (also 
baru'a u) to distinguish o.s., be skillful, 

proficient V to contribute, give, donate 
(u-«; to undertake (voluntarily, vr>, volunteer (<-» for), be prepared, 
willing (w to do; to be ready, be 
on hand (ij with) 

\e\j ftaro'a skill, proficiency; efficiency, 
capabihty, capacity 

\*jj bwriCa superior skill, outstanding 


f-jo tabarru' pi. -<U gift, donation; 


f-jL fcdrt' skilled, skillful, proficient, 
capable, efficient; brilliant, outstanding 

(work of art) 

fj bar'ama to bud, burgeon, sprout 

-c_r bur'um pi. Aj bard'im* and rjtj 
bur'um pi. -ply barS'im 1 bud, burgeon; 
blossom, flower 

t>y.j burgut -pi. £~±\j daraj7ig* flea; pi. £-*!./ 
(*yr.) small silver coins | jj*JI »i>>*/ b. 
al-bakr shrimp (zool.) 

Jj-j bargaS (coll.; n. un. 5) gnat(s), midge(s) 

Jpy burgul cooked, parched and crushed 
wheat, served together with other food 
(eg., syr.) 

J. j (Turk. J.JJ* bur§y) burgi pi. J.\j t 
baragi screw 

jij birfir pi. yjly barafir 2 purple 

iij y look up alphabetically 

l 3j fearo^a u to shine, glitter, sparkle, flash j 
•IJI cjj; (samd'u) there was lightning 
IV = I; to emit bolts of lightning 
(cloud); to flash up, light up; to brighten 
(face); to cable, wire, telegraph (Jl to) 

3 j barq pi. 3jj buruq lightning; flash 
of lightning ; ielegraph | t_~U 3j t (kullab) 
lightning without a downpour, used fig., 
e.g., of s.o. given to making promises 
without ever living up to them 


j y barqi telegraphic, telegraph- (in 

tij barqlya pi. -at telegram, wire, 

Jis bariq pi. jJlj- bard'iq 2 glitter, 

shine, gloss, luster [ Jo*, jj^ ji (ma'- 

dint) lustered, coated with metallic 

3\j buraq Alborak, name of the 
creature on which Mohammed made his 
ascension to the seven heavens (r'./*») 

Jly barrdq shining, lustrous, spar- 
kling, flashing, glittering, twinkling 

J>. mabraq glitter, flash | ^Jl 3jf J 
/* m. i$-subh with the first rays of the 
morning sun 

jjL bariq: J^VI jjb b. al-amal 
glimpse of hope 

iijlj bdriqa pi. 3j\jt baivariq 2 gleam, 

3jy mubriq: ._JEf 3j* teletype 

a i*^Jl al-barqa Cyrenaica (region of E Libya) 

3 Jij-.l look up alphabetically 

*jjo-1 look up alphabetical^' 

| c^J barqasa {<Z$j barqaSa) to variegate, 

paint or daub with many colors (a; to embellish (a; <Jji one's 
speech) II tabarqaSa reflex, and pass, of I 

J^j birqis finch 

liij- barqasa colorful medley, variety, 

ijijy mxtbarqas colorful, variegated, 
many- colored 

sSj barqa'a to veil, drape (a, • s.o., 
II tabarqa'a to put on a veil, veil o.s. 

£jj- burqu' pi. «jlj< bardqi'* veil (worn 
by women; long, leaving the eyes exposed) 

<3_jJ_/ barq-uq (coll.; n. un. ») plum 

x iJy baraka u to kneel down II and IV to 
make (a the camel) kneel down II to 
invoke a blessing (J* or J on, J 
on s.o.) Ill to bless (j or • s.o., also J 
or J*), invoke a blessing on; to give 
one's blessing (a to, sanction 
(a V to be blessed (._> by); to enjoy 
<<_>, find pleasure, delight (^ in); 
to ask s.o.'s (^>) blessing VI to be blessed, 
be praised ; . . . iijL" tabaraka . . . God 
bless . . . ! X to be blessed 

«T/ birka pi. i\j birak pond, small 
lake; puddle, pool | IU-LJI *T, 6. as- 
sibaha swimming pool 

*T/ baraka pi. -at blessing, benediction | 
o^JI ii» qillat al-b, misfortune, bad luck 

ilj-l abrak 2 more blessed 

d^jy tabrik pi. -at good wish; blessing, 

iJjL. mubarak blessed, fortunate, lucky 
z ^jl/ bardrik 2 (mor.) barracks 
JCj birkar compass, (pair of) dividers 
ulT/ burkun pi. {j&"\j barakin 2 volcano 

J IT/ burkanl volcanic 
jLly 6artoin3n parliament 

Jlij- frarJamdm parliamentary 

*-jUj- finrJamoniya parliamentarianism 

^Jj (It. fcrtWante) 6riZ/an(* brilliant, dia- 

,>Jy frarlin Berlin 

1 ("j- fianma a (ftaram) to be or become 
weary, tired {^ of), be fed up, be bored 
(t_i with), find annoying, wearisome (i_> V to feel annoyed (<-« by), be dis- 
pleased (t-» with); to be fed up (<^> with), 
be sick and tired (i_> of, also ,y); to be 
impatient, discontented, dissatisfied; to 
grieve, be pained 


*j barim weary, tired (._> of), dis- 
gusted (l-» at, with) ; dissatisfied, dis- 

aju tabarrum weariness, boredom, dis- 
gust; discontent, dissatisfaction; uneasi- 
ness, discomfort, annoyance 

*j*z* mutabarrim cross, peevish, vexed, 

2 *j barama u (barm) to twist, twine (a a 
rope); to shape (a rourid and long; 
to roll up (a the sleeves) ; to settle, 
establish, confirm (a IV to twist, 
twine (a a rope); to settle, establish, 
confirm (a; to conclude (a a pact); 
to confirm (a a judicial judgment); to 
ratify (a a treaty, a bill) VII to be set- 
tled, be established, be confirmed; to be 
twisted, be twined 

<*\j barrama pi. -at drilling machine 

fj barim rope; string, cord, twine 

<t j barrima pi. -at drill, borer, gimlet, 
auger, bit; O corkscrew 

O *i* j barrimlya spirochete 

>lj- 1 ibram settlement, establishment; 
confirmation; conclusion (of a pact, etc.); 
ratification | fly^lj .j^iJI *£* makkamat 
an-naq4 wa-l-i. Court of Cassation (Eg.) 

fjj* mabrum: O (jj? tiJi— (silk) wire 
rope, cable 

fj\* mubram firm, strong; irrevocable, 
definitely established ; confirmed, rati- 
fied | f_?u »Li* (qada) inescapable fate; 
i.^w »jj~*i irrevocably 

2 ~<tj burma pi. *j buram, *\j biram earthen- 
ware pot 

Lj* burma Burma 

jU/ barma'i amphibious | *J\*j -jIjj (dab* 
baha) amphibious tank (mil.) 

O V-j- barma'iya amphibian 

cJJl*j (Engl.) barmanant permanent wave | 
jjUl J* cJjLj cold wave (in hair) 

J. j barmaq pi. jJ j bardmiq 2 baluster ; 
spike (of a wheel} 

olf.y baramhdt the seventh month of the 
Coptic calendar 

fljSojy Birmingham 

asyj barmuda the eighth month of the Coptic 

J-jy barmil pi. J-Jj- baramll 2 barrel; keg, 
cask; tun 

4-jj bamiya pi. ij\j baranly clay vessel 

*\ij barndmaj pi. *\j baramij 2 program, 
plan, schedule; roster, list, index; cur- 

jJjCy burunjuk gauze, crepe 

1 1 _ r J_r burnus pi. ,j-il./ baranis 2 (also ^-yj 
bamus, burnus pi. jj-wly baranis 2 ) bur- 
noose, hooded cloak; casula, chasuble 

(of Coptic priests) 
kammdm bathrobe 

fl^ 1 ir-j/ b - al - 

(jJ'j- baraniax pi. -lya maker of bur- 

2 ( jJi^JI JL>- jibal al-baranis the Pyrenees 

a lJ ~ij brins prince 

i-jL-Jj- brinsesa princess 

Jajy II tabarnafa to wear a hat 

iLJy burnaita pi. -d(, -la^ly frarantf* 
(European) hat (men's and women's); 
lamp shade 

aaj- burha pi. burahat, tj burah a while, a 
time ; short time ; instant, moment ; 
<*j burhatan a little while | Cr^j ■*** 
(after two moments =) in a short time 

□ ±j bar?tam (syr.) = j>j* marham 

j>/ barahman pi. 5**!^ barahima Brahman 


<~*j barahmiya Brahmanism 

jV barhana to prove, demonstrate (J* or 


jUy burhan pi. t>*ly feardAin 1 proof 

aUj- barhana proving, demonstration 

•jj t barwa waste, scrap 

JJU-Jjj- brotostanti Protestant; (pi. -tin) a 

*-«U-J,.r brotostantlya Protestantism 

jz-ijj t (It. prote&to) brotostS protest (of a bill 
of exchange) 

6_£?jj brotoksl protocol 

Oyjj brOtSn proton 

fL*"J/ brogr&m program 

tjrjj bxtrujl pi. -iya trumpeter, bugler 

jjj barwaza to frame 

jljy barwdz, birwdz pi. yj\j bardxviz 1 

W*J./ (It. Prussia) burusiya Prussia 
tfjj burusi Prussian 

Xjj and *jj (It. prow) brdva, br6fa pi. -&t 
test, experiment; proof sheet; rehearsal 

jjj t (Fr.) bronz bronze 

tSJJJ, bronzi bronze, bronzy | ^^Jl 
tS'jjjj\ ('<V) the Bronze Age 

l $j t bard % (bary) to trim, shape (a, nib 
(a a pen), sharpen (a a pencil); to scratch 
off, scrape off (a; to exhaust, tire 
out, wear out, emaciate, enervate (• s.o.), 
sap the strength of (•) III to vie, com- 
pete (• with s.o.), try to outstrip (• s.o.) 
VI to vie, compete, contend, be rivals; 
to meet in a contest, try each others 
strength (esp. in games and sports) VII to 
be trimmed, be nibbed, be sharpened; 
to defy, oppose (J s.o.); to undertake, 

take in hand (J, set out to do 
(J), enter, embark (J upon); to break 
forth (j* from); to get going; to break 
out, let fly, explode (with words, esp. 
in anger or excitement) 

,jj baran dust, earth 

<Aj batr&ya, p)3i\ iAj 6. al-aql&m 
pencil Bharpener 

;ij%* mibrdh pocket knife 

;l,jL. mubdrSh pi. C^L jL. mub&rayat con- 
test, tournament, matoh (in games and 
sports); competition, rivalry 

jU : L^jL (jxjAJl .LpI a'fi l-qausa b&» 
riyahd give the bow to h\n\ who knows 
how to shape it, i.e., always ask an 

jLi* mutab&rin participant in a con- 
test, contestant, contender; competitor, 

r *ij see Aj t and *j 

UUajy barifdniyd, birif&niyd Britain, LilL^r 
(jJiJI {uzmS) Great Britain 

JlLjj- barifani, birifant British; Bri- 

l j- baxza u (bazz) to take away, steal, wrest, 
snatch (a * from s.o., rob, strip 
(a » s.o. of; to defeat, beat, out- 
strip, excel (* s.o.), triumph, be vic- 
torious (. over) VIII to take away, steal, 
pilfer (a; to take away, snatch 
(a money, j- from s.o.); to rob, fleece 
(• s.o.) | ,j*Ul Jt^.1 jwl to lift money out 
of people's pockets, relieve people of 
their money 

jljwl ibtizdz theft, robbery; fleecing, 
robbing (of s.o.) 

1 j baxza u to bud, burgeon 

j buzz, bizz pi. jlj. bizdz, jl>l abzaz 
nipple, mammilla (of the female breast); 
teat, female breast 


*y bazz pi. jj'j buzuz linen; cloth, dry goods 

»_> bizza clothing, clothes, attire; uni- 
form | IjTj »j (rasmlya) uniform 

jl> bazzdz draper, cloth merchant 

»j\y bizdza cloth trade 
jjij bazbuz pi. >jl> bazdbli* nozzle, spout 
j j bazar a * (bazr) to sow 

jj bizr pi. jjj buzftr seed(s); pi. jl j\ 
abzar and./ j LI abdzir 2 spice 

»jj bizra (n. un.) seed; kernel, pip, 
pit, stone (of fruit); germ 

jl> bazzdr seedsman 

»jj buzaira pi. -at spore {bot.) 

'fj bazaga u to break forth, come out; to 
dawn (day) ; to rise (sun) 

'fjj buzug appearance, emergence ; 
rise (of the sun) 

3 j bazaqa u (bazq) to spit 

Jl> buzaq Bpit, spittle, saliva 

*i\j bazzaqa snail; cobra 

~£y* mibzaqa pi. jjL. mabdziq 2 spittoon, 

*J y bazala u (bazl) to split (a; to pierce 
(a, make a hole (a in); to tap, 
broach (a; a cask); to puncture, 
tap (« s.o.; med.); to clear, filter (a a 

J> bazl puncture, tapping, paracentesis 

J I J- buzdl bung (of a cask) 

Jj« mibzal pi. JjL. mabazil* spile, 
spigot, tap; cock, faucet 

a <J> (It. piadli) biziUa and V_> green peas 

fj\ ibzim pi. f jL»l abazlrn 9 buckle, clasp 

Cjjaj bizmffi bismuth 

Jsij; bizanfi Byzantine 

jU bazin pi. «l> buzdh, j\jt batodzin, jlju 
&fzan falcon 

j-j bass and Lj 6045a pi. ^Lj 6wew cat 

Lj 6o*o*a a t*^ 6cw') to treat amicably 
(i~* s.o.); to be intimate, be on familiar 
terms {o> with) 

LIjLj besardbiyd Bessarabia 

(j-L-j basb&s, 1-L_j &ew6<wa (egr.) mace (dot.); 
(moffr.) fennel 

L-j--j basbusa {eg.) pastry made of 
flour, melted butter, sugar and oil 

(Fr.) baatlliya pastilles, lozenges 
1 jlr-j bustdn pi. ,>TLj basdtin* garden 

jli-j bustani gardener; garden (adj.); 

oU_j 6(wto7Wi gardening, horticulture 

8 j_ji-j (Fr. j)t^OTt) bisWn, (jT-j (Engl.) fet'sfem 
pi. ^.Lj basatin 2 piston 

S ti>i-J (It. bastone) bastuni spades (suit of 
playing cards) 

<iuj bojjjfca Easter; Passion Week (fihr.) 

j~i basara u (jj~ > busur) to scowl, frown; — 
basara u (boar) and VIII to begin too 
early (a with), take premature action, 
be rash (a in 

j~> buar (n. un. •) pi. jLj bisdr unripe 

j_yli bdsur pi. jw(_jj batvdsir 3 hemor- 

J*-j basafa u (basf) to spread, spread out 
(a; to level, flatten (a; to 
enlarge, expand (a; to stretch out, 
extend (a ; to unfold, unroll (a ; 
to grant, offer, present (a; to sub- 
mit, state, set forth, expound, explain 
(a, J or J* to s.o.); to flog (0 s.o.; 
Nejd); to please, delight (• s.o.) | I--; 
4-e-lji (dird'aihi) to spread one's arms; 


J ;.ul«il -U J*«j (yada l-musa'ada) to ex- 
tend a helping hand to 8.0.; Ujlli U , ; 
to lay the table; — baauta u (itl—j ba* 
safa) to be simple, openhearted, frank, 
candid II to spread, spread out, extend, 
expand (*; to level, flatten (*; to simplify, make simple (* 
Ill to set forth, state, expound, explain; 
to be sincere (<_* • with s.o. about or in, confess frankly (<_> « to s.o. 
V to be spread, be unrolled, be spread 
out, be extended; to speak at great 
length (J about), enlarge (j on), treat 
exhaustively, expound in detail (j a 
theme); to be friendly, communicative, 
sociable, behave unceremoniously, be 
completely at ease | ij-U-l J l»->* to 
talk freely, without formality VII to 
spread, extend, expand (intr.); to be glad, 
be delighted, be or become happy 

Ja_j baaf extension, spreading, un- 
rolling, unfolding; presentation, state- 
ment, explanation, exposition; cheering, 
delighting, delectation; amusement; (Eg.) 
numerator (of a fraction) | oJI .k-j 6. 
al-yad avarice, greed, cupidity 

«k_j baafa extension, extent, expanse; 
size, magnitude; skill, capability, abili- 
ties; excess, abundance; (pi. -&t) state- 
ment, exposition, presentation; — (pi. 
J*Lj biadf) landing (of a staircase); es- 
trade, dais, platform (eg.) 

J»Lj biadf pi. -at, «L-jI abaifa, U-; 
busuf carpet, rug | *r-J\ i»Lj 6. ar-rahma 
winding sheet, shroud; *JL*» (*~ij or) r-Jk 
ti^-Jl .ULj J* (mas'alatan., baht) to raise a 
question, bring a question on the carpet, 
also iiSUil ^L-j J* (6. il-munaqaSa) for dis- 
cussion; 4-i Lc J*LJl gj* to bring the mat- 
ter to an end, settle it once and for all 

Jeu-j basip pi. »LL-j busafd' 2 simple; 
plain, uncomplicated; slight, little, mod- 
est, inconsiderable, trivial, trifling; Ja™, Jl 
name of a poetical meter; pi. -I U . * 

simple souls, ingenuous people | ^ oJI .L-.J 
b. al-yadain (pi. J«-_j busuf) generous, 

iU-— Jl cd-basita the earth, the world 
J*JLj basd'if 3 elements; simple rem- 
edies, medicinal plants; basic facts 

ikL-j basdfa simplicity, plainness 

O &j— 1\ ubsilta pi. -U--LI abasit* rim, 
felly (of a wheel) 

Ja— jl absaf 2 simpler; wider, more ex- 

Ja_-o tabsll simplification 

JoUwl inbia&p (n. vie. 3) extensity, ex- 
tensiveness, extension ; expansion, ex- 
panse; joy, delight, happiness, gaiety, 

*k-L 4-Lip 'adala baaita extensor (anof.) 

J*j~x. mabsuf extended, outstretched; 
spread out; extensive, large, sizeable; 
detailed, elaborate (book) ; cheerful, 
k&PPy. gay: feeling well, in good health; 
{tun.) well-to-do 

muwbasit extending, spreading; 
gay, happy, cheerful; level surface 

<*J*~i (Turk.) basturma a kind of jerked, 
salted meat (eg.) 

jji-JI al-busfUr the Bosporus 

J-j basaqa u (j^-j busuq) to be high, tall, 
lofty, towering; to excel, surpass {• or 
Jp s.o.) 

J-L basiq high, tall, lofty, towering 

J— t. mubsiq high, tall, lofty, towering 

cJ^-j (Ft. bicyclette) biskilet, buskilM bicycle 

£jj&mi (It. fitscoflo) baskut biscuit 

Cj_j^-j baskawlt biscuit 

1 J-j baaula u (iJL. j 6aad/a) to be brave, 
fearless, intrepid V to scowl, glower X to 
be reckless, defy death 

UL-j basdla courage, intrepidity 

Jl_c*l istibs&l death defiance 

J^L 6d«tZ pi. »^A-j 6i«aM'", J-I,>i feauxi- 
eiP brave, fearless, intrepid 

J—fL- * mustabsil death-defying, heroic 
**Lj 6t«tUa peas 
_j basama i (basm), V and VIII to smile 

i*_j ba&ma pi. basamdt smile 

*l_j 6o**im smiling 

—w mabaim pi. -- L* ma6<M»m a mouth ; 
mouthpiece, holder (for cigars, cigarettes, 

»Lil tttodm and (n. vie.) i.Lil pi. 
-a* smile 

J.„; ba«Tna2a to utter the invocation 

e*-J\ &~J\ ^ /-* "* n *^ e name °^ ^od, 
the Benificent, the Merciful" 

^1 , , - , < basmala utterance of the above 
invocation; the invocation itself 

<^-j busaina kitty 

j»jlj$L-* jaikolGji paychologic( al) 

^ baiSa a (ba$$, Ul£j ba&aSa) to display a 
friendly, cheerful, happy mien; to smile; 
to be friendly (J to s.o.), give s.o. (J) 
a smile 

J.jLi_ baSuS, jSlij baSSdi smiling, 
friendly, cheerful 

Hilt bai&Sa smile; happy mien 

jSL baiS smiling, happy; friendly, kind 

C-1j buSt (Nejd, Bahr., Ir.) a kind of cloak, 
= mL* 'o&d'a 

*-,*» fe»#a (e^.) woolen cloak worn by 
Egyptian peasants 

^ baSara i, ba-Hra a to rejoice, be delighted, 
be happy (<-> at II to announce 
(as good news; <-* • to s.o.; to 
bring news (<_> * to s.o. of ; to spread, 

propagate, preach (t-*; a religion, 
a doctrine) | *_> *— «j ^Jij (na/*oAfi) to 
indulge in the happy hope that ... IV to 
rej oice (at good news) X to rej oioe , 
be delighted, be happy (o» at, esp. 
at good news], welcome (*-*; to 
take as a good omen ( v 1 1 j*- *t ^-i*i-l 
(kairan) to regard as auspicious 

j±i biir joy 

j±i buSr glad tidings 

iZjii buSrd glad tidings, good newB 

3jL1j biS&ra pi. -Si, yli> baia'ii* good 
news, glad tidings; annunciation, proph- 
ecy; gospel; Jiti good omens, propitious 
signs | *j LiJI x# 'id al-b. the Annunciation, 
the Day of Our Lady {Ckr.) 

j*Jj baSir pi. *\ji* buSartf* bringer of 
glad tidings, messenger, herald, har- 
binger, forerunner, precursor; evangelist 


_r±u tabHr announcement (of glad 
tidings); preaching of the Gospel; evan- 
gelization, missionary activity 

<js±>j tabRri missionary 

/U tabdSir* foretokens, prognostics, 
omens, first signs or indications, heralds 
(fig.); beginnings, dawn | j»*j&\ _£-M '• 
al-fajr the first shimmer of aurora, the 
first glimpse of dawn 

Jx. mvba&Sir pi. -lift announcer, mes- 
senger (of glad tidings) ; evangelist (Chr,); 
preacher; missionary (Chr.) 

^,V.„- mitstab&ir happy, cheerful 

Jj baSara u to peel (a; to scrape off, 
shave off, Bcratch off (a; to grate, 
shred (a Ill to touch (a, 
be in direct contact (* with; to 
have sexual intercourse ( * with s.o. ) ; 
to attend, apply o.s. (a or ^ to, 
take up, take in hand, pursue, practice, 
carry out (a, a job, a task, eto.) 


j±i baiar man, human being; men, 

gjij baiari human ; human being ; 
epidermal, skin (adj.) | ^^Jj ^xX der- 

ijii baiara outer skin, epidermis, ou- 
ticle; skin; complexion 

iijjj baiariya mankind, human race 

•j-i** mib&ara pi. _^ L. mabd&ir* scraper, 

•y^L* mwMiora pursuit, practice; di- 
rect, physical cause (Id. Law) ; rnubd* 
faratan immediately, directly 

jjZj* mabSur : •j^tx- i-*- (jubna) 
shredded cheese 

j^L. mu&ditr pi. -fin direct, immediate 
practitioner, pursuer, operator; director 
O manager (Eg.); court usher (Syr.) 
(mil.) approz.: staff sergeant (Eg. 1939) j 
j^L* j± indirect; S^L* oLL»1 (t^dUU) 
direct hits 

fj>jj^i baSaruS flamingo 

*Jj 6ait r a a (ieLij oa&Ta) to be ugly, loath- 
some II to make ugly, disfigure, distort 
(a; to disparage, run down (m 
X to regard as ugly, find ugly or re- 
pugnant (a 

£~t bait' ugly; offensive, disgusting, 
distasteful, repugnant ; unpleasant 

*-!* bait' ugly; offensive, diBguBting, 
distasteful, repugnant; unpleasant 

ULSj Aa£Ta ugliness 

*Jti\ abia' % uglier; more repulsive 
l ji\t look up alphabetically 
**i£j (eg.; Turk. ftoffca; invar.) different 
Jilt Yin to lie, prevaricate 

ilL±j baiidk liar 

iJLijjl i6(tioi lie, deceit, trickery 

1 J- jS11j baikur pi. j*T Lij ftoio/fctr 2 poker, fire 

a j^lij fco^fctr pi. j*TLtj froiafcir' towel 

*l£j (It.) btiiUa pi. -dJ bacillus 

-£j baSima a (baSam) to feel nauseated, be 
disgusted (j- by, be fed up (^ 
with) IV to nauseate, sicken, disgust 
(. s.o.) 

pit baiam surfeit, satiety, loathing, 

jUi) baim&r (tun.) lacework, trimmings 

tfjtlLi baSdmirl (tun.) laceworker, lace- 

J*ij bafonaq Blipper (worn by fuqaha and 

<Jj baina (magr.) sorghum, millet 

l>r JUj baians the ninth month of the Coptic 

<ij^±i bainuqa pi. J-JLij baSdniq 2 kerchief 
tied under the chin (pal.) 

,joJj bahiin lotus 

^ bappa i (ba&, ,j+~+i ba$i?) to glow, 
sparkle, glitter, shine; • — (eg.) u to look 
<*oj bappa embers 

j*5«aj ba#i$ glow, shine; glimpse, ray 
(e.g., of hope); lustrous, shining 

^Uo bappdf lustrous, shining; (eg.) 
spy, detective 

bofbafa (<**~*i bofiba$a) to wag (*J.L 
6t-(£anaAiAi its tail); (eg.) to ogle, make 
sheep's eyes, cast amorous glances 

ai baska see ii— j 

«j fiopura u, &a*»ra a (6apar) to look, see; to 
realize, understand, comprehend, grasp 
(<~> II to make (* s.o.) see, under- 
stand or realize (a or <_>, make 
(• s.o.) aware (* or <~> of; to en- 


lighten (a » or »_> • a.o. on or as to; 
to tell, inform (» • or u i s.o. about) 
IV to see (a, * s.o.,; to make out, 
behold, perceive, discern, notice (a, * 
s.o.,, set eyes on (a, *), catch sight 
of (a, •); to recognize (a, * s.o.,; to 
reflect (v on), ponder («-» V to 
look (a at), regard (a; to reflect 
(j on, ponder (j X to 
have the faculty of visual perception, 
be able to see; to be endowed with 
reason, be rational, reasonable, in- 
telligent; to reflect (j on, ponder 

_,*> bapar pi. jL*jI ab$ar vision, eye- 
sight; glance, look; insight; Bight, dis- 
cernment, perception | j*J\ j-** short- 
sighted, myopic; ^^-Jl ^L lamh al-b, 
glance of the eye; -r «JI £*, y^' r}- <i» 
j^\ ^l Ojj (duna), j*J\ gL ,>• Jil j 
{aqalla) in the twinkling of an eye, in 
a moment, in a flash, instantly; ^x» J* 
j**J\ (mada) within sight; i_> ^mi J he 
is knowledgeable in, he is familiar with 

tSj*** ba#ari optic(al), visual, ocular 

oLy^u bafriy&t optics 

•jUti baffira perception, discernment; 
perspicacity, acuteness of the mind, 
sharp- wittedness 

>4) 6o0ir pi. tSj^i bupard' 2 endowed 
with eyesight ; acutely aware (<_* of), 
having insight (.-> into) ; possessing knowl- 
edge or understanding (^ of), dis- 
cerning, discriminating, versed, knowl- 
edgeable, proficient (<_• in), acquainted 
(ij with 

Sjw*j ba&ra pi. Jl** bafcPir 2 (keen) 
insight, penetration, discernment, under- 
standing, (power of) mental perception, 
mental vision | *j*-*J {f- deUberately, 
knowingly; j- Jjwu J* olT to have 
insight into, be informed about; ijwtJ! iiU discerning, clear-sighted, 

perspicacious, sharp-witted; SjwJI ilii 
nafs4al.-b. sharp discernment, perspicac- 

_ r <ol o&tfar 1 more discerning 

iy^J tabpira enlightenment; instruc- 
tion, information 

^^J tabawur reflection, consideration; 
penetration, clear-sightedness, perspicac- 

•jJ^ b&ptra pi. j*\j* baw&fir* eye 

! *j*«Jl eU-bafira Basra (port in S Iraq) 
j«*j bapaqa u to spit (J* on s.o.) 

4I41 fa^ga (n. vie.) expectoration ; 
(expectorated) spit, spittle, saliva 

Jluu bufiSq spit, spittle, saliva 

«-* mttsoga spittoon, cuspidor 

J^sj 6a#aZ (coll.; n. un. •) onion(s); bulb(s) j 
j\ji\ J««i 6. al-fa*r sea onion (Scilla verna) 

J^u bo^aZi bulbous 

tL~«j ftupoiZo. pi. -5t, j*iJI <L^i 
6. ai-Sa'r bulb of the hair (anot.) 

_*j ba$ama u (bapm) to print, imprint (a; to stamp (a; to make, or 
leave, an imprint (a on) 

<•**! bafitna pi. bafam&t imprint, im- 
pression | jJ-' I i*-*j 6. al-faitm stamp im- 
print, stamp; gl^Vl «—*j fingerprint 

»_^*j &a£uxt embers 

j-b 6a<E# tender-skinned 

**«j bafa'a a (bad*) to out, slash or slit open 
(a; to out up, carve up, dissect, 
anatomize (; to amputate (surg.) 
II to cut up, carve up, dissect, anato- 
mize III to sleep (La with a woman) 
IV to invest capital (a) profitably in a 
commercial enterprise V pass, of II; to 
trade; to shop, make purchases X to 

***) bad* amputation 

*-«j bid 9 (commonly, with genit. pi. 
of f. nouns, *»Jb with genit. pi. of m. 
nouns ; in classical Arabic aJu with both 
genders) some, a few, several 

**-*j bid' a pi . pjti bida' piece (of 
meat); meat; see also bid' above 

*^»j bud' vulva 

i^Lub bidd'a pi. *jL«j badd'i' 2 goods, 
merchandise, wares, commodities; that 
which s.o. has to offer, which he has to 
show, with which he is endowed (also 
attributes, qualities) | i^LiJI jUai freight 
train; itLij j* »-Cp L. rytl he said 
what he bad intended to say 

Jl> mibda' pi. a^L> mab&tfi'* dissect- 
ing knife, scalpel 

f-Uabl ibdd' mandate for the manage- 
ment of affairs (Ial. Law) ; partnership 
in a limited company, capital investment 

*JL* mv&4i' pi. -tin limited partner 

*«<L£*-» mustabdi* manager, managing 
agent (Isl. Law) 

J*> baft (n. un. I) duck; *Ui baffa leather 
flask I JUI &; calf (of the leg) 

Jlftj bafu'a u (.Jo bit}', »Uaj 6»/a\ ;*IL 
fro^d'o) to be slow ; to be slowgoing, 
slow -footed, slow-paced; to tarry, linger, 
wait, hesitate II to retard, slow down, 
delay, hold up (i_> J* b.o. in IV to 
slow down, decelerate, retard, delay, hold 
up (a; to be slow, go or drive 
slowly, slow down ; to be late (j* for, 
in meeting s.o.), keep s.o. (^c) waiting 
V to be slow, tardy ( j in) VI to be slow, 
leisurely, unhurried; to go, drive, act or 
proceed Blowly, leisurely; to be slow- 
going, slow -footed, slow-paced; to slow 
down X to find slow (*, » s.o.,; to 
have to wait a long time (• for s.o.), 
be kept waiting (• by s.o.) 

»J*j buf' slowness, tardiness | ».Lj 
slowly, leisurely, unhurriedly 

>Jmj bafi' pi. *U*j bipa' slow, unhurried; 
slowgoing, slow-footed, slow-paced; tar- 
dy, late; sluggish, lazy; slow, gradual, 
imperceptible | O «^l *J*i b. at-taraddud 
of low frequency (el.) 

Uol abfa' a slower | ^1 vL>* *>* ^ 
(gurdbi nuh) tardier than Noah's raven, 
i.e., slower than a ten years* itch (pro- 
verbially of s.o. who is very tardy) 

»U*jl ibfd' slowing down, retardation, 
deceleration, reduction of speed; tarry- 
ing, delay; slowness | »\L>\ dj* without 

jLLj tabapu' Blowness; slowing down, 

*jjU«j baft&riya pi. -St battery (el. and mil.) 

LULLj bafdfa, &\1*) bafdfa sweet potato, yam 

j^-Uej bafflis potatoes 

i*U*) see jLj 

iJ>j bafbata («LJ«j bafbafa) to quack (duck) 

^Uj bajaha a (bafk) to prostrate, lay low, 
fell, throw to the ground, throw down 
(*, . b.o., V and VII to be pros- 
trated, be laid low; to lie prostrate, 
sprawl, stretch out; to extend, stretch; 
to lie 

^U abiafy* flat, level; (pi. ^UU aba* 
}ih 2 ) basin-shaped valley, wide bed of a 

*Uiij ba}hd** pi. ^IL, bit&h, oijUU 
bafhaw&t basin -shaped valley ; plain, 
level land, flatland, open country; (tun.) 
public square 

UJ*j bafiha pi. ^ILi bafd'ih 3 wide bed 
of a stream or wadi; a stagnant, shallow 
and broad body of water 

^Lju munbaiify prostrate; flat, level; 
level land, plain 


£-I«j bifftk, batfik (n. un. •) melon, water- 
melon; baffik hub (of a wheel; ayr.) 

oJa~> mabfaku melon patch 

1 J»i bafira a (bafar) to be wild, wanton, 
reckiess; to be proud, vain; to be dis- 
contented (a with; to disregard 
(a IV to make reckless 

J*i bafar wantonness, cockiness, arro- 
gance, hubris, pride, vanity 

S^U abdfira (pi.) bona vivants, play- 
boys, epicures 

M_4*JI ai-bafrd* Peira (ancient city of Edoro- 
ites and Nabataeans; ruins now in SW 

j^L batrak pi. ^jL^j btxfdrik 2 roe (of fish) 

,j-Jbi biifrua Peter 

J-tjlaj bafraSil and J^J*i bafraMn stole (Chr.) 

JlJti bifrtq pi. -ijlio bafariqa, JjjILj fining 8 
patrician ; Romaean general ; pengum 

!lj*i bafrak, iiXiJ* 3 , bafrik, 6j J*i bafriyark 
pi. 15jLLj bafdrika Patriarch (a& an eccle- 
siastic title, Chr.) 

<S~Ja3 bafraklya, *J?j J»t ba\r\yarklya> 
patriarchate (Chr.) 

^ILj bafa.Ha i u (batS) to attack with violence ; 
to bear down on, fall upon s.o. {<-> or j); 
to knock out (a s.o.); to hit, strike (i_>, land with a thud (<^> on) 

,jb> batS strength, power, force, 
violence ; courage, valor, bravery ; op- 
pression, tyranny 

«JLkj batSa impact 

i*Ua-> bifaqa pi. -at, jj\Li batd'ig 2 slip (of 
paper), tag; card, calling card; ticket; la- 
bel | *jljj)l i*U^ calling card; *~*£ iilki 
(Saksiya) and -Ju^l 4*U*j identity card; 
iJl-LJI jljil <*U*> 6. al-mawddd al-gi4d'iya, 

^_>*JI iiLUj food ration card; •o i Ull SilLj 
6. aZ-mw'dyaefa greeting card 

1 J]»j 6a^iZa a (fa& o^lu bvflan) to be or 
become null, void, invalid, false, un- 
tenable, vain, futile, worthless; to be 
abolished, fall into disuse, become 
obsolete ; to cease, stop, be discontinued ; 
to be inactive, be oat of work II to 
thwart, foil, frustrate, make ineffective, 
counteract, neutralize, nullify, invalidate 
(a s. th. ) ; to abolish , cancel , annul , 
suppress (a IV = II; to talk idly, 
prattle ; to paralyze, immobiliae, hold 
down, pin down {* the opponent) 

J1>j butl nullity; uselessness, futility, 
vanity; falsity, falseness, untruth 

<l U*j bitala and bafdla idleness, in- 
activity; free time, time off, holidays, 
vacations; unemployment 

JU*> baffal pi. -fin idle, inactive; un- 
employed, out of work 

O'jUsj bufldn nullity ; usetesgness, futility, 
vanity; falsity, untruth; invalidity 

JlL*i ityal thwarting, frustration, in- 
validation; ruin, destruction; abolition, 

Jtlj bdfil nugatory, vain, futile; false, 
untrue ; absurd, groundless, baseless ; 
worthless; invalid, null, void; deception, 
lie, falsehood; JlcULj and ^Ij bdfiktn 
falsely; futilely, in vain; pi. J-UL1 abdfil* 
vanities, trivialities, trifles, flimflam, idle 
talk, prattle 

JL-. mubfil prattler, windbag; liar 

JL-. mubtal nugatory, futile, vain 

Jk-i. mutabatUl unemployed 

2 Jitj bafula u (Ulkj batdla, -J_jkj butula) to be 
brave, be heroic, be a hero 

JLj batal pi. JLLjI abfdl brave, heroic; 
hero; champion, pioneer; hero, protag- 
onist (of a narrative, etc.), lead, star 



(of a play); champion (atklet.) | iUll JL 
b, al-'alam world champion 

iiLj bafala heroine (of a narrative), 
female lead, star (of a play); woman 
champion (atklet.) 

SJ U*j bafdla bravery, valor, heroism 

iljL* fcujula bravery, valor, heroism; 
leading role, starring role (theater, film) ; 
championship (athlet.) | <ulUII aJ^UJI 
fdfamiya) and iUI *JjLj b. al-'alam 
world championship (adUei.); <J^LJl jjj 
the part or role of the hero, leading role 

<J IL) fro^diwo Ptolemies 

id fiufm, 6n/um terebinth (6ot.) 

1 ( ^U bafana u (bafn, jjkj bufun) to be 
hidden, concealed, to hide; — bafuna u 
(oUij feofdna) to be paunchy II to line 
(a a garment, <~> a with); to cover 
the inside (t_> a of with), hang, face, 
fill (uj a with) IV to hide, conceal, 
harbor (a Y to he lined, have a 
lining (garment) ; to penetrate, delve 
( a into) , become absorbed, engrossed 
(a in) X to penetrate, delve (a into), 
become absorbed, engrossed (a in); to 
try to fathom (a; to fathom (a, get to the bottom of (a); to have 
profound knowledge (a of, know 
thoroughly, know inside out (a 

i^to bafn pi. jjl«j bvtun, J^l abfun 
belly, stomach, abdomen; womb; interior, 
inside, inner portion; depth | f-UJI ^ 
b. al-qadam sole of the foot; »J»S3I ^Lj b. 
al-kaff palm of the hand; j^LJI ,^-Jj and 
jjliJl tr J J raj? a/-6. belly dance; ^3 j 
(6ofm*) in, within, in the midst of; ojhi j 
inside, within, in; Iju-Ij Uit) <l>olj (waladat 
she gave birth only once; ^^iiJ U*s (li- 
zahrin) upside down 

JLj bafni ventral, abdominal 

jLj 6o#»b paunchy 

*J*j 6t^?w gluttony; overeating, in* 

uLLj 6tfan pi. iiLjl abfina girth (of a 

oILj bifana pi. JLUj feaja'tn 1 inside, 
inner side; lining (of a garment) ; retinue, 
suite, entourage | <JU*> j among, amidst; 

j^Lj 6o£i» pi. jlto 6#dn and ulk- 
mibfan paunchy, fat, corpulent, stout; 

jAv bufain ventricle (of the heart; 

oIUj baffaniya pi. -at, ^tUci bafdfin 2 
cover; blanket; quilt 

^L 6a#»« pi. j^>I_jj 6au>aftn* inner, 
interior, inward, inmost, intrinsic ; hidden, 
secret; iiUI coastal plain of E Oman; 
LLL bafinan inwardly, secretly | <_iSCil jLL 
b. al-kaff palm of the hand; <*oJili ^Lj b. 
al-qadam sole of the foot; j-^l jLU J 
at bottom, after all, really; jS$\ ^\j* the 
factors, circumstances or reasons at the 
bottom of; ^j^l jjl»l_jj b. al-ard 
the secret depths of the earth 

j^ULj bafini internal | JtL ^j* (marad) 
internal disease; ^Ul i_J>Jl (tibb) internal 

LJ»U1 al-bafiniya name of a school of 
thought in Islam, characterized by 
divining a hidden, secret meaning in the 
revealed texts 

0^* mabfun affected with a gastric or 
intestinal ailment 

jla-* muba\\an lined ; filled (w with) 
8 jlo II {tun.) to full (a 

ulUU (Span, ftafdn) bd#ro fulling mill 
lX\i bafiya pi. i»ljj bawaftn pitcher, jug 
Jij bazza u to spout, gush out, well out 
Jio bazr pi. jjii buzur cUtoris {anat.) 


mj bu'bu* pl. *»Lj 6a'o&t r| bugaboo, bogey 

£*> fa'ata a (&»'/) to send, send out, dispatch 
(Jl u or «, • s.o. or to); to forward 
(Jl uor * to); to delegate (<-» or * 
Jl s.o. to) ; to emit (^ or a ; to evoke, 
arouse, call forth, awaken (a; to 
stir up, provoke, bring on (a; to 
revive, resuscitate (a; to resurrect 
(• s.o., <l*jL\ <y from death); to incite, 
induce (J* to, instigate (J*; 
to cause (J*; e.g., astonishment) | 
i_>jj-'l !ja 4JI i*j (hazzeU at-fcauf) to 
scare the wits out of s.o.; J ILA-I ^jj >L*i 
(ruAa f-AoydA) to breathe life into 
or s.o., revive VII to be sent out, 
be emitted, be dispatched, be delegated; 
to be triggered, be caused, be provoked; 
to be resurrected (Ojll ,>* from death); 
to originate (,>• in), come (j-. from), be 
caused (^ by); to emanate (fragrance); 
to arise, spring, proceed, develop (j* 
from), grow out of (^*) ; to set out to do (with foil, imperf.) Till to send, 
dispatch (• s.o.) 

it-M ba't sending out, emission, dis- 
patching, delegation, etc.; resurrection; 
pl. ti»j« bu'tif delegations, deputations | 
i*JI vj*~ V 2 ^ *'"&■ ftpprox. : Renaissance 
Party, a political party with strong 
socialist tendencies ; £jJI *jj Day of 
Resurrection (from the dead) 

iinj fta'to pl. ba'atdt delegation, deputa- 
tion, mission; expedition; student ex- 
change; group of exchange students; 
revival, rebirth, renaissance, rise | «£*j 
o_^-* ('(wfcortya) military mission; ii*j 
L-U^L-s diplomatic mission; ij^l iio (oto- 
riya) archaeological expedition; ii*JI j-jjj 
ro'Ia aZ-6. chief of mission (dipt.) 

ijpU feeTtW Easter (Chr.) 

ti^u* ma&'aJ sending, forwarding, dis- 
patch ; emission ; awakening, arousal ; 
— (pl. *1*L» mabcCit 2 ) cause; factor 

itAi btfii pl. <ts\ji baw&'it 1 incentive, 
inducement, motive, Bpur, reason, cause, 

mab'&t dispatched, delegated; 
envoy, delegate; representative, deputy 
(in the Ottoman Empire) 

il^ui* munba'at source, point of origin 

« ba'jara (is*t ba'tara) to scatter, strew 
around, fling about (a ; to disarrange, 
throw into disorder (a ; to squander, 
waste, dissipate (a II taba'tara pass. 

/*w muba r $ar scattered, widespread 

j ba'aja a (ba'j) to slit open (a the belly); 
to groove, dent, notch (a VII to 
have indentations or notches; to be 
bruised, dented, bumpy; to get battered 

£*-i* munba'ij notched, indented 

1 ba'uda u (bu*d) to be distant, far away, 
far off; to keep away, keep one's distance 
(^ from); to go far beyond (j*), exceed 
by far (&■ ; to be remote, improbable, 
unlikely | &■ -u -u. he kept him away 
from; jl U*-j V it is not unlikely that ... 
II to remove (• s.o.); to banish, exile, 
expatriate (• s.o.) Ill to cause a sep- 
aration (jo between) | j^tf jo ApLi 
•^1 joj to prevent s.o. from attaining; 4JIU-I j\* jfrL {ajfanihx) to Btare 
wide-eyed IV to remove (a; to 
take away (a; to eliminate (a, 
do away with (a); to Bend away, dismiss 
(• s.o.); to expatriate, banish, exile (• 
s.o.); to exclude, make unlikely, improb- 
able, impossible (a; to go or move 
far away; to go very far (J in or with VI to be separated, lie apart, lie 
at some distance from one another; 
to separate, part company, become es- 
tranged; to move away, go away, with- 
draw, depart (j* from); to keep away, 
keep one's distance (j* from); to quit, 
leave, avoid ( j* ; to follow in regular 

intervals VIII to move or go away; to 
keep away, withdraw (^ from) ; to quit, 
leave, avoid (j^; to leave out of 
consideration, disregard (jp X to 
single out, set aside (*; to think 
remote, farfetched (*; to regard as 
unlikely (a; to disqualify (» s.o.) 

Xu bu'd remoteness, farness; (pi. itul 
ab'dd) distance ; dimension; interval 
(mus.) [ Xu J* and xJI J* in the distance, 
far off; jU & Xu J* at a distance of 100 
meters ; Xu jp and Xu j- from a distance, 
from afar; iLul *j^ ji three-dimensional; 
jUjV' ,j*\-j qiyas al-a. linear measure; 
i*i1 Xy 6. al-himma high aspirations, 
loftiness of purpose; *iiJl Xy 6. aS-Siqqa 
wide interval, wide gap; c-i-*JI Xy b. 
a§~§it renown, fame, celebrity; *l>j«aJI Xy 
6. ao-favt do.; ^kJl Xy 6. an-nazar far- 
sightedness, foresight; J Ixy bu'dan li 
away with . . . ! 

Xu ba'du then, thereupon; afterwards, 
later, after that, in the following; still, 
yet | Xu ipi afterwards, later; Xy LI see 
I UI; ji»* Xu j* he is only a small boy, 
he is still young; Xu CA>_ I (ya'ti) he 
hasn't come yet 

Xu ba'da (prep.) after; in addition to, 
beside; aside from | . . . *!j5* Xy (kow 
nihi) aside from the fact that he is...; 
LiJli Xu afterwards, after that, later 
(on); besides, moreover; iJli Xy besides, 
moreover; ul Xu ba'da an (conj.) after; 
it Xu (id), L. Xu and L. Xy ,y (ba'di) do.; 
*X* *Xu L <jw (safahun) the height of 

jJXu ba'da'idin then, thereafter, there- 
upon, after that, afterwards 

Xm ba'ld pi. »lxu bu'ada 2 , Xu bu'ud, 
jlxu 6u r (2dn, jLu 6i r od distant, far away, 
far (,y from); remote, outlying, out-of- 
the-way; far-reaching, extensive; far- 
fetched, improbable, unlikely; unusual, 
strange, odd, queer; incompatible, in- 

consistent (j^c with) | Xuu ,y from afar, 
from a distance; x^u Xjp Xj faAd) a long 
time ago; j ^\ Xju 6. al-atar of far-reach- 
ing consequence; £jbJl x*j remote in 
time, going way back in history, ancient; 
jUJI Xjo 6. as-Sa'w high-minded, bold; 
illll Xjo 6. ai-Siqqa far apart; j_jill o_*j 
6. al-gaur deep; unfathomable; ^xil Xju 
6. al-mada long-distance, long-range; 
extensive, far-reaching; ^IkJI Xuy 6. an- 
nazar farsighted; farseeing; JLlII -> _ - ; 
6. al-mandl hardly attainable, hard to 
get at; Ixju ^»*i to go far away, go to 
distant lands ; -L*j Jl «ILJ to look off into 
the distance 

Xm bu'aida (prep.) shortly after, soon 

Xu I ab'ad 3 pi. XjL I ofia'td" farther, 
remoter, more distant; more extensive; 
less likely, more improbable; pi. x^LI 
aba'id 1 very distant relatives [ XyVI o^l 
(&tra) the Far East; XyVI the absent one 
(used as a polite periphrasis for s.o. who 
is being criticized or blamed for; 
also when referring to the 1st and 2nd 

o-iLul ab'&dxya pi. -at country estate 

Xj»J iab'id banishment 

iLu Wad distance 

SXiL. mu&d'aaa sowing of dissension, 
estrangement, alienation 

■ilul ib'dd removal, separation, isola- 
tion; elimination; expatriation, banish- 
ment, deportation 

X>LJ tabaud interdistance ; mutual es- 

Ju mub'ad deported; deportee 

4* Li* mutaba'id separate | »x>Uit ol jS j 
(fatarat) in wide intervals; oljS j 
^jJl j- Sx^Lit (zaman) at infrequent inter- 
vals, from time to time 

mustab'ad improbable, unlikely 


l j*i ba'r, ba'ar droppings, dung (of animals) 

*jvo ba'ir pi. *j»i\ ab'ira, o\j*i bu'ran, jAA 
aba'ir 1 , ^ jLu ba'&rin* camel 

Jjm ba'zaqa (*»J*» ba'zaqa) to scatter, dis- 
sipate, squander, waste (a 

JjjV* wMi&a'zij squanderer, spendthrift, 

^Mt II to divide into parts or portions (* V to be divided, be divisible 

u ^m ba'4 part, portion; one; some, a 
few; a little of, some of | »^a!I u ^m b. 
al- r ulama' one (or some) of the scholars; 
,ja*j Jly *4~m> li*ij (rafa'nd) we have 
exalted some of them above the others; 
^"if I ,^«JI — j-*»Jl some — Borne, a few — 
others; Li** ci~**i one another, each 
other, mutually, reciprocally; (J iw j «ui»j 
one in the other, within one another; 
*^i\ ijmm ba'da S-Sai* to some extent, 
somewhat, a little, rather; UJLil om *iJL. 
{ba'da l-m.) he resembled him somewhat, 
to some extent; jy <j***j >Jy ^ (qarn) 
for the last hundred years and more 

,jij»Ji ba'ud (n.un. •) gnats, mosquitoes 

,jrfLAjj tab'%4 division, partition, por- 

*Sj$**t bu'kiika club, society 

Jai ba'l the god Baal; land or plants thriv- 
ing on natural water supply; — (pi. 
Jjmi bu'ul, *l_j*j bu'vla) lord; husband 

IUj ba'la wife 

J*> ba'li unirrigated (land, plants) 

liLio ba'labakk 2 Baalbek (ancient Hetiop- 
olis, village in E Lebanon) 

OJu bagata a (bagt r &j bagta) to come un- 
expectedly, descend unawares (• upon 
s.o.) Ill do.; to surprise (• s.o.) VII to be 
taken by surprise; to be taken aback, 
be aghast, be nonplused 

hii bagta surprising event, surprise; 
bagtatan, *^J Jc 'aid bagtatin all of a 
sudden, suddenly, surprisingly 

5ipL. mvbagata sudden arrival, sur- 
prising incident or event, surprise ; sudden 
attack, raid 

tOLu bugdt pi. uLiij bigtdn small birds 

a^Ui see oili-_jj 

jJij II tabagdada to swagger, throw one's 
weight around, be fresh (properly, to 
behave like one from Baghdad) 

jI-Uj bagdacP Baghdad 

^jl-Uu bagdddi pi. -un, S-sjUj bagSdida 
a native of Baghdad 

1 ( _ J tjj bagaia a: #^J1 cJLij (aamd'w) there was 
a light shower 

<JLo feojia light rain shower 

3 <iU; (fiflr.) bugaSa stuffed pastry made of 
hour, eggs and butter 

iJ Aii bagida a, baguda u {bugd, *«iUj bagada) 
to be hated, hateful, odious II to make 
(• s.o.) hateful (Jl to s.o.) Ill to loathe, 
detest, hate (» s.o.) IV to loathe, detest, 
hate (• s.o.) VI to hate each other 

,j-iAj bugd, "<& bigda and »Li*j bagdd' 2 
hatred, hate 

(j-k-ij bagtd hateful, odious (Jl to s.o.), 
loathsome, abominable 

.j^pLJ tabdgud mutual hatred 

(j^ji-* mabgud detested, hateful, odious 

c r**r* mubgid pi. -un hater; — mub* 
gad detested, hateful, odious 

Jij bagl pi. Jli> bigdl, JLol abgal mule; 
iUj bagla pi. bagaldt female mule | JLo 
•jk-«JI b. al-qanfara the piers of the bridge 

JUj baggdl pi. -un mule driver, muleteer 


Ju bagS i (»Ui bug&*) to seek, desire, covet, 
seek to attain {*, wish for 
( A ). — (bogy) to wrong, treat unjustly 
(J» s.o.) ; to oppress (J» s.o.)» commit 
outrage (J» upon); to whore, fornicate 
VII JJj it is desirable, necessary; it is 
proper, appropriate, seemly; it ought to 
be, should be; with J: it behooves him, 
with 4-U: he must, he should, he ought 
to VIII to seek, desire (a, aspire 
(a to, strive (a for) 

.to bogy infringement, outrage, injus- 
tice, wrong 

^ bagiy pi. LI*j bagayd whore, pros- 

L*j bugya object of desire; wish, de- 
sire; bugyata (prep.) with the aim of, 
for the purpose of 

»Uu btg&' prostitution 

»Uj bugS wish(ing), desire, endeavor, 

jl* mahgan pi. M-* mabdgin brothel 

9 L* mabdgin coveted things, desiderata, 
wishes, desires 

•UjI *&«#!* desire, wish; ibttgd'a (prep.) 
for the purpose of 

Mj froyt'n pi. SUj bu§ah desiring, cov- 
eting, striving; committing outrages, 
oppressive, unjust; oppressor, tyrant 

^s-. mvbiagan aBpired goal; aspiration, 
desire, endeavor, effort 

caj bafta calioo, Indian cotton cloth 

d. 1 ."*: W/<tt beefsteak 

»ji 6a$y (n. un. •) bedbug, chinch | jJI lj* 
elm (bot.) 

"JP fcflKKO m (&°*W) to give off in abundance 
t5Lu baqqSq garrulous, loquacious; chat- 
terbox, prattler 

jJu baqbaqa (UJu fio^ftaga) to gurgle, bubble, 
splutter, purl (water); to chatter, prattle 

jLJu baqbdq garrulous, loquacious; chat- 
terbox, prattler 

tfjJu frogfriiga blister (of the skin) 

"t+uu buqja pi. pi bw/aj bundle, pack, pack- 

^jAi oagdunu, baqdHnas parsley 

jJu baqara u to split open, rip open, cut open 
(* IV do. 

Jkt bagar (coll.) bovines, cattle; n. un. 
IJki baqara pi. -at cow 

ifjju baqari bovine, cattle-, cow- (in 

jLu baqqdr pi. • cowhand, cowboy 

^-i bags box, boxwood (bot.) 

O^Ju buqsumdt rusk, zwieback; biscuit 

a±m buq&t Yemenite copper coin 

J!\ i. h baqSii pi. (.^l* baq&Hi* present of 
money; tip, gratuity, baksheesh 

<Ju II to spot, stain, smudge (* V to 
become stained, get smudged; to be 
spotted, Btained 

Uj buq*a pi. mi buqa r , fUu biqa' 
spot, blot, smudge, stain; place, spot', 
site; plot, patch, lot 

■jul abqa r * spotted, speckled 

4«jl 6d^**o pi. £Jji bawaqi' 2 sly dog, 
shrewd fellow 

Ji fcogoZa « (tagl) to sprout (plant) 

Ji ftotfl (coll.; n. un. 3) pi. J>u buqiil, 
Jlil o6g5Z herbs, potherbs, greens, her- 
baceous plants; specif., legumes | iL-n-iJI 
i-UJI the Leguminosae; SijUl iliJl hya- 
cinth bean (Dolichos lablab L.); SJiJl 
•Uui- 1 (Aamq'd' ) purslane (bot.) ; iliJI 
i-*i)t {tpihabiya) garden orach (bot.) ; 
J^WUM lii celandine (6o(.); 4HI *ii» 
6. al-malik common fumitory (bot.) 


JUj bagqdl pi. -un, iili baqqala green- 
grocer; grocer 

«Jli biqala the grocery business 

•jiAi baqldwa, \j"£Ju a kind of Turkish de- 
light, pastry made of puff paste with 
honey and almonds or pistachios 

Ju baqqam brazilwood 

Jj baqiya a {.li &a?5') to remain, stay, 
continue to be (J* in a state or con- 
dition); to keep up, maintain (J* a state 
or condition); to be left behind, be left 
over; to last, continue, go on; (with foil, 
imperf. or part.) to continue to do, 
keep doing ; to become | ^liU jjj i 
(yabqa fiflan) he is no longer a child II to 
leave, leave over, leave behind (a 
IV to make (» s.o.) stay; to retain, 
leave unchanged, leave as it is, preserve, 
maintain, keep up (a; to leave, 
leave over, leave behind (a, • s.o.); 
to leave untouched, save, spare (J* s.o.,, e.g., s.o.'s life) V to remain, stay, 
continue to be (J* in a state or condition) ; 
to be left, be left over X to make stay, 
ask to stay, hold back, detain (• s.o.); 
to spare, save, protect (• s.o., *; to 
preserve (a; to retain, keep (a; to store, put away (a 

4-ij baqiya pi. [Ah baqayd remainder, 
rest ; remnant, residue J Jj-Ot *Ju b. 
ad-duwal the remaining countries, the 
rest of the countries ; 5JUI 5JLJ1 {baqiya) 
the last remnant 

Ah baqa' remaining, staying, lingering, 
abiding; continuation, continuance, du- 
ration ; survival, continuation of ex- 
istence after life; immortality, eternal 
life; existence; permanence | »UJI jlj 
the hereafter 

J>l abqa more lasting, more durable, 
more permanent; better preserving; con- 
ducive to longer wear, better protecting 

Ah I ibqd' continuation, retention ; main- 
tenance, conservation, preservation |»Uu1 
*-U o-jlT L. J* i)U-i maintenance of the 
status quo 

»LLL*f istibqa continuation, retention; 
maintenance, conservation, preservation 

lib baqin staying ; remaining ; left ; 
remainder (arith.); lasting, continuing, 
permanent, unending; surviving; living 
on; everlasting, eternal (God) | oLiUI 
oli-UJl the good works 

j-i. mtUabaqqin residue, remnant, re- 
mainder, rest 

jli be (Eg. pronunciation) pi. &\j&> bakawdt, 
^!>r bahaw&t bey (title of courtesy; cf. 

ijjSo bekawiya rank of a bey 

»Jo baki' pi. »Kj btlcd' having or giving 
little, sparing (e.g., of words) 

>-■& bikdaxn becassine, snipe (zool.) 

LjjJt£j (Fr. baccalaur&at) baltxUBriy& bacca- 
laureate, bachelor's degree 

,j-^jj_jJ1xj bakdldriyus bachelor (aca- 
demic degree) 

^LSo (Turk, binbafi) bimbaix, bikbaii major 

(mil; formerly, Eg.) 

cSj II to censure, blame (• s.o.) 

J~£j tabklt blame, reproach j £~& 
s+~M\ remorse 

iSj^i bakteri bacterial, caused by bacteria 
Ljc$h baktiriyd bacteria 

j^o bakara u to set out early in the morning, 
get up early; to come early (Jl to), be 
early (Jl at) II do.; j j£j and ^ J&j 
with foil, verbal noun: to do early, 
prematurely, ahead of its time III to be 
ahead of s.o. (•}, anticipate, forestall 
(. s.o.) IV = I; VIII to be the first to 
take (a, be the first to embark (a 



on; to deflower <U a girl); to in- 
vent (a; to create, originate, start 

jSo bakr pi. jSJI afifettr, U'lj& fraifcran 
young camel 

^^j StJfcrpL J&l a6Mf first-bora, eldest ; 
firstling; unprecedented, novel, new; 
virgin; virginal 

tS^i bikri first-born, first 

«jjS*j WifcrSya primogeniture 

•j& bahra and bakara pL j£j fcafcar, 
-at reel; pulley (mecft.); spool, coil; winch, 
windlasB f Sj& .L*- £o# 6. thread 

lj& bakra: ,,-jl 3_£j J* 'aid bakrati obi* 



*_^i J* aHa - rfj^i 


without exception, all of them, all to- 
gether; l{j£* &■ j**lfU £*rj*- the erowd 
went forth as one man 

•jSo bukra pL j£» fewftor early morning ; 
b&kratan early kt the morning; to- 
morrow; on the following day, next day 

j& bakir coming early; earry, pre- 
mature; precocious 

j_jSJ bak&r and jjTU bakSr coming 
early; early, premature; precocious 

jj£> bukuT earliness, prematureness, 
premature arrival | ijA\ j jj^* fawd) 
my early return 

•jtCj bakara virginity 

•jt£j ftafcHra pulley (mecA.) | SjoCj 
i-T^. (mwraifcfcaia) set of pulleys, block 
and tackle 

•>_>& bukura and *j j^So fewfrurf jpi pri- 

•jjTU fedJtwra pi. jS"\jt b&wakvr* first- 
lings; first results, first fruits; beginning, 
rise, dawn; (with foil, genit.) initial, 
early, first; pi. jf\j> firs* signs or indi- 
cations; initial symptoms; heralds, har- 
bingers (fig.) | 45"ljiH •jjTlj early fruit; 
*JI>I y^U DlT the first thing he did. 

_^j I abhor 2 rising earlier 

_,!£-. mibkar precocious 

jl&jl ibtikar pi. -at novelty, inno- 
vation; creation; invention; origination, 
first production ; initiative ; creativity, 
originality; pi. oljtScjl specif,, creations 
of fashion, fashion designs 

_^*b bdldr early; premature; I_/"1j b&* 
kiran in the morning ; early (adv.) | 
jTUl *-L«aJl (j ($abah) early in the morn- 
ing; ^Ij Jl till tomorrow 

; J J*L) bakira pi. jT\ji bawakir 2 first- 
lings, first produce, early fruits, early 
vegetables ; pi. first indications or symp- 
toms, heralds, harbingers 

^L> mubakkir doing early; early; I^^L* 
mubahhiran early in the morning, early 

jSo-. mubtakir creator; creative; inven- 
tor; — - mvbtakar newly created, novel, 
new, original; (pi. -at) creation, specif., 
fashion creation, invention | _^=-» <~>j* 
{tavb) original design, model, dress crea- 

rj^i bakraj pi. ^jKj bakdrij* kettle, coffee 

alj-So, i»l r -So see o|,-Ju 

JSCj II to buckle, buckle up, button up 
(a; to fold, cross (a the arms) 

IJSsj bukla pi. JSo bukal, -at buckle 

a^C (It. baccatd) bakalah codfish 

^yjljj&i bakalGriym bachelor (Academic de- 

So baktma a to be dumb; — bakuma u 
to be silent, hold one's tongue IV to 
silence (» s.o.) V to become silent; to be- 
come dumb 

& bakam dumbness 

&\ abkam 1 , f. •& bakmd'*, pi. f* 
buiem dumb 



ol^So and *ij£-> see <il> 

Jo 6a)ta i (»t£j iuifcd', Jo 6«fcan) to cry, weep 
(J* over); to bemoan, lament, bewail 
{• s.o.). mourn (* for) II and IV to make 
(• s.o.) cry X to move (* s.o.) to tears, 
make {• s.o.) cry 

•t£j bakka' given to weeping fre- 
quently, tearful, lachrymose 

Jill JwU- ha'if al-mabhd the Wailing 
Wall (in Jerusalem) 

S-S'L bdkiya pi. il'^j bawdkin wailing- 
woman, hired mourner; {eg.) arch, arcade 

iili bdkin pi. StSCj bukah weeping, cry- 
ing; weeper, wailer, mourner 

dL. mubkin, mubakkin causing tears, 
tearful; sad, lamentable, deplorable 

,j*SC bikln Peking 

*Jj bal (also with foil, j wa-) nay, — rather. . . ; 
(and) even; but, however, yet 

8 Jj balla u (ball) to moisten, wet, make wet 
(a, * s.o.) ; — balla i to recover (^j* ^» 
from an illness) II to moisten, wet, make 
wet (a, « s.o.) IV to recover {^y ,y 
from an illness) V and VIII to be mois- 
tened, be wetted; to become wet 

Jj ball moistening, wetting; moisture 

Jj bill recovery, convalescence, re- 

IL billa moisture, humidity j ilj U 
aL ,>U! ma zada f-fina billatan what 
made things even worse . . . 

JL balal moisture, humidity; moist- 
ness, dampness, wetness 

JJL balil a moist, cool wind 

aLJu balila (eg.) dish made of stewed 
maize and sugar 

Jt>>jl iblal recovery, convalescence, re- 

JLj tabaUul moistness, dampness, hu- 

J^L. mablul, JL, mvbaUal, J^. mub* 
tall moist, damp, wet 

3 Jj billl (from Fr. bille): J, ^f (hirst) 
ball bearing 

"& see 2 i_-» 

t>'^> ,>j^ blatin, pldtin platinum 

j7lb (Ft. plage) bld£ beach 

i^-"^ balagrd pellagra 

^j"^ baldraj stork 

dLl-^j (Fr. plastiqite) bldstik plastic 

Jo"^j see JJu 

i^ (Engl, plug) spark plug (tr.) 

0^, *l-£i see jfL 

jaJ-j balbala to gurgle 

1 J T L balbala to disquiet, make uneasy or 
restive, stir up, rouse, disturb, trouble, 
confuse (• s.o., a II tabalbala to feel 
uneasy, be anxious ; to be or become con- 
fused, get all mixed up 

iLU balbala pi. Jj^j baldbil 2 anxiety, 
uneasiness, concern; confusion, muddle, 
jumble, chaos 

JUL balbdl anxiety, uneasiness, concern 

Jj"Aj balabil 2 anxieties, apprehensions 

J_Lj tabalbul muddle, confusion | 
4i—J*^i ^lS t. al-alsina confusion of tongues 
(at the tower of Babel) 

2 JJL» bulbul pi. Jj->b baldbil 2 nightingale 

,Jj balaja u (r-jJj buluj) to shine; to dawn 
(morning, aurora) ; — balija a (balaj) to 
be happy, be glad (<_> about), be de- 
lighted (l_j at) IV to shine (sun) V and 
VII = balaja 


mLi ablaf gay, serene, bright, clear, 
fair, nice, beautiful 

jjj&\ ^-^Jl inbildj al-fajr daybreak 
t£->.L beljikd Belgium 

5_»Jj fcety'SK Belgian (adj. and n.) 

<«L fea/aA (coll.; n. un. «) dates (hot.) 

Aj baluda u (o^ balada) to be stupid, idiot- 
ic, dull-witted II to acclimatize, ha- 
bituate {*, to a country or region) 
T pass, of II; to become stupid, besotted, 
lapse into a state of idiocy; to show o.s. 
from the stupid side VI to feign stupidity 

jJj balad m. and f., pi. ^ bilad 
country; town, city; place, community, 
village; *-& country; uluL bulddn coun- 
tries | ^iJ-l **& b. cd-habai Ethiopia; 
JwJI i*^j b. ap-sin China; Jci\ *•& 6. al- 
hind India 

»Aj balda town, city; place, commu- 
nity, village; rural community; township 

^jL baladi native, indigenous, home 
(as opposed to foreign, alien); (fellow) 
citizen, compatriot, countryman; a na- 
tive; communal, municipal | j-iJL ^-if 
(majlis) city council, ]ocal council 

*jjli baladlya. pi. -at township, com- 
munity, rural community ; ward, dis - 
trict (of a city) ; municipality, municipal 
council, local authority 

xJL balid and ol»l ablad* stupid, dolt- 
ish, dull-witted, idiotic 

ol&j balada stupidity, silliness 

AS tabaUttd idiocy, dullness, obtuse - 
ness, apathy 

-ill* mutaballid besotted, dull, stupid 

jjjl look up alphabetically 

l _ r xljl pi. a-JLjI look up alphabetically 

uL-i) balasan balsam, balm; balsam tree; 
black elder (bot.) 

-JL balsam pi. --^j baldsim* balsam, balm 
L ^— L 6a&am* balsamic, balmy 

>Jail.i balSafa to Bolshevize II tabalHafa to 
be Bolshevized 

liiL bal$afa Bolshevization 

JJlJL buUifi pi. i*i*5*j bal&Sifa Bol- 
shevist(ic) ; Bolshevik, Bolshevist 

iji.lL buUijlya Bolshevism 

jjlL balaSun heron (zool.) 

1 (J -«L bala?a u (bals) and II to extort, wring 
forcibly (j- « from s.o.; to black- 
mail <« s.o.) 

Lf *L &a££ extortion, blackmail ; for- 
cible imposition of taxes 

3 %J *-&i fiaJJo? pi. ,jaJ*^ fia/d/i? 2 (eg>.) earthen- 
ware jar 

1 Ub II to pave (a, with flagstones or 

J<»^j baldf pavement, tiled floor; floor 
tiles; palace; pi. ikU ablifa floor tiles | 
$1\ i»^UI (malakx) the royal court; jlo»- 
.t^Ul At(fa<f aZ-6. court mourning 

*U"^j baldfa floor tile; flagstone, slab- 
stone; paving stone 

VJLj taAJt/ paving, tile-laying 

iaL* mu&attaf paved, tiled 

l ^jL> battuf oak; acorn 

a iUj 6oZfa pi. -d(, JaL bidaf ax 

,yJ«lj balfaji pi. -iya engineer, sapper, 
pioneer (mil.); gangster; procurer, pan- 
derer, pimp ; sponger, hanger-on, parasite 

*iLL> balafa balata gum 

y*L (Ft. paletot) balfd pi. -o(, J>-^ balatl 
paletot, overcoat 

* | _^tlj butyl bolti (Tilapia nilotica), a food fish 
of the Nile 


JsUJl al-balflq the Baltio countries | j£ t 
jJaUl bahr al-b. the Baltio Sea 

iUjJ L feajwaw hand presB ; {eg.) a kind of cream 
made of cornstarch, lemon juice and 
honey, or the like 

*L bala'a and bali'a a (baV) to Bwallow, 
swallow up (*; to gulp down (a; to put up (* with, swallow, 
stomach, brook (* | *ajj *Jj [rlqahU) 
Ut.: to swallow one's saliva, i.e., to catch 
one's breath, take a little rest, have a 
break; to restrain o.s., hold back (said 
of one in a rage) II and IV to make (• s.o.) 
swallow (a | *Ijj **L (riqahd) to 
grant s.o. a short rest VIII = I 

4aL bal'a large bite, big gulp 

«*^ baUaa, *pj* baUu'a pi. -dJ, ^J 1 ^ 
balali* 2 sink, drain 

ItjJLj bdla'a pi. -at, fJl_« bawalV* sewer, 
sink, drain 

Aj bvl'um pi. -e.^Aj bala'im* and aj»L bid* 
*um pi. ^^j balafim* pharynx {anat.); 
*yX* gullet, esophagus {anat.) 

x, Ai balaga u {fj* hdug) to reach (» s.o., a, get (a, • to), arrive (a at); to come, 
amount (a to), be worth (a so and so 
much); to come to s.o.'s {•) ears; to 
attain puberty (boy); to ripen, mature 
{fruit, or the like); to come of age; to 
exhaust, wear out (^ s.o.); to act (j- 
upon s.o.), have its effect (^ on), affect 
(j,- s.o.); to go far (j, <> in, 
attain a high degree ( j, ^ of | *\j 
Jl *j to make s.o. or get to or arrive 
at, lead or take s.o. or to, get s.o. or to the point where, jl fji\ *j ^L 
(tarannuh) he began to reel so violently 
that...; -li-l ii~» j*^\ *L_ {mablaga l-jidd) 
the matter became serious ; J^JI J-JI ^L 
b. s-aailu z-zuba. the matter reached a cli- 
max, things came to a head ; J U-Jl iL. *L 
{mablaga r-rijal) to be sexually mature, 

attain manhood, come of age; *xtl iJb 
{ahtddahu) to attain full maturity, come 
of age; to reach its climax; UL. *^l j *L 
(»^l j« or) {mablagan) to attain a high 
degree of; £LU Ioa jL^Xi cjlL j*»- 
{hina, 4%krayai%, mablaga) when I had 
come to this point in my reminiscences; 
*L- JT o *Jj {kuUa mablagin) to work 
havoc on s.o.; *l£- £L {muntahdhu) to 
reach its climax, come to a head II to 
make (» s.o.) reach or attain (a; 
to take, bring (Jl a to s.o.), see 
that (a) gets (Jl to); to convey, 
transmit, impart, communicate, report 
(a • to s.o. ; to inform, notify 
(a • s.o. of, tell, let know (a * s.o. 
about); to report {^ about), give an 
account of {&■); to inform (j* against 
s.o.), report, denounce (j* b.o.) | -JL-j ili 
to fulfill a mission; «^^U 4*Jj boMfihu so* 
lami give him my best regards! Ill to 
exaggerate (j in; to overdo, do 
too long (J; to go to greatest 
lengths, do one's utmost (J in) IV to 
make (a, « s.o., reach or attain 
( Jl ; to make (a amount ( Jl to), 
raise (a an amount, a salary, Jl to); to 
inform, notify (u or ^ t s.o. of, 
tell, let know {^> or je- * s.o. about) ; to 
announce, state, disclose (a; to 
inform ( jp against s.o.), report, denounce 
{jc- s.o.) | i-i ,j-J>Jl AW to report 
to the police V to content o.s., be content 
(i_j with); to eke out an existence; to 
still one's hunger (<_> with), eat {<-<; 
to be delivered, be transmitted 

UL ^ Uc* sam'an la balganf may it be 
heard but not fulfilled, i.e., God forbid! 
(used at the mention of unpleasant) 

iiL bulga and j^Aj baldg sufficiency, 
competency, adequacy (see also a *iX> be- 

i^a baldg pi. -at communication, in- 
formation, message, report; announce- 
ment, proclamation; communique; state- 


ment; notification (of the police) | j*>-l 9^a 

i_L balig pi. »U1j bulaga'* eloquent; in- 
tense, lasting, deep, profound (e.g., an 
impression); serious, grave (e.g., an in- 

9jL bulug reaching, attainment, arrival 
(at); maturity, legal majority 

U"^j balaga eloquence; art of good 
style, art of composition ; literature j 
iilUl 1* 'ilm al-b. rhetoric 

■LI ablag 2 intenser, deeper, more last- 
ing; more serious, graver 

ii-4 mablag pl.iJL. mabalig 2 amount, 
sum of money; extent, scope, range; 
(see also examples under iL I) | i y\ iL. 
{ismi) nominal par; ieijll iJUJ.1 (muda'a) 
the deposits (at a bank); Jy iL-4 j^jj 
jX\ ^ (li-yatabayyana, qauli, jidd) in 
order to find, out to what extent my 
words were meant seriously 

iJuJ tabllg pi. -at conveyance, trans- 
mission, delivery (Jl to s.o.); information 
(^ about); report, notification (j* of); 
communication, announcement, notice [ 
i-LJI ^b5~ credentials 

*JL* mubalaga pi. -at exaggeration 
?yk\ iblag conveyance, transmission 

■JL; balig extensive, far-reaching; con- 
siderable ; serious (wound), deep, pro- 
found, violent, vehement (feelings), 
strong, intense; mature; of age, legally 

iJL* muballig bearer (of news), messen- 
ger; informer, denouncer; detective 

2 <iXi bulga, balga pi. -at, bulag slipper of 
yellow leather 

LjUL bulgariyd Bulgaria 

^jUL bulgarl Bulgarian (adj. and n.) 

jSj balgam phlegm; (pi. i^j balagim, 2 ) ex- 
pectoration, sputum 

( _ 5 *iJL balgami phlegmatic ; phlegmy, 

J»L balafa i {half) to bluff II do. 

<_iL balf, liL balfa bluff 

jLI ablaq 2 piebald 

Lr UL bilqis 1 Muslim name of the Queen of 

jliUI al-balq&n the Balkans 
JUL balgdni Balkan 

*J*L balqa' and UiL balga'a pi. «j^j baldgi' 2 

jJL see iijL 

0>£L balkdn balcony 

1 -L balam anchovy 

2 ii balam pi. ftLl abldm sailing barge (tr.) 

3 -L IV to be silent, hold one's tongue 

u*)lj balldn bathhouse attendant; name of a 
plant growing near stagnant waters 

Ij-^j balldna female bathhouse attend- 
ant; lady's maid 

Sj-JLJu balamiya 2 Valencia (region and city 
in E Spain) 

^L pi. J\l~£i look up alphabetically 

*L baliha a to be stupid, simple-minded 
VI to feign foolishness, pretend to be 
stupid X to deem ( « s.o. ) stupid or 

*L balah and *m"^j baldha stupidity, 
fooUshness, simple-mindedness; idiocy, 
imbecility | «_^L. U 1 ^ (mubakkira) demen- 
tia praecox 

*li balha let alone, not to speak of, 
not to mention 

*h\ ablah 2 stupid, doltish, dull-witted; 



L-jlfb bilharaiyd bilharziasis, schistosomiasis 1 

Li^Lj bulahniya abundance, wealth, variety 
(of earthly possessions) 

■ijl^ see o^jLf, 

* D Oj+L bulhOn pi. ,>a^j balahin 1 ( = J^A 1^1; 
e(?.) sphinx 

(jL and Jj) *sk bald u {balw, »^ 6aJa*) to 
test, try, put to the test (# b.q., a; 
to know from long experience (*; 
to afflict (• s.o,); — Jj baliya a (Jj bilan, 
*■& bald*) to be or become old, worn, 
shabby (clothes) ; to dwindle away, van- 
ish; to deteriorate, decline, become de- 
crepit; to disintegrate (a corpse), decay, 
rot, spoil III to care, be concerned (<_* 
or a, • about), be mindful (l-> or a, • 
of s.o., of; to pay attention (<_j or 
a to), mind, heed, take into consideration, 
take into account (i^ or *; to take 
notice (<-» of) | JU U md ubdli, JW V 
I don't care ! I don't mind ! it's all 
right with me! JU V (as a relat. clause) 
unconcerned, heedless, careless, reckless 
IV to try, test, put to the test (» s.o.); 
to make experienced, harden, inure (• 
s.o. ; said of trials, experiences) ; to work 
havoc (* on; to wear out (a | 
b— »- *"& JjI (bald' an hasanan) to stand 
the test; to prove o.s. brave (in war) 
VIH to try, tempt, put to the test (• s.o.) ; 
to afflict {<_> • s.o. with), visit (l_> • on 
s.o.; pass, vbtuliya to become or be 
afflicted (i_j with, by), suffer (i_j from) 

Jj bilan decline, deterioration; decay, 
putrefaction, decomposition; worn con- 
dition; wear; shabbiness 

Jj bally worn, old, shabby, thread- 
bare; decrepit, dilapidated, decaying, 
decomposed, rotten 

*At baliya pi. \i^h baldyd trial, tribula- 
tion, visitation, affliction, distress, mis- 
fortune, calamity 

»:Aj bald' trial, tribulation, visitation, 
affliction, distress, misfortune; scourge, 
plague; creditable performance, bravery, 
gallantry, heroic action | l y*- ."^ (ha* 
mn) favor, blessing, grace (of God); good 

^jit balwd trial; tribulation, visitation, 
affliction, distress, misfortune, calamity; 
necessity, need | * j^UI c~* ('ammat) it 
has become a general necessity 

•"^L. mvbaldh consideration, regard, 
heed, attention | SVt-V l&-mubdlah in- 
difference, unconcern, carelessness 

*~tej\ ibtild' trial, tribulation, affliction, 

Jlj baltn old, worn, worn out; shabby, 
threadbare, ragged, tattered; decrepit, 
dilapidated ; decayed, rotten ; obsolete, 

JL. mubdlin observant, heedful, mind- 
ful (._j of) I i_j JL* ji heedless of 

J^. mubtalan (less correctly Ji-. mub* 
talin) afflicted (i_* with, by), suffering 
(i_j from) 

jjL II tabalwara to crystalize; to be crys- 
talized; to be covered with crystals 

jjL baUur, billaur pi. -at crystal; crys- 
tal glass, flint glass, glass | O iSj'** Jjk 
(aakri) rock crystal, transparent quartz 

Sj^L billaura (n. un.) pi. -at crystal; 
crystal glass, flint glass, glass; tube 
(radio); crystal, quartz plate (of a de- 
tector; radio); (syr., pronounced ballora) 
negative (phot.) 

iSjjit balluri, biUauri crystalline; crys- 
tal (adj.) 

ijjjL ballurxya, billauriya pi. -at lense 

j_jL. mubaltvar: vjL* *S~\js candied 




jjj, ijjjn (Fr. blouse) baluz, bilOza pi. -&t 

l3jL (Turk. b&iik) bviuk pi. -dt company 
(mil.; Eg.) \ tyA fJjL b. amin (mil.) 
approx. : quartermaster sergeant (former- 
ly* Eg.) 

j^L froZIfin balloon 

1 Jj bald yes, yes indeed, certainly, surely 

■Jj feitfya etc., see _^b 

^iJLL (It. pagliaecio) jtalyaUS clown, buffoon 

jJjUj (It. otpKanfo) bilyardS billiards 

4--Jj billelh plisse, pleating 

1 I >L faiftn pi. ,>J^j bal&lin* pallium, liturgical 
vestment of a bishop worn over the 
chasuble (Chr.); monk's robe (Copt.-Chr.) 

'Cijli balyun pi. ^^j baldyin 1 (U.S.) billion, 
(G.B.) milliard; (U.S.) trillion, (G.B.) 

f bamm lowest string of a musical instru- 

flu bumbdg, ULe bumb&Qa bow tie 

(jLc bomb&y Bombay 

L.L look up alphabetically 

l ^ T jj tabannd to adopt as son (* s.o.); 
to adopt, embrace (* 

^.1 ifrn pi. »LjI a&n£*, D>J bantin son; 
descendant, scion; offspring, son (of a 
nation or people) [ *jT ^ I pi. #jT yj (son of 
Adam) man, human being; ^jT ^1 t&n 
dutf jackal; -iL)l ,^1 »bn al-bdlad local 
inhabitant, native; j^UI »LjI natives, 
native population; i-»ji-l ,>' »&n al-harb 
warrior, soldier; warlike, bellicose; j.1 
J-fcJl wayfarer, wanderer; i-* 0^— *" <>.' 
50 years old; «*.U ^1 i&n w'oitAt tem- 
poral, transient, passing; *JL* j-l »6n 
sutfnAi his own son; ^^ j»l ton '*« 
weasel; »^Ji #U jJ banu m£' as-sami 1 

the Arabs; <Ju>* j* Beni Suef (city in 
Egypt, S of Cairo) 

cjI ibna and cJj bint pi. ob 6oi«W 
daughter; Ow girl | -Jl ol t. al-'amm 
(female) cousin; periphrastically for wife: 
dlf- ijl your wife; j&Jt cJu 6. atyifcr 
pi. jbsiVi ob thought, idea; j^j^l oU> 
b. al-ard insects and worms; ^-1* oL. 
b. &»** calamities, afflictions; j»-iJI C>li> 
6. ad-dahr do.; iiiJI cJu 6. aS-Safa word; 
j-UJ! oUj &. afi-padr worries, fears, 
anxieties; o\*jj oUj 6. wardana earth- 
worms, rainworms 

jj feunatya my little son 

»yj bunuwa sonship, filiation 

jjij banawt filial 

jj tabannin adoption (also fig., e.g.. 
of ideas, principles, etc.) 

•j. bunn coffee beans, coffee 

jj bunni coffee- colored, brown 

"uLj &a*uln finger tips | oUj *jU jlij (yu* 
son*) lit.: he is pointed at with ringers, 
i.e., he is a famous man; tiijLj fj* lil arid 
fau'a &an£ftt£a I am at your disposal, I 
am at your service 

Jjjib ban&ddra (syr.; from It. pomodoro) 

,j*jIj banaris* Banaras or Benares (the Holy 
City of the Hindus, in N India) 

^tii see ,^b£> 

j£i bintH napoleon, louis d'or (gold coin of 
20 francs) 

Wj II to dope, narcoticize (with banj; • s.o.); 
to anesthetize (• s.o.) 

~j banj henbane (Hyoscyamus niger; 
bot.); an anesthetic, a narcotic 

^UJl al-banjdb the Punjab (region, NW 
Indian subcontinent) 

jp-^j banjar red beet {eg.) 

Ji> band pi. >yj bunud article, clause, para- 
graph (of a law, contract, etc.); banner; 
large body of troops 

x jXj bandar pi. jjLj banddir* seaport; com- 
mercial center ; district capital (Eg.) ; jaLj 
see also under v-Uj below | ,^-U* j-ti b. 
'abbas Bandar Abbas (seaport in S Iran) 

2 ;jjXj look up alphabetically 

Jxj bunduq (coll. ; n. un. •) pi. jalii banddtq* 
hazelnut(s), filberts; hazel, hazel tree; 
4iXj hazelnut, filbert; bullet 
Jxj bunduqi Venetian sequin 

SJXj bunduqiya pi. JjUj banddtq 2 
rifle, gun | J-j iJxj 6. rail shotgun 

<S xJ\ al-bunduqiya Venice 

iJU-Uj bunduqdni pi. -un, Jj^Uj band* 
diqa a Venitian 

jj^j bunduq pi. Jj.iL> &anddi? 2 bastard 

#j j -Uj banaddra (syr. ; from It. ^omodoro) 

(_5jjXj ^l ahmar* banaddri tomato-red 

JjXj {Fr. pendule) bandul pendulum 

*j£-> (Span, bandera) bandera pi. jjUj band* 
dir 2 pennon, flag, banner 

jj^i bannur (= j_jL 6aM«r) glass 

^\*>j banzahir bezoar, bezoar stone 

j->j banzin, benzln gasoline, benzine 

iJ Jj (Engl.) pence 

i>i— ij 6cni«tZin penicillin 

<-Jj (Fr. j>e?w&) banaSh pansy (hot.) 

djz— ij bansiydn pi. -di boardinghouse ; board- 
ing school 

^aij 6m?ir f., pi. _ r -*Uj 6onastr 2 ring finger 

Ja^ bunt pi. J»_j1j 6«nw/ point {stock market) 

jjlkj banfalun (from It. pantaloni) pi. -51 
trousers, pants 

t£jUj bangdzl Bengasi (city in NE Libya, 
capital of Cyrenaica) 

JU^JI al-bangdl Bengal (region, NE Indian 

«_ ij banafsaj (coll.; n. un. «) violet (6o(.) 

,j>-i;-i banafsajl violetlike, violetish; 
violet (adj.) | { y-^JcJ\ 3y or j^y^iJl »ljj 

,_yLij banfaS, banafS amethyst (min.) 

<io binaqa and U-L ftantgo gore, gusset (of 
a shirt or garment) 

1 jJjj bunk root, core, heart, best part | dkj 
jhjJI 6. al-'umr the prime of life, the best 

*dJL» 6an& pi. iljU bunuk bank, banking 
house | tJuJUJI tib credit bank; ,/iyJI *ibj 
deposit bank; >oll iiJb 6. ad-dam blood 
bank; JjJI ^Jb-Jt (dauft) the World Bank 

'iib-. mubannak stranded 

*jii r . ifJ^ mttAannafc mubannak shrewd, 
sly, astute 

ZsjSc* (Engl.) banhndt banknote 

l_yj and ,jjLi see 1 l j- 

j\jj (Fr. baignoire) fcanwar baignoire, theater 
box of the lowest tier 

l ^j band i (»bj 6tnd', uLu bunydn) and Till 
to build, erect, construct, set up (*; 
to build, establish, rest (J* * on); 
to consummate the marriage (If and L^l* 
with a woman); pass, buniya, ubtuniya 
to be based, be built, rest (J* on) | if Jj 
J* (kalimatan) to give a word an in- 
declinable ending in (a certain vowel or a 
vowelless consonant; gram.) V see 1 j- 

»bj bind' building, construction, erection, 
setting up; structure (also, e.g., of an 

organism), setup, make-up; (pi. <Jul 
abniya) building, structure, edifice | oUI 
»b_JI %'adat al-b. reconstruction; ji-\ »UJI 
(kurr) Freemasonry; J* #bj binaan 'aid 
according to, in accordance with, on the 
basis of, by virtue of, on the strength of; 
li* J* »Ij accordingly, thus 

tjLi bina'i constructional, building 
{used attributively) ; architectural ; struc- 

*~u binya, bunya pi. Jj bvnan, biman 
structure, setup, make-up; binya build, 
frame, physique, physical constitution J 
5-jJI >JmJ> of delicate constitution; p^ 
liJI and *JJ\ -L* of sound constitution, 
healthy ; ILUI gji qauny al-b. husky, 

•Uj banna' pi. -un builder; mason; 
constructive j j>- »bj (hurr) Freemason 

IjLj binaya pi. -a( building, structure, 

uLju bunyan building, construction, 
erection, setting up; building, structure, 
edifice; physique, stature 

J~« mabnan pi. jL. mabanin building, 
construction, erection, setting up; build- 
ing, structure, edifice; form; foundation, 
fundament, basis | JJ.Ij Jij\ {ra'y} con- 
tent and form 

,j*j tabannin see 1 ( ^ 

jb bdnin pi. *Lj bundh builder 

^ mabnly built, set up, erected ; 
founded, based, resting (J* on); fixed, 
established; indeclinable; ending in- 
declinably (J* in; gram.) 

V; (Engl.) penny 

jm (It. bagno) banyo bath, bathtub 

C~r t bahita a, bahuta u and pass, buhita (baht) 
to be astonished, amazed, bewildered, 
startled, perplexed, flabbergasted, speech- 

less ; — bahita to be or become pale, fade 
(color) ; — bahata a to astonish, amaze, be- 
wilder, startle, stagger, flabbergast (• s.o.) ; 
(uLv buhtan) to slander, defame (* s.o.) 
Ill to come or descend unexpectedly (• 
upon s.o.) ; to startle, stagger, flabbergast 
(a s.o.) IV to surprise, astonish, amaze (» 
s.o.) VII = I 

C-f- buht and jbf. buhtan slander, false 
accusation; lie, untruth 

Sif- bahta perplexity, amazement, be- 
wilderment, stupefaction 

£**[) bakit pale, pallid, faded (color); 
perplexed, aghast 

C-jf* mabhut perplexed, astonished, 
amazed, startled, flabbergasted, aghast 

^ bahija a to be glad, be happy (^ about), 
be delighted (^ at); — bahuja u to be 
beautiful, look wonderful IV to gladden, 
delight, make happy (. s.o.) VIII to be 
glad, be happy (^ about), be delighted 
(*_* at) 

*** r bahja splendor, magnificence, beau- 
ty, resplendence; joy, delight | jUii^l i^- 
delight of the eyes, welcome sight 

qc bahij, — -^ bahij magnificent, splen- 
did, beautiful; happy, joyous; delightful 

*>^f~> mabhaja a moment of happiness 
and joy 

«*L* mabahij* joys, delights; pleasures, 
amusements, diversions; splendid things; 
splendor, pomp, magnificence 

r^ri' ibtihdj joy, rejoicing, delight (t->at) 


mubhij pleasant, charming, delight- 


jjtfL. mubtahij happy, glad, dehghted 

Jif- bakdala to insult (« s.o.); to treat con- 
temptuously, meanly (* s.o.); to expose 
(a s.o.) to ridicule, make a laughingstock 
(* of s.o.) II tabdhdala pass, of I 



<I^- bahdala insult, affront, abuse, out- 
rage; meanness; triteness, insipidity 

J-l,** mubahdal maltreated, oppressed, 

j? bahara a (bahr) and IV to glitter, shine ; to 
dazzle, overwhelm (• s.o., * s.o.'s eyes) | 
jL«jVI jri *is^ a dazzUng. overwhelming 
thing; — pass, buhira to be out of breath, 
to pant VII to be dazzled, blinded; to be 
smitten with blindness; to .be out of 
breath VIII to flaunt, parade, show off, 
present in a dazzling light (^ 

jr bahr deception, dazzlement (^ by) 

j? buhr difficult respiration, labored 

Zjf bahra (n. vie.) being dazzled, dazzle- 

•st buhra middle, center | . . . l JT j 

_ rt -l abhar 2 more brilliant, more magnif- 

j^-l abhar 2 aorta (anat.) 

jl_f bahdr pi. -at spice 

jlfjl ibtihdr dazzling display, show (<_j 

j*\j bdhtr dazzling, brilliant, splendid 

j_ M -^ mabhur breathless, out of breath, 

rjr bahraja {**r_yr bahraja) to adorn, deck 
out, dress up showily; to give a deceptive 
brightness (* to); to glamorize (»; 
to reject as false (» a witness); to fake, 
counterfeit (* II tabahraja to 
adorn o.b., spruce o.s. up, dress up; to be 

rjx bahraj false, spurious, fake, sham, 
worthless, bad; counterfeit money ; tinsel, 
frippery, cheap finery; trash, cheap stuff 

<*-jr bahraja empty show, hollow pomp 

jl*vr bakrajan tinsel, frippery 

rjrf mvbahraj showy, tawdry, gaudy, 
ornate, ostentatious; trashy, rubbishy, 
cheap, inartistic 

' Jjr bahriz (eg.) a soup 

iLf bahaza a (bahz) to oppress, weigh down 
(• s.o.; a load, work), weigh heavily (» 
on s.o.) IV do. 

Ji»L bahiz heavy, oppressive, trying; 
excessive, exorbitant, enormous; ex- 
pensive, costly 

jr bakaq a kind of lichen (bot.); herpetic 
eruption, tetter ; vitiligo alba, a mild 
form of leprosy (med.) 

J^ bahala a {bahl) to curse (• s.o.) V and VI 
to curse one another VIII to supplicate, 
pray humbly (to God) 

J^- 1 abhal savin ( Juniperus sabina ; 

Jlfijl ibtihal supplication, prayer 

JaU bdhil pi. Jf- buhl, bukhal free, 

J^Lf buhlul, bahlul pi. JJlf bakdlil 2 buffoon, 
jester, clown, fool 

ul_jif bahlawan pi. -at, -tya acrobat, tumbler, 
equilibrist, ropedancer, tightrope walker 

<j\jLf bahlaw&ni acrobatic | otT,*- 
vLP-r (harakat) acrobatics; antics, capers 
of a tumbler; JI^JLf o\jb (fayardn) aerial 
acrobatics, stunt flying 

-f- IV to make obscure, dubious, unintel- 
ligible (* V and X to be obscure, 
ambiguous, unintelligible (J* to s.o.) 

4-^- bahma lamb, sheep 

-f- bahlm pi. -r buhum jet-black 

I^f- bahima pi. flf bahd'im 2 beast, 
animal, quadruped; pi. livestock, cattle, 
(large) domestic animals 



iS * 7r bahimi animal, bestial, brutish 

L**^ bahimiya brutishnesa, bestiality, 

l>Lf-l ibh&m obscurity; vagueness, am- 

flt-l ibh&m pi. -aLI ab&him* thumb; 
big toe 

>Ij bdAtm big toe 

,f~» muMam obscure, dark, cryptic, 
doubtful, vague, ambiguous | -*. ja» 
(*odoi) abstract number (moiA.); O s— **" 
— il ('aflofc) the vagus (ana*.); ^il --VI 
(im) the demonstrative pronoun (yram.) 

l (jr) W; ^°^ u > 6oAuww u and ^ &aAij/a a 
f.l,- ftaAtT) to be beautiful III to vie, 
compete (■_» • with b.o. in; to pride 
o.s. (.-> on), be proud (^ of), boast (<-> of, 
lj • to b.o. of VI to compete with 
one another; to be proud (y of], pride 
o.s. (w on) 

jf bahw pi. .Lf-I abha* hall; parlor, 
drawing room, reception hall 

| _ ft - 6oA*y beautiful, magnificent, Bplen- 
did; brilliant, radiant, shining 

.If bahd* beauty, magnificence, splen- 
dor; brilliancy 

tjlf bahd* I Bahai (adj.); (pi. -fin) an 
adherent of the Bahai sect, a Bahai 

^1 abhd more splendid, more bril- 

•UL. mubdhdh and •Lj tabdhin pride, 
vainglory, boastfulness 

(#jj) »1j M*a u to come again, return; to 
come back (k-> with, bring baok, 
yield, bring in (.-» |*-^"^ »^ or J^i^ 
(jfaiba, faial) to fail II to provide ac- 
commodations (J and • for s.o., a at a 
place), put up (J or • s.o., a at) | UK* I^j 
(makanan) to take a place, settle down, 

live or stay at a place IV to provide 
accommodations (* for s.o., a at a place); 
to settle down, reside, live (<_> at a place) 
T to settle down (a at a place), occupy 
(IjO* markazan a place), hold (Liu ma* 
q&man a position) | U6s- T^J (makanan) 
to gain ground, become generally ac- 
cepted; ,jSj*Jl t^-J ('<•*"') to ascend the 
throne ; £i- 1 l^J (Awfcro) to come to 
power, take over power 

&i 6t*o pi. -&t (usually pronounced 
bat a) pi. -dt residence, domicile, seat; 
situation ; surroundings, environment, 
milieu; home, habitat 

I.L. mabd'a place to which comes; 
abode, dwelling, habitation 

*jj tabawvm* : ^j^ »>•? t. al-'ari acces- 
sion to the throne 

^jt II to divide into chapters or sections (a ; to arrange in groups, arrange 
systematically, class, classify (a 

ljL b&b pi. *-»l^' abwab, o\-u bibdn 
door; gate; opening, gateway; entrance; 
chapter, section, column, rubric; group, 
class, category; field, domain (fig.) | l^UI 
JUI the Sublime Forte; ~->X±\ V L 
6. al-mandab Bab el Mandeb (strait 
between SW Arabia and Africa; geogr.)i 
v!>.^' J* near, imminent; 1-bJU- Lb «zi 
to open up a new way, a new possibility; 
wjL; wj jutiha babu ... was (were) begun, under way; •^l ^Ij JAS (go/ato) 
to put an end to, terminate, close; J-iiJi *->\j j* (b. il-fatfl) as a favor; 
Jjl <_jL* ^ (auZfi) with all the more 
reason, the more bo; <->UI la* j about 
this matter, about this; jl •jjy-Ail <-'Ij ,> 
(6. tff-^orfira) it is necessary that . . . ; ^ 
iia-Jl <_>U ^ Ija (6. ia-padfa) that's no 
coincidence; <_j1j ^ jlT or i_»U j J^o 
(with foil, genit.) to belong to, fall under; 
a\j J -U^* unique of its kind; «ul ^jL» J» *1L 
to pursue one's livelihood, earn one's 



<j L b&ba pi. -at kind, Bort, class, category 
>-j\j, batuwdb pi. -un doorman, gate- 
h\ji biw&ba office of gatekeeper 
4t\jt bawwdba pi. -at (large) gate, por- 
tal | i^Uiill ilj* 6. al-qanfara lock gate 

t_-j_j-J (oftufifr division into chapters, 
sectioning, classification, systematic ar- 
rangement, grouping 

»-■>_*•* mvbawwab arranged in groups, 
classed, classified 

CAijt bdblin poplin 

*uiji (Ft. bobine) bobina spool, reel 

c~u» buwait see c~u 

Utji, if^ji (It. potaasa) butdsd, butds potash 

uJji butaqa (usually pronounced bautaqa) 
crucible, melting pot J uLjJI vujt j 
[zaman) in the melting pot of time 

*^»iji (Ft. bougie) buiih pi. -&t spark plug 


(p-jj) r-lj baha u (bauh) to become known, 
be revealed, be divulged, leak out (secret) ; 
to reveal, disclose, divulge (* or ■-», 
a secret; Jl and J to s.o.) IV to disclose, 
reveal (a or o>, J to s.o.); to release, 
abandon, make public property, declare 
ownerless (a ; to permit, allow, 
leave (a, J to s.o.); to justify, war- 
rant (a X to reveal {*; to 
regard as publio property, as ownerless, 
as fair game; to deem permissible, lawful 
(a; to hurt (*i>j»- hurmatahu b.o.'s 
honor); to take possession (a of), ap- 
propriate, take as booty (a; to 
seize, confiscate (a | <** r^-' {da* 
maku) to proscribe, outlaw s.o. 

rj, bauh divulgence, disclosure (of a 
secret); confession 

r# buh wide, open space; courtyard; 

i^-Lj b&ha pi. -St wide, open space; 
open place , square , plaza ; courtyard ; 

S*-Ll ib&ka divulgenoe, disclosure (of 
a secret); permission, authorization; li- 

y-\A ibdhi licentious, unrestrained, un- 
inhibited; anarchist; freethinker 

*-»-!jl ibahxya freethinking, libertinism; 

S»-LzJ istibaha appropriation, capture, 
seizure; spoliation, confiscation 

*>L> mub&h permitted, allowed, permis- 
sible; legal, lawful, licit, legitimate; open 
to everyone, permitted for all, free; 
ownerless (Isl. Law) ; indifferent (said 
of actions for which neither reward nor 
punishment is to be expected, but which 
are permissible, pi. oU-L indifferent, 
permissible actions, Isl. Law) 

try.) Mj baka u to abate, subside, let up, 
decrease; to die, go out (fire); to fade, 
bleach; to spoil, rot (e.g., meat) II to 
Bpoil (a 

iAj, buwak evaporation, exhalation, 

vapor, steam 

£_jJ tabwik: ^ScJI fcjJ (. an-nukta the 
spoiling of the point of a story 

□ £\j bayik spoiled, bad; vapid, in- 
sipid, stale (also, e.g., of a joke) 

C~*j\+ji bukarest Bucharest 

~»j*ji (Ft. povdre) budra powder 

*»i^ budaqa pi. J.il_>> bawadiq 1 crucible, melt- 
ing pot 

\'iy t buda Buddha 

&>ji b-udi Buddhistic; Buddhist 
*j Sji budiya Buddhism 

(jy.) ->^ bara u (baur, j\j> bawSr) to perish; to 
lie fallow, be uncultivated (land); to be 


futile, unsuccessful, unprofitable, lead 
to nothing (work); to be unsalable, be 
dead stock (merchandise) | cJJ\ Ojl 
(bint) the girl could not get a husband 
II to let lie fallow (a land); to make un- 
profitable, useless (a IT to destroy 

jj» bUr uncultivated, fallow \jjt u *j\ 
{art}), pi. jji ,j>lj' (arwjlin) fallow land, 

j\ji bawar perdition, ruin | jljJI jIj 

Jit bd'ir uncultivated, fallow (land) 

JIjjj burdni (eg.) a vegetable stew 

4-*- jji bur aa'id Port Said (seaport in NE 

o\*j~ jjt bur sudan Fort Sudan (seaport in 
NE Sudan) 

JZjjjJjjj burturiku Puerto Rico 

ijUjjjjj burtugal Portugal 

*~*jji burfa pi. -at stock exchange 

ilji jjt bur fu'Sd Port Fuad (seaport in NE 
Egypt, opposite Port Said) 

3jjt bauraq borax 

\*jj* burvul Burma 

1 tS4ji (Turk, boru) buri trumpet, bugle 

^jrjjji buruji pi. -iya trumpeter, 

% ^jji frflrt (pi. &j\j> baw&ri) striped mullet 
(Mugil cephalus; zool.) 

**Ujt (Ft.) burih puree 

l jji II to pout, sulk, look glum, Bullen 

jjt buz pi. j\j*\ abw&z muzzle, snout 
I> jZ tabwiza sullen mien 
j^. mubawwiz sullen, glum 

l jjt buz, *jy buza ice cream 

*ljji bUza a beerlike beverage 

^jlj baz pi. j\jt\ abw&z, ui>j biz&n falcon 

^ji bus bus 

'((jvi) ij^i ^** u (& ou *) *° I" 88 (* 8 '°0 
*-«^j 6au«x, 6u«a kiss 

_»^-_>j (It. busto) bustu corset 

*U->j, *^-_j* (It. jxwta) Z>u«£a, &u*£a post, mail 

jjk^jJ\ al-buafUr the Bosporus 

((Art) i^^ ^* u (^ au ^) to De boisterous, 
shout, roar (crowd) II do. 

^jt baui pi. (jibjl au&of (for ^Sf^l) 
mob, rabble 

1 {J *ji bUfi (coll.; n. un. I) reed 

*~0ji bUfia pi. ~&t inch 

'uOi btif pi. j^l^l o&w5# linen or silk fabric 

"*L*ji (It. buasola) bo?la compass 

X^ji bfya crucible, melting pot 

Skjj 6«|» a beerlike beverage 

1 f^j 6fl* metatarsal bone (anal.) |£>&l t -Jj*i V 
P^Ji ^ he wouldn't know his knee from 
his elbow (proverbially, of a stupid per- 

'f-U 60* pi. f\ji) abvx? the span of the out- 
spread arms, fathom; in Eg. today = 4 
4%ra f mi'mdriya = 3 m | pUI Jj jt mighty, 
powerful; capable, able; knowledgeable; 
generous, liberal; fUl ju*2 powerless, 
helpless, impotent, weak, incapable; 
niggardly, stingy; f-UI jjy^S impotence, 
weakness ; incapability (^» of) ; p U L 
5-ljillj with might and main 

l fji II to surprise 

% ~ii\j bdga celluloid; tortoise shell 

oU^ bugdda and I^Ujj bugdtfa potash, lye 



jtejt b&gaz pi. j* \jt batvafiz' strait(s) ; harbor | 
JJijjJI jUg the Dardanelles 

*jji (Ft. buffet) b&flh buffet; bar; sideboard 

3j> IX to blow the trumpet 

3ji b&q pi. -dt r i}\ji\ abwaq trumpet, 
bugle; fanfare; horn (of an automobile, 
of a gramophone); acoustic signaling 
device; megaphone; mouthpiece, spokes- 
man; duplicity, treachery, betrayal | 3j* 
dij-Jl b. aa-fiaut arji2>\Jh 3y. loudspeaker 
{radio) \ O ,y*J £ji (rahimi) oviduct, 
Fallopian tube (anat.) 

3\ji bawwGq trumpeter, bugler 

oli bdqa bundle; bunch of flowers, 
nosegay, bouquet 

IilL ba'iqajyl. jjl^i baiDd'to* misfortune, 

jU>i b&qdl, 7i\if» buqaia pi. Jj'jj ftawdgif 1 
vessel without handles, mug 

ij^L-fJj bohstford patrol wagon, paddy wag- 
on, Black Maria 

JilCSji (Engl.) bokavkaf box calf 

l (Jji) JIj 6aio u (&atd) and V to make water, 
urinate IV to be diuretic X to cause to 

[}ji bavl pi. JI_jjI a&tmZ urine | ^j* 
j^JI JjJi martuf ol-b. as-sukkari diabetes 

J^j bavli uric, urinary, urinous | ^JIL. il 
*J>Jl the urinary passages; 5JjJl u^'j^VI 
diseases of the kidney and urinary bladder ; 
i}ji -*-J (towammwm) uremia (med.) 

«Ju bUa: O v^l' <L» (oAtniya) al- 
buminuria; O Hj-s *^> (damavnya) hem- 
aturia (med.) 

"ti\jt bawwala public lavatory 

"Ujf mabwala pi. JjL* mooawtl 2 urinal; 
a diuretic ; — mibwala chamber pot ; toilet, 
water closet 

Jlj-L-i ieiibwal: Q *-i)l Jl^JL-t ist. ad- 
dam uremia (med.) 

■JL 6dZ state, condition; heart, mind; notice, 
regard, attention | JLj ji significant, no- 
table, considerable, important, serious, 
grave; JUI f\j far&§ al-b. leisure; JyJL* 
JUI anxious, uneasy, concerned, worried; 
JUI Jjj^ long-suffering, patient; ... <JL U 
(with verb) why is it that he (it) ...? 
why ...? iUL U how about you? what do 
you think? jJU ^- £a&i 6a£uAu his mind 
is at rest, he has no worries; *JL> Jk»- it 
occurred to him, it came to his mind; 
(J) Jl <lb (J»-, jJI) J*\ (a'ta, alga, ja'ala) 
to turn one's mind to, give one's atten- 
tion to, pay attention to, take into ac- 
count, be mindful of, bear in mind, heed; Vlj dj*l 3k } lorn yvXqi U-qauli 
bdlan he didn't pay any attention to 
what I said; VIj <*■ J5j V (yaqiUu) no 
less significant than this 

3 J_jj bul postage stamp 

*JIj bal whale (zool.) 

S <!1_» look up alphabetically 

□ jV»j bvlad (= iVy) steel 

***J_>* see <~>}ji 

JV>j buldg* a district of Cairo 

•4J>! bdlanda Poland 

tS-^ji bdlandi Polish; (pi. -fin) Pole 

j)j> bold polo 

UjIjj (It. Polonia) bvluniya Poland 

jjijj b&luni Polish; Pole 

1 u -J_jj {Fr. police) bulls police | «-jI^I ^j-4y, 
vice squad; jLi-l ^-JjJI (?ina*t) criminal 
police; ti^i-l (j-JjJ' (harbx) military po- 
lice; ^^l ^-JjJl (sirri) secret police; 
jj^l o~Jj> traffic police 

5— -il>i *i'->J »"tttiaya ftufawj/a detective 



K~djt and *-«J^ (Ft. police) bulin, bulifa 
pi. jaJI^j fcauaSKf 1 * (j-Jl^-i ftawfi/w 1 
certificate of insurance, policy | <— Jjj 
jvJLlI 6. aJ-&An bill of lading 

UJjt bulifiyd Bolivia 

JJjt bulifi Bolivian 

0\zJjJ\ »b da' al-bauUnd uremia 

fy bum (coll.; n. un. 1) pi. ^I_^l abw&m owl 

1 o^ faun, bun interval, distance; difference 

■OIj (coll.; n. un. 5) ben tree (Moringa; hot.) 
horse-radish tree (Moringa oleifera; hot.) 
Egyptian willow (Salix aegyptiaca L. 

(^J"'u-l>i Buenos Aires 

Jjt (Engl.) bdni pi. jl^j bawSni pony 

•U 65A coitus; sexual potency; sexuality 

U-Aji (Engl.) bdhimiya Bohemia 

,_^-*>i WAeml Bohemian (adj. and n.) 

4-*-ft>i bdhimiya Bohemianism, Bo- 
hemian life 

*ijji ha* Una the tenth month of the Coptic 

3j_>j (Turk. &oya) &5ya paint; shoe polish 

<j£ji> ^r^iJi (*&') 6°y°ff» house painter, 
painter; shoeshine, bootblack 

L* ftayyo = ib look up alphabetically 

*iu see #jj 

oL biyada infantry (Eg.) 

^jLj Wyddi infantryman, foot soldier 

oU> iiU, _jjLj bfydn, biy&na, biydnG pi. «i»ULj 
biy&nSt piano 

1 t^u bib pipe, tube; feed pipe, spout (of a 
reservoir or tank) * 

■i-jj &*&a (Western) smoking pipe 

(c*») oli &£ta • (ca— ma&ft) to pass or 
spend the night; to stay overnight; to 
become; to be (J in a situation); with 
foil, imperf. : to get into a situation, get 
to the point where; to continue to do, 
go on or keep doing, stick to 
II to brood (by night; a about; to 
contrive, hatch (a an evil plan, J against 
s.o.), plot (J against s.o.); to put up for 
the night (. s.o.) | <Ji*JI j c~u (faff; eg.) 
to flunk, fail promotion (pupil) IV to put 
up for the night (• s.o.) 

cm bait pi. Oj-j buyut, oIjjj buyutSt 
house, building; tent (of nomads); room; 
apartment, flat; (garden) bed; family; 
case, box, covering, sheath; pi. otf>-j 
large, respectable houses ; respectable fam - 
ilies; (pi. oLI abydt) verse | lj^\ cm 
b. al-ibra (navigator's) compass; c-*Ji J* I 
akl al-b. family, specif., the family of the 
Prophet; ^l^Jl J*i people from good, 
respectable families; ijjlf Cj^j~> (tija* 
riya) commercial houses; aI^J-I c-jJI (ha* 
rSm) the Kaaba; •tjU-'i Cm 6. al-kald' and 
k-oYI Cm toilet, water closet; 
•loll Cm origin or seat of the disease; 
Jjj cm (H/I) country house; 3-u*iJi Cm 
and Aj^aJJ c^j (the essential, principal 
verse of the kasida, i.e.) the quintessence; 
the gist, the essentials, the hit of; that stands out from the rest, the 
right thing ; J- Cm baitalahm 2 Bethlehem ; 
fcillLU cjJI the ruling house; Jill cm treas- 
ure house; fisc, treasury, exchequer (Isl. 
Law); (Tun.) administration of vacant 
Muslim estates 

J~i baiti domestic, private, home, of the 
house, house- (in compounds) ; domes- 
ticated (animals); homemade 

£~ijj buwait pi. -at small house; small 

oLj bay y at pi. -un and *JLj bayydta 
boarder (student); (pi. -un) pupil of a 
boarding school (tun.) 

Ojj bayy&t stale, old 

C-A-. mo&tt overnight stop, overnight 
stay; shelter for the night 

cJ\j bait stale, old; (eg.) not promoted, 
*-i*«JI j WH i* 1 school 

c-j_> mu6oyy»( plotter, schemer, intri- 

UUwj bijama and i-l^-j bij&ma pajama 

j {Xj) jI feoda » to perish, die, pass away, 
become extinct IV to destroy, extermi- 
nate, extirpate (a, * s.o., 

jl Jut baida anna although, whereas; 
(esp., introducing a sentence:) yet, how- 
ever, but, ... though 

flo-j baida ,% pi. -L> bid, ^'j'^rf bau 
dawat desert, steppe, wilderness 

•jlj I ib&da annihilation, extermination, 
eradication, extirpation 

aJL b&'id passing, transitory, temporal; 
past, bygone 

X-. mubid destructive, annihilative ; 
(pi. -&t) means of extermination | oi.L-. 
"<ljJ±- (haSarxya) insecticides 

'•il-j look up alphabetically 

jXj baidar pi. jjLi &ay&2t>* threshing floor 

J:u baidaq (and JXj) pi. JjLj bayddiq* 
pawn (in chess) 

ulfXj see oUijlj alphabetically 

J n «jLj bayyara pi. -d( (paZ.) irrigation 
wheel; plantation 

■lj«, Ij-j (It. birra) bird, bira beer | lj*Jl *u** 
fno^na' aZ-6. brewery 

J_^j bairaq pi. JjLj 6ay5fig a flag, banner, 

jloSjo bairaqddr color-bearer, standard- 

4-jjJI JL*. (Fr. Pyriniea) jibdl ol-birineh the 

l jjo 6eru Peru 

\»j*i (SV- bureau) birS pi. -d* office, bureau 

Cjjju fratrut 9 Beirut (capital of Lebanon) 

djjy bairUti pi. 4jj\jt bawarita, IjjLt 
bayarita a native or inhabitant of Beirut 

^lyjjg biruqrdfi bureaucratic 

i-UljSj^u ftiru^rd^iyo bureaucracy; red 

LUiju bizanfiya Byzantium 
J*i ju btzan^t Byzantine 

jj— *j 6Cs3n bison 

Lr*ri) tr*k 6a^a t to lay eggs (also a); to stay, 
settle down, be or become resident (*_* at 
a place) | £yj oKib ^U (twx-/arrafca) to 
be born and grow up in a place; to 
establish itself and spread (plague) II to 
make white, paint white, whitewash, 
whiten (*; to bleach, blanch (a, textiles, laundry, rice, etc.); to tin, 
tinplate (a; to make a fair copy (a 
of | *4»-j u *~i (wajhaha) to make 
s.o. appear blameless, in a favorable 
light, to whitewash, exculpate, vindi- 
cate, justify s.o., play s.o. up, make much 
of s.o. ; to honor s.o., show honor to s.o. ; 
*4>-j 4i)l jli may God make him happy I 
cJt.j* £* ( _ r * s *j V this doesn't show him in 
a favorable light V pass, of II; IX to be 
or become white 

iJ Jl s i baid pi. (j-i^j buyv4 eggs 

*-*-* baitfa (n. un.) pi. -51 egg; testicle; 
helmet; main part, substance, essence | 
iL jJI is-iuj 6. ad-dik (the egg of a rooster 
i.e.) an impossible or extraordinary 
thing ; oU I <*i-j 6. al-balad a man held 
in high esteem in his community; *™i-i J 
jLfJI (b. tn-naAar) in broad daylight; 
iJ»«JI i-i-j 6. af-fiaif the hottest part 
of the summer; p:>UVl i-i-j the territory 
or pale of Islam; j-JI <*L> j* ^JLi-Ajl, ^ 


jl»_pl <JLj (6. id-din, b. il-tvafan) defense 
of the faith, of the country; jaX\ <Jlj 
b. al-kidr a woman secluded from the 
outside world, a chaste, respectable 

^yio baidi, ijy^i baidawi and ^jUi-j 
baid&wi egg-shaped, oviform, oval, ovate 

<^L.u buyaida and i~*£^ butoaida pi. 
■ai small egg, ovule; ovum 

^U bayad white, whiteness; white- 
wash; — (pi. -at) bairen, desolate, un- 
cultivated land, wasteland; gap, blank 
space (in a manuscript); blank; leucoma 
(med.); linen, pi. oU*Lj linen goods, 
linens; (ayr.) milk, butter, and eggs | 
^^-Jl ^Lj 6. al-baid white of egg, al- 
bumen; ,>*jl ,j-iLj 6. al-'ain the white of 
the eye; jL,JI ,_^Lj b. an-nahar daylight, 
(ace.) by day, during the daytime; ^Lj 
*L! i'_^--j **ji baydda yaumihx wa-sawdda 
lailihi by day and by night; *>-^)l j>U 
6. al-wajh fine character, good reputation; 
^U jJLr - eamak b. a Nile fish (egr.); J* 
^Lj blank, free from writing, printing 
or marks, uninscribed; (^AjjI or) ( _ r J 
1 _ r >LJl (tofcwa, irtadd) to dress in white 

^^ bayu4 pi. ,^-i-j buyv4, bid (egg-) 

^Aol abyad 2 , f. »t-i-j baxdd' 2 , pi. j«j 
6t^ white; bright; clean, shiny, polished; 
blameless, noble, sincere (character) ; 
empty, blank (sheet of paper); pi. oUi-JI 
al-btddn the white race; ,jajVI white of 
egg, albumen ] »Li-j ^j\ (ard) barren, 
uncultivated land, wasteland; >U^> *jjj 
{taura) peaceful, bloodlesB revolution ; 
(j-i^Vl Jfci-'l (bait) first light of dawn; 
j-i-j ^ I <_-»iJI (daAao) platinum ; ^>LJ b 
jj-i-iVl with cold steel; »Uij *u r rf* (sa/»- 
fatuhu) his reputation is good; he has 
noble deeds to his credit, he has a noble 
character; »L*Lj «_i^ (suhuf) noble, glo- 
rious deeds; »Ui-j *jj-i5~l (ukduba) white 
lie, fib; »Uij UJ (JaiTa) a sleepless night, 

! a night spent awake; u *?*y\ £»j\.\ (maut) 
natural death; »UL* -b (y(u2) beneficent 
hand, benefaction 

j-i^- ma&id, m\bya4 ovary (ana/.) 

<~i— u tabyida fair copy 

O ^Li^l ibyidad leukemia (med.) 

^i-ijlj 6a* i^ pi. j^j'_jj 6o«w't<P (egg-) 

^a** mubayyi4 pi. -fin whitewasher; 
bleacher; tinner; copyist, transcriber (of 
fair copy) 

*-*—• mubayyada fair copy 

^Lj baifara to practice veterinary science; 
to shoe {* a horse) 

jLkj baifdr pi. *j1»Uj ftayojira veteri- 
narian; farrier 

iSj^i, baifari veterinary | j^lfcJI <-JJI 
(#66) veterinary medicine; tsj*?* ^^ 

•jL-» baifara veterinary science ; farriery 

l (*-j) f-U 6a' a * (6a*', *«• ma6*') to sell (*, • or J to s.o. , i_> for a price) III to 
make a contract (• with s.o.); to pay 
homage (* to s.o.); to acknowledge as 
sovereign or leader (» s.o.), pledge alle- 
giance (• to) IV to offer for sale (* 
YI to agree on the terms of a sale, con- 
clude a bargain VII to be sold, be for sale 
VIII to buy, purchase (^ * from 
s.o. and * » from s.o. J *!• 9\x>\ V 
am^jI Vj (abtd'u, abi'uhu) I don't trust him 

«-j bai' pi. 9-j-j buyu', ol*j-j buyu'dt 
sale | *Ji for sale; *j^*- (il*^ or) f-jj 
(jabriya) forced sales, compulsory sale 
by auction; *Li-L *-j (jumla) wholesale 
sale; jU-'Lj ^> (Jciydr) optional sale {Jsl. 
Law); i_-iij j^j ao (li-dkiri ragtbin) sale 
to the highest bidder; i-JI jcj 6. al-'ina 
credit operation (Isl, Law) 

*«-* 6ai'a agreement, arrangement; 
business deal, commercial transaction, 

bargain; Bale; purchase; homage | <*-JI J* 
into the bargain 

9 Lo bayyd' salesman, merchant, dealer, 
commission agent, middleman 

*— j mob? sale, pi. -at sales (esp. on 
the stock market) 

**jL* mubdya'a pi. -al conclusion of 
contract; homage; pledge of allegiance; 

f-L-wl ibtiya* purchase 

jJLj bd'i' pi, i*lj &d'a seller, vendor; 
dealer, merchant; salesman 

«*JLi bd'i'a saleswoman 

*-*• ma&t r and f L* rauJa' sold 

fit-* mvbtd' buyer, purchaser 

2 i»j bVa pi. -d(, wj 6tya' (Chr.) church; 

tiJL 6fi {«?-)» &«£?. &e& pi. ^i^s* bigawdt (syr.) 
bey (title of courtesy); cf. til* 

*j_jCj bekawiya rank of bey 
j&>*j &ifcdr compass, {pair of) dividers 

iLSlj e 


*5^j (Fr.) 6ticA piqu6 (fabric) 

1 J =rf (Fr. ftttfe) &(/ ball | Jj ^./" hurst b. ball 

2 ilo bila see J_jj 

uUlj batfasan black elder (bot.) 

L-ylfLj billiarsiya bilharziasis, schistosomia- 
sis (med.) 

*-Lj (Fr. btWe) fitjya pi. -a* little ball, marble 

jb>j^j birnaristdn hospital; lunatic asylum 

l (if\) «-*tj bdna i (uLj 6ayan) to be or be- 
come plain, evident, come out, come to 
light; to be clear (J to s.o.); (jo bain, 
ij^iw bainuna) to part, be separated 
(j* from) II to make clear, plain, visible, 

evident (a; to announce (a; 
to state (a; to show, demonstrate 
(a; to explain, expound, elucidate 
(a, throw light (a on) III to part, 
go away (• from), leave (• s.o.); to differ, 
be different (a, • from), be unlike 
(a); to contradict (a, be contrary 
(a to); to confiiot, be at variance, be 
inconsistent (a with IV to explain, 
expound, elucidate (J a to s.o.); 
to separate, sift, distinguish (j* a 
from); to be clear, plain, evident V to be 
or become clear, intelligible (J to s.o.); 
to turn out, prove in the end, appear, be- 
come evident; to follow (j* from), be 
explained ( j* by) ; to be clearly dis- 
tinguished { j. from); to seek to ascertain 
(a, try to get at the facts (a of); 
to eye or examine critically, scrutinize 
(a, » s.o.,; to look, peer (a at); 
to see through (a), see clearly, 
to distinguish (j* a from) VI to 
differ, be different, be opposed, be 
contrary; to vary greatly, differ widely; 
to vary, differ, fluctuate (jo between two 
amounts or limits) X to be or become 
clear, plain, evident; to Bee, know, per- 
ceive, notice (a; pass, ustublna to 
follow clearly, be clearly seen (j* from) 

jo bain separation, division; interval; 
difference | jJl i»li enmity, disunion, 
discord; j\JI j in the meantime, mean- 

jo baina (prep.) or jo ^i fi-md b- 
between; among, amidst j j — jo either 
— or, partly — partly, e.g., jo ^jii\ jlT 
p. Lxjl^j c— L«» (pdmitin iva- mutakaUi* 
min) the crowd was divided among those 
who were silent and those who talked; 
*iM o°. (yadaihi) in front of him, before 
him, in his presence; with him, on him, 
in his possession, e.g., 4j0j jo ^^ V (si* 
luha) he hasn't got a weapon on him, he 
is unarmed; jJJi ju l^j meanwhile, 


in the meantime; {S Ju joj J-j |pj in 
my heart, at heart, inwardly; v^'-P J°, 
in his arms; J±i ^- row* bainihim from 
among them, from their midst; jo jo 
something between, a cross, a mixture, 
a combination; neither good nor bad, 
medium, tolerable; ju_ ju »^t something 
between, a cross, a mixture, a combina- 
tion; j-^Tj C-Jj j*-i (waqt, dkar), j^ 
,jj*-\j *ji {fatra, ukrd) at times, from 
time to time 

,>jL ma-bain look up alphabetically 

Ujj baind, \±u bainamd (conj.) while; 

jo, 6«yj/»« clear, plain, evident, ob- 
vious, patent; (pi. »LajI abyind' 2 ) eloquent 

uLj baydn pi. -dJ clearness, plainness, 
patency, obviousness ; statement, dec- 
laration, announcement; manifestation; 
explanation, elucidation, illustration; in- 
formation, news ; (official) report, (of- 
ficial) statement ; enumeration, index, 
list ; eloquence ; jLJl the Koran ; see 
also alphabetically | UJU-I oLj correction 
(journ.); jLJl j* ^ (ganiy) self-explana- 
tory, self-evident; uLJI 1* 'Urn al-b. 
rhetoric; jLJl ^JJ^ * off al-b. explicative 
apposition (gram.) 

JLj baydni explanatory, illustrative; 

Cm bayyina pi. -at clear proof, indis- 
putable evidence ; evidence (lal. Law) ; 
a document serving as evidence | lu 
i~ijt i?arfiya) circumstantial evidence ; 

Oj J» as has been proved; i> *-4i J* oK" 
to be fully aware of; to be well-informed, 
well-posted, up-to-date about 

jot abyan 2 clearer, more distinct, more 

jLw tibydn exposition, demonstration, 
explanation, illustration 

jojJ tabyln and i'Lt &dna exposition, 
demonstration, explanation, illustration 

j-Lj toidyun difference, unlikeness, dis- 
similarity, disparity 

JjLJ tabdyuni different, differing, con- 

y\* bd* in clear, plain, evident, ob- 
vious, patent ; final, irrevocable (di- 
vorce; I si. Law); of great length | ^pli 
J^jWI 6. af-ful towering, of unusual 
height (person) 

o'l> bd'ina bride's dowry 

u_£_* mabyuna distance 

jw mttbin clear, plain, evident, ob- 
vious, patent | j*JJ ^U^ll the Koran 

j, Li* mtUabdyin dissimilar, unlike, dif- 
ferential, differing, varying 

a jl_j, *jL» look up alphabetically 

^LiAj see ^iLxj 

y^u see _jiL 

^jjj (Engl.) btyurM puree 

3 <uj_j-j (Fr. pyorrhie) biy$r€h pyorrhea {med.) 

1 c^ abbreviation of jjilJ telephone 

*il> fa (particle introducing oaths) by, .jib* 
ta-ZWU by God! 

•L* (d* name of the letter Cj 

Ojju" (56«t pi. C-jjI^J tawablt 2 box, case, 
chest, coffer; casket, coffin, sarcophagus | 


i^*Jl Cjjk t. al-'ahd ark of the covenant; 
•Lil *ij &ji£ '• ra /* cU-miyah Archime- 
dean screw; SJUI c^U (. aa-saqiya 
acoop wheel, Persian wheel 

5j-jIj tdbiydkd tapioca 

bt ta'ta'a to stammer (with fright) 

^13 see ry 

liji see jIj 

^t IV j^Jl jbl (basara) to stare (* or Jl at 

2 »jU see j_*j 

•jlj *aza (= «JlL) fresh, tender, new 

iii\S idka fern, of the demonstrative pronoun 
iili ddfca (dual nom. *iJjlJ tdnika, genit., 
ace. ^JLaj toimifca) 

Aji, pjj tau'am, f. •, pi. f\j> tatoa'im 2 

>*UII at-tamlz the Thames 

jlJ idy {tun., alg.) tea | ^1 ^U black tea 

jjjlJ (ay5r and julJ frfygr (Fr. tai/feur) pi. -at 
ladies' tailored suit, tailleur 

4_J (0660 » (io66, ^~w tofiai, «_jLj to&afi) to 
perish, be destroyed X to stabilize, be 
stabilized, be or become stable; to be 
settled, established, well-ordered, regular, 
normal; to progress well | j*^\ J t-j£-l 
everything went well with him 

*} LS tabban lahft,! may evil befall him! 
may he perish I 

<_jLiU iatitbdb normalcy, regularity, 
orderliness, order; stability; favorable 
course or development 

C-fJl <U-tibt Tibet 

_a> tabara i (tabr) to destroy, annihilate (a 

jZ tibr raw metal; gold dust, gold 
nuggets; ore 

jUj tdbar ruin, destruction 

hjC tibrtya dandruff 

jj-S tabriz 2 Tabriz (city inNW Iran, capital 
of Azerbaijan province) 

*J tabi'a a (tafia*, ULj tab&a) to follow, suc- 
ceed (> s.o., a, come after s.o. or (a, «); to trail, track (a, • s.o.,, 
go after s.o. or (a, »); to walk be- 
hind s.o. (•); to pursue (a; to keep, 
adhere, stick (a to, observe (a ; 
to follow, take (a a road), enter upon 
(a a road or course); to comply (a with; to belong, pertain (* to); to be 
subordinate, be attached (« to s.o.), be 
under s.o.'s (a) authority or command, be 
under s.o. (*) | ^jjJI *J {duruaa) to 
attend classes regularly III to follow (a, 
» s.o.,; also = to keep one'B mind 
or eyes on, e.g., on a development); to 
agree, concur (• with s.o., Jp in, 
be in agreement or conformity (a, Je 
with); to pursue, chase, follow up (• s.o., 
a; to continue (a; »j** aairahu 
on one's way), go on (a with or in) 
IV to cause to Bucceed or follow (in time, 
rank, etc.); to place (* s.o.) under s.o.'s 
(a) authority or command, subordinate 
(« » to s.o. s.o., a a to V to 
follow (a, esp. fig.: a topic, a devel- 
opment, the news, etc., = to watch, 
study); to pursue, trail, track (a, « s.o., ; to trace (a ; to be subordinate 
(a, » to), be attached (• to s.o.) VI to 
follow in succession, be successive or 
consecutive, come or happen successively; 
to form an uninterrupted sequence VIII to 
follow, succeed (• s.o., a, come 
after (a, •) ; to make (a be succeeded 
or followed (l^ by else); to prosecute 
(» s.o.), take legal action (• against); to 
follow, obey, heed, observe, bear in 
mind (a; to pursue (a; to 


examine, investigate, study (a; 
pass. ufluW'a to have or find followers, 
adherents ( je for, e.g., for an idea) | 
i-l-- *Jl (styojo/an) to pursue a policy; 
*i_c *Jl (yamtnoAu) to keep (to the) 
right X to make (* s.o.) follow, ask £• s.o.) 
to follow; to seduce (• s.o.); to have as 
its consequence, engender, entail (a; to subordinate to o.s., make 
subservient to o.s. (a 

»J taba' succession; subordinateness, 
dependency; following, followers; sub- 
ordinate, Bubservient (J to; *JL 
successively, consecutively; J l*J taba* an 
U according to, in accordance with, 
pursuant to, in observance of; due to, in 
consequence of, as the result of; — 
(pi. f-Lj! atbd') follower, companion, 
adherent, partisan; subject, national, 
citizen; appertaining, appurtenant, per- 
tinent, incident 

i jJ> iaba'% : i-^-j "<»yu- ( r uqvba) in- 
cidental punishment (jur.) 

**J tabfa pi. -at consequence; respon- 
sibility, responsibleness | J* ^=11 Jit (alqa) 
to make s.o. or responsible 

pal tab? pi. f-LJ t\ba r following attach- 
ed, attending, adjunct; — (pi. *JLj to* 
b&*i r% ) follower, adherent, partisan; aide, 
help, assistant, attendant, servant 

4-*J taba'lya pi. -at subordination, 
subjection; subordinateness, dependency; 
citizenship, nationality ; 4-njiJ L subse- 
quently, afterwards; consequently, hence, 
therefore, accordingly 

ULJ tibd'an in succession, successively, 
consecutively, one after the other, one 
by one 

Siuli* mutaba'a following, pursuing, pur- 
suit, prosecution; continuation 

f-LjI itba* {gram.) intensification by 
repeating a word with its initial con- 
sonant changed, such as hatxr ba$ir 

*jU tatabbu' following (esp. fig., of an 
argument, of a development, see V 
above); pursuit; prosecution; succession, 
course ] ^jWI £*=Jl the course of history; 
iJot iIjUu {'adliya) legal action, pros- 

*»bj tat&bu' succession; relay (athlet.); 
ki Id L consecutively, successively, in 
succession; serially, in serialized form 

pUI ittiba,* following; pursuit (e.g., of 
a policy); adherence (to), compliance 
(with), observance (of); J LL>I ittibffan 
li according to, in accordance or conform- 
ity with, pursuant to, in observance of 

O ,_^l-jl ittiba'i classical 

O <=»LjI ittiba'iya classicism 

ajU tabi* pi. 3*J taba* a, f-Ll tubba fol- 
lowing, succeeding, subsequent; subsidi- 
ary, dependent; minor, secondary; sub- 
ordinate (J to s.o.), under s.o. (J); be- 
longing (J to); subject to s.o.'s (J) au- 
thority or competence; adherent (J to), 
following (J 8.0. or; — (pi. fUl 
atba~) adherent, follower, partisan; sub- 
ject, citizen, national; subordinate, serv- 
ant; factotum; (pi. aj'>) appositive 
[gram.) ; appendix, addendum, supple- 
ment; O function [math.) | ioUII JjoJI 
(duwal) the satellite countries 

«mIJ t&bi'a pi. »jljj &zuaz&i rs female 
attendant, woman servant; a female de- 
mon who accompanies women; appurte- 
nance, dependency; consequence, effect, 
result; responsibility; pi. *j}y depend- 
encies, dependent territories; O satellites 
{poi.) t = AiL^' Jj**" {duwal) the satellite 

i-wU (a&i'tya nationality, citizenship 

£>~* ma£6u' followed, succeeded (<-» 
by) ; one to whom service or obedience is 
rendered, a leader, a principal (as distin- 
guished from ajIJ subordinate) 


£il=u muiaidbi* successive, consecutive 

gu muttaba' observed, adhered to, 
complied with (e.g., regulation, custom); 
followed, traveled (road, course] 

£J tibg pi. j^yS tubuQ tobacco 

Jj tabala i to consume, waste, make sick 
(. s.o.; said of love) II, in and JjjJ 
taubala to spice, season (a 

JiU «6oJ, tabil pi. jjly JautfbtP cori- 
ander (bot.); spice, condiment, seasoning 

*I>J toofttta (*yr., fet.) a kind of salad 
made of bulgur, parsley, mint, onion, 
lemon juice, spices, and oil 

Jj-s* mo&wJ (love-)sick, weak, ravaged, 

J-i. mutabbal spiced, Beasoned, flavored; 
(«yr., left.) stuffed with a mixture of 
rioe, chopped meat and various spices, 
e.g., J—:^. OLfSLi (&fi£»»/fin) stuffed 

•jij (Fr. tableau) tabldh pi. -df a painting 

J6 titm straw 

JJ ft&nl straw-colored, flaxen 

uLo tabb&n straw vendor 

iiLsll t-jji daro at-tabbSna the Milky 

,jjs« matban pi. ^U* matdbin* straw- 

K[j-w iabiySkd tapioca 

! jcjl at-tatar and jbJI ai-to&Sr the Tatars 

(_$.£ totari Tatarian; Tatar 

a ^j«" tatra (from ^j) one after the other, 
successively, in succession 

iUl ft<t£ trigger 

jS tutun tobacco 

yfjfij tetanus tetanus (med.) 

j£ tajara u and Tin to trade, do business; 
to deal (j or i-» in Ill do. (» with 

•j If tij&ra commerce; traffic, trade; 

jjLf tij&ri commercial, mercantile, 
trade, trading, business (used attributive- 
ly); commercialized | ^jLf c-u (bait) 
oommeroial house, business house; iT^.1 
4jjUdl (haraka) trade, traffic; ojlf iT^S 
(Sirka) trading company ; t$jl<: jUs\ 
(ittifSq) trade agreement 

j^i* matjar pi. ^U* mat&jir* business, 
transaction, dealing; merchandise; store, 

tSj*** matjari commercial, trade, trad- 
ing, business (used attributively) 

j\jf I ittij&r trade, business (<-* in 

j^\3 t&jir pi. j\jt tujjar, tij&r merchant, 
trader, businessman, dealer, tradesman | 
iLi-l j?\l t. al-jumla wholesale dealer; 
Vjpdl >»-l; (. at-tajzxa and ^UViil _^r^ '■ 
ai-gt£d r i retailer 

•j*-l3 3*U«i ot^a W;ira salable, market- 
able merchandise 

«Lf (u;dAa (prep.) in front of, opposite, face 
to face with, facing 

C-* tahta (prep.) under; below, beneath, 
underneath | iu^jJl c-* (tajriba) on 
probation; in an experimental state; 
j^w**Jl c-^ in preparation; JLi4-l c-^ 
(A*/z) in custody, under guard; jIjUI c-* 
(ead&d), -b-LJjl c^ due, outstanding, 
unsettled, unpaid (com.) ; ^Ul c-* 
under arms; ^e* £*£■ (sarrCihim) in 
their hearing, for them to hear ; *i JM Jl\ cJ. 
{tamviya) outstanding, unpaid, unsettled 
(com.); J»\^\ c^ (iSrqfi) under the 
patronage or superintendence of; c^ 
j jaJJI subconscious ; 4*^*7 c^Z (iasar* 
rufihi) at his disposal; »JJl OjC (joo') in 
press; 0|_^ c^ ('unutfnt) under the title 

of; LjLpI c~£ (a'yunind) before our eyes; 
Zjj^cJ- in training; oJI <^ (yad) 
in hand, at hand, available, handy; c^ 
1J4 in his power; c^ £* tnin to£t» from 
under, from beneath; under 

£*£ tahtu (adv.) below, beneath, 

JU^ tohtdni lower, under- (in com- 
pounds) | 5J^ tH^* underwear 

Jm£ IT to present (ij* • or * * b.o. with 

\jj- iuhfa pi. tji^ tuhaf gift, present; 
gem (fig.)> curiosity, rarity, article of 
virtu, objet d'art; work of art | <ui* U^ 
(jannlya) unique work of art 

Ja*c* mathaf jil. «J»*-U* matakif 3 mu- 
seum | **iJl <Jt^i4 m. ai-Sam* waxworks 

f takhx u to become sour, ferment (dough) 

1 «ije tafc* pi. CjjJc fu$ut bed, couch; bench; 
seat; sofa; chest, case, box, coffer, cab- 
inet; wardrobe; platform, dais; band, 
orchestra | dill cJe t. al-mtUk throne; 
royal residence, capital; iSXjLI cJc (. 
al-mamlaka capital (of a country) 

jljj CJc, OljJUe tafe&zruwdta-, taktara* 
wan mule-borne litter 

■cic ta&a board; desk; blackboard 

isjft ta&a&a to rot, decay 

1 Jc tafctma a to Buffer from indigestion, feel 
sick from overeating IT to surfeit, satiate 
(• s.o.); to give (• s.o.) indigestion, make 
sick (• s.o.) ; to overstuff, cloy (a the 
stomach) Tin = I 

<Je tuf^ama, tukma pi. 'J- tttkam, -at 
indigestion, dyspepsia 

fji«i« mot Jfim Buffering from indigestion, 

'jc tafcama i to fix the limits of (a), delimit, 
limit, confine, bound (a m to 
border (a on), be adjacent (a to 

J£ takm, tukm pi. pjjc tukum bound- 
ary, border, borderline, limit 

ji-\x» mutakim neighboring, adjacent 

rj-tf tadruj*, *»-j4j tadruja pheasant 

j-4j tadmur*, usually pronounced (wrfmur 1 
Palmyra (ancient city of Syria, now a 
small village) 

tfjA£ tadmuri, usually pronounced 
tudmuri anyone | j>»-lT V nobody, not 
a living soul 

lj»\J (eg.; tartibSza) pi. -at table 

U^-ly trafcdmd trachoma (med.) 

^J (Ft. terrasse) ter&s terrace 

*\J f i^j^j tram, tramway tramway 

yj-" tariba a to be or become dusty, covered 
with dust II and IT to cover with dust 
or earth (• s.o., a Ill to be s.o.'s 
(•) mate or comrade, be of the same age 
(• as s.o.) T to be dusty, be covered with 

<~>J tirb pi. t-*lyl atrab person of the 
same age, contemporary, mate, com- 
panion, comrade 

<-V tarib dusty, dust-covered 

4i J turba pl.,c-»y turab dust; earth, 
dirt; ground (also fig.); soil; grave, tomb; 
graveyard, cemetery, burial ground 

Jy" turabi pi. -iya (eg.) gravedigger 

^ly turab pi. 4i j\ atriba, b\ij Urban 
dust, earth, dirt ; ground, soil 

lily tttr&bi dusty; dustlike, powdery; 
earthlike, earthy; dust-colored, gray 

O ~**\j turaba cement 

3-jy" tariba pi. <_Jl,/ tara'ib 2 chest, thorax 

iy. matraba poverty, misery, desti- 
tution; (pi. i^jli* matdrib 1 ) dirt quarry 

uiji. mutrib dusty, dust-covered 



^jmij tarbaaa (= ,^-j.p) to bolt (a a door) 

^j»\tj tirbda pi. iJ -u\J tardbia 2 , {J -i)j 
tarabia 2 bolt, latch (of a door or window) 

ji&J tarbantin turpentine 

•j^-r" {«?■) tarabeza table 

^jj-* tur&tn pi. -at turbine 

<t»\J see ijj 

JJ tirtir gold and silver spangles (eg.) 

frJ tarjama to translate (a ^ from 
one language Jl to another) ; to interpret 
(a; to treat (a of by way of 
explanation, expound (a; to write a 
biography (J of s.o., also •) 

4*lJ tarjama pi. j»\j tarajim* trans- 
lation; interpretation; biography (also 
• LA- 1 **:J); introduction, preface, fore- 
word (of a book) 1 4-i.*.„J1 h^J}\ (sab'iniya) 
the Septuagint 

j U; j turjumdn pi. *Jh\J tarajima , 
e*;\j tarajim 2 translator, interpreter 

**-j** mutarjim translator, interpreter; 

frJ* mutarjam translated j J* prs-* 
LUI (film) synchronized (film) 

r? tariha a (tarah) and V to grieve, be sad 
II and IV to grieve, distress (* s.o.) 

rj tarah pi. ~\J\ atrdk grief, distress, 

tSJ j tarzi pi. lijj tarziya (eg.) tailor 

<ijj tarziya tailoring 

X ^\J look up alphabetically 

tiJ -j II to provide with a shield or armor 

,j* J tura pi. jj-lyl atrda, ^jj turns 
shield; disk of the sun; — tira pi. turua 
cogwheel, gear | ^-jjR 3jX~* sunduq at-t. 
gearbox, transmission; ^jSI die aamak 
at-tura turbot (zool.) 

^s* matro8 t mitras pi. ^jU. malaria* 
and ^J* mitras pi. ^-JjU* mat&ria* bolt, 
door latch; rampart, bulwark, barricade; 
esp. pi. (j^jjb* barricades 

<>L>j toradna, Hi?/ tarakdna arsenal; ship- 
yard, dockyard 

jC-y" (Fr. tricycle) tricycle 

<^-J (It. terrazzino) taraaina balcony 

£y tari'a a to be or become full (vessel) 
IV to fill (a, esp. a vessel) 

It- J tur'a pi. fj tura*, -Si canal ; 
artificial waterway | il_rVl ~**S t, al-lrdd 
feeder, irrigation canal ; <_aj^^)I ~*s.j 
drainage canal (Eg.); ii^iJ! 4»j3l the 
Residence of the Sultan of Morocco 

J*-/f *l*j turgul, turgulla turtledove 

JtJ tarifa a to Uve in opulence, in luxury 
IV to effeminate (• s.o.); to provide with 
opulent means, surround with luxury 
(. s.o.) V = I 

Jiy taraf and *ij turfa luxury, 
opulence, affluence; effemination 

J»j-" tarif opulent, sumptuous, luxu- 

*_j>» mutraf living in ease and luxury; 
sumptuous, luxurious; luxuriously adorn- 
ed, ornate, overdecorated (<_> with) 

^Uy tirfds (magr.) truffle (bot.) 

Jij-" tarfala to strut 

*yj tarquwa pi. Jly tardqin collarbone, 
clavicle (anat.) 

1 ^J taralca u (tark) to let be, leave, relinquish, 
renounce, give up, forswear (a; to 
desist, refrain, abstain (a from; 
to leave, quit {» s.o., a a place); to leave 
out, omit, drop, neglect, pass over, 
skip (a; to leave (J or Jl * to); 
to leave behind, leave, bequeath, make 
over (a, J to s.o.; as a legacy) | 



J*i *T/ to let 8.0. do; Jl U&. iij-" 
to leave one place for (another) ; «*• i j *5y 
(/t dimnuzitAt) to leave in s.o.'s care, 
leave to s.o.; JU- Jp 4-SjT to leave or s.o. unchanged, leave or 
s.o. alone; *jlij *Sj (wa~sa'nahu) to 
leave s.o. alone, leave s.o. to his own 
devices III to leave (• s.o.); to leave alone 
{• s.o.); to leave off hostilities (• against 


i\J tark omission, neglect; relinquish- 
ment, abandonment ; leaving, leaving be- 

35*j>" tarika pi. -at (also tirka) heritage, 
legacy, bequest 

iC/ tarika pi. iijly tard'ik 2 old maid, 

35jLu mutdraka truce 

iJjJU matruk pi. -di heritage, legacy 

"ily II to Turkiiy, Turkicize (» s.o.) X to 
become a Turk, become Turkified, adopt 
Turkish manners and customs 

jJj^Jl at-turk and iJly^l al-atrdk the 

J"/ (urfct Turkish; Turk; lS^\ at-tur< 
kxya theTurkish language 

\Sj turkiya Turkey 

tihjj tatrik Turkification 

Jli-SV turkistdn 1 Turkistan 

jUSjSI at-turkuman the Turkmen 

W ; »y turumbfy (syr.) pi. -dJ (Western) drum; 
&~*J turumbefa (eg.) pi. -at do.; specif., 
bass drum 

jJa^tj-" turumbafgl {eg.) drummer; 
bandsman (miZ.) 

^y (urmua, ,j>yj turmus lupine (bot.) 

j*y>S termumitr thermometer 

£j turunj see ^yl, £j\ 

•J tartha a to concern o.s. with trifles 

Imj turraha pi. -at sham, mockery, 
farce; lie, humbug, hoax 

**\jj (Fr. Troade) tirwdda Troy 

t-jj / (Engl, troop) squad, platoon ; squadron | 
^jlj- <yjy (Mtiari) cavalry squadron 

(J »«ij*.j v r" = ( j^L-*j'" see under Ja-^y above 
jL/ tirydq theriaca; antidote 
jS^y" (Fr.) tricot 

. bj i 

U-J (w'o (f. ■— 5 tfw f ) nine 

jls- **-J iw'a&x 'aSara, f. !_, 
'aSrata nineteen 

*— j tus' pi. pJ— Jl ateo' one ninth, the 
ninth part 

j^A-3 tia'un ninety 

**UI a(-(d*i' the ninth 

JjVI O 1 -^ 'ifr*»' al-awwal October, j^j^J 
Jlill (. at-tdni November (Syr., Jr., !*&., 

LTlijL-jS^iJ t&ekoalovakiyd Czechoslovakia 

JJLJ ttgl Chile 

uljU ft^wdn 2 Tetuan (city in N Morocco) 

«j abbreviation of JUj, see _4* 

^jj ta'iba a (ta'ab) to work hard, toil, slave, 
drudge, wear o.s. out; to be or become 
tired, weary (^ of IV to trouble, 
inconvenience (• s.o.) ; to irk, bother, 
weary, tire, fatigue (* s.o.) 

i_**J ta'a&pl.h~>UJl at'db trouble, exertion, 
labor, toil, drudgery; burden, nuisance, 
inconvenience, discomfort, difficulty, 
hardship; tiredness, weariness, fatigue; 
pi. <_jl*jl fees, honorarium 

t^jj ta'ib and uLJ ta'bdn tired, weary, 



tj-ftli. mata'ib 2 troubles, pains, efforts; 
discomforts, inconveniences, difficulties, 
troubles; complaints, ailments, ills (at- 
tending disease) ; hardships, strains 

t r *i. mvt'ib troublesome, inconvenient, 
toilsome, laborious ; burdensome, irk- 
some, annoying ; wearisome, tiresome, 
tiring; tedious, dull, boring 

t^^cL. mut'ab tired, weary 

*^J ta'ta'a to stammer; to shake (• s.o.); 
«s*jl itta'taa to move, stir 

j*j to'izz 9 Taizz (city in S Yemen, seat of 

l _ r .«o ta'asa a, ta'iaa a to fall, perish; to 
become wretched, miserable; ta'asa and 
IV to make unhappy or miserable, ruin 
(. s.o.) 

l _ r M ta'a and i-Ul to'd*a wretchedness, 

( _ r *j ta'i$ and ^jjJ fa'td pi. »l—<o 
(u'cwd' 2 wretched, miserable, unfortunate, 

^^o wwrf'fij pi. jj-ifrli* maid'w 2 wretch- 
ed, miserable, unfortunate, unhappy 

(Ju tojQTo to spit II to say "phew" 

tJu tuff dirt under the fingernails; 
c±JU LoJ tuffan laka phew! fie on you! 

O *»L«j taffafa spittoon, cuspidor 
Luj tafetta, *UiJ taffeta 
*-Uj tuffah (coll.; n. un. •) apple(s) 
*£ij te/jfca pi. <iiij (u/a)fc (tr.) gun, rifle 

J-iT (a/ato w » (to/?) to spit 

Jjj £«/! and JUj *u/aZ spit, spittle, saliva 
Jij ta/i/ ill-smelling, malodorous 
iiiu mitfala spittoon, cuspidor 

cij ta/iAa a (tafah, l*l£j tafaha, *yu tufuh) to 
be little, paltry, insignificant; to be flat, 
tastelesB, vapid, insipid 

<ij ta/oA and *^ju (m/«A paltriness, 
triviality, insignificance 

**lij tafaha paltriness, triviality, in- 
significance; flatness, vapidity, insipidity, 
tastelessness ; inanity, stupidity, silliness 

*J6 tajih and *»U t&fih little, paltry, 
trivial, trifling, insignificant; worthless; 
commonplace, common, mediocre; flat, 
tasteless, vapid, insipid; trite, banal 

<^\j tdfiha pi. ol^J tawdfih* worthless 
thing; triviahty, trifle 

jjUl see ,jji 

<Sm see Jj 

J& IV to perfect, bring to perfection (a ; 
to master, know well (*, e.g., a 
language), be proficient, skillful, well- 
versed (* in 

Jiu tiqn skillful, adroit 
iiUj taqana firmness, solidity; per- 

j2j\ atqan* more perfect, more thorough 

iUul itqdn perfection; thoroughness, 
exactitude, precision ; thorough skill, 
proficiency; mastery, command (e.g., of 
a special field, of a language) | *jU j 
jU""ifl to greatest perfection; of excellent 

Joza mutqan perfect; exact, precise 

JJ taqd i to fear (esp. God) VIII see jj 

JJ taqiy pi. .Li; I atqiyd* 2 God-fearing, 
godly, devout, pious 

Jjl atqa more pious 

JJ tuqan and <syu taqwa godliness , 
devoutness, piety 

1 l iJj takka u to trample down, trample under- 
foot, crush (a; to intoxicate (• B.O.; 

2 i& tikka pi. iii& tikak waistband (in the 
upper seam of the trousers) 


■ill taklea to tick (clock) 

*SJ (tijfca pi. -d"f ticking, ticktock (of a 
clock), ticking noise 

'<& look up alphabetically 

OjSo (ufcwi pi. of Engl, ticket 

1 iL£* taktaka to trample down, trample 
underfoot (* 

'^iiiS^j tofctofca to bubble, simmer (boiling 

*iibS^j taktaka to tick (clock) 

*S!J5o taktaka ticking, ticktock (of a 
clock), ticking noise 

*i£Jli& tafttfe tactics 

*£j takiya pi. II& takaya monastery (of a 

Muslim order); hospice; home, asylum 
(for the invalided or needy) 

\J; tall pi. J^J fi'JdJ, J-tfl atfd7, dJS tvlul 
hill, elevation | ^m\ JJ (. aiift Tel Aviv 
(city in W Israel) 

3 J7 tull tulle 

Jl^U taZflttP hardships, troubles, adversities 

xij (olid, jJIJ talid, **# tildd inherited, time- 
honored, old (possession, property) 

i^ij^Jj (»7wJfcu6 telescope 

Ju IT to stretch one's neck; to crane (a the 

iJj lal'a pi. f-^J it&f hill, hillside, 
mountainside; (torrential) stream 

*Jj tal\ long, outstretched, extended; 
high, tall 

ijljil; tiligraf, taligrdf pi. -d( telegraph; 
telegram, wire, cable | Jl UI_^1j J-jI to 
send a wire to 

JI>1j tiligrafi, taligrafi telegraphic 

J»lJ toM/o a (taiaf) to be annihilated, be 
destroyed; to be or become damaged or 

spoiled, be ruined, break, get broken, 
go to pieces II to ruin (a; to wear 
out, " finis h" (» s.o.) IV to destroy, an- 
nihilate (*; to ruin, damage, spoil, 
break (a; to waste (a 

ijjj talaf ruin, destruction; ruination, 
damage, injury, harm; loss; waste 

jLilJ talfan spoiled; useless, worthless, 

lJJi* matlaf, IaLl. mailafa pi. <JiJLu 
matdlif desert 

lJ^i* mitlaf wastrel; ruinous, harmful, 

l3"^!1 »(Zd/ pi. -a* annihilation, de- 
struction; damage, injury, harm 

iJJU tcUif ruined, damaged, broken; 
spoiled, bad 

ijjli. matluf and ,_ik. mutlaf ruined, 
damaged, broken; spoiled, bad 

!_ils* mutlif annihilator, destroyer ; 
injurer; damaging, ruinous, harmful, 
injurious, noxious 

jaU talfaza to televise, transmit by television 

•jili talfaza television 

*jyiij *e I i I *j#Ta talfaxiya television 
broadcast, telecast 

O jI*Ij ttZ/dz television set 

OjjjiiJ (Fr. ttiewnon) iifcwsyfln television 

^ilj taljana to telephone 

jjjiij tilifun and 0>Lij talifUn pi. -St 

*L*Jj see JJ 

illJ tilka fern, of the demonstrative pronoun 

li (atom pi. a^I atfam (plow) furrow 

xJL> talmaga to take on as, or have for, a 
pupil or apprentice (» s.o.); to be or 
become a pupil or apprentice (J of s.o., 

also J*), receive one's schooling or 
training (J*, J from) II tatalmatfa to be 
or become a pupil or apprentice (J or 
•ju J* of s.o.), work as an apprentice 
(J or »oj Jp under s.o.) 

IxJj talmaga sohool days, college 
years; apprenticeship; (time of) proba- 

i\Jj tUmdd learning, erudition 

xJS tilmid pi. i-.^J taldmip, Siotf tola- 
mida pupil, student, apprentice; proba- 
tioner; trainee; disciple | tSj^ -i-*^ (&<$»"*) 
approx.: chief warrant W-3 (naval rank; 
Eff-)l i$j*" -V^ (safari) approx.: chief 
warrant W-4 (naval rank; Eg.) 

»i-Jj Mmida pi. -St girl student 

jl .1; tUimean 2 Tlemcen (city in NW Algeria) 

ijjj iaXmud Talmud 

<lj taliha a (talah) to be astonished, amazed, 
perplexed, at a loss 

*JIj talih and «ii* mutallah at a loss, 
bewildered, perplexed | JJUI <JU (. oJ- r o$Z 
absent-minded, distracted 

(jk) ^3 tala u (J3 tuluw) to follow, succeed; 
to ensue; — (*yX tilawa) to read, read 
out loud (*, J* to s.o.); to recite 
(* VI to follow one another, be 

jjj tilwa (prep.) after, upon | J-jl 
i^bS" _jij L US' to send letter after letter 

•y£ tilaioa reading; public reading; 
recital, recitation 

Jlj tdlin following, succeeding, sub- 
sequent, next; JUU bi-t-tali then, later, 
subsequently; consequently, hence, there- 
fore, accordingly 

Jlru mutatdlin successive, consecutive 
Jj tatti (tun.) tulle 
JUlJ tilibati telepathy; telepathic 

tJ J3 tallxs, tiUU pi. ^^ talMx^ sack 

jjjji-lJ (Fr. tiOvisicm) HliviayOn television 

OjaJj pi. -at talif&n telephone 

OjaJj talifuni telephonic, telephone- 
fin compounds) 

f tamma t to be or become complete, com- 
pleted, finished, done; to be performed, 
be accomplished (J by s.o.); to come to 
an end, be or become terminated; to 
come about, be brought about, be 
effected, be achieved, come to pass, come 
off, happen, take place, be or become a 
fact; to be on hand, be there, present 
itself; to persist (J* in); to continue 
(J* or to do II and IV to 
complete, finish, wind up, conclude, 
terminate (a; to make complete, 
supplement, round out, fill up (*; 
to carry out, execute, perform, accom- 
plish, achieve (* X to be complete, 
completed, finished 

j*Le" tamdm completeness, wholeness, 
entirety, perfection; full, whole, entire, 
complete, perfect; separate, independent; 
L.U" tamdman completely, entirely, whol- 
ly, perfectly, fully, quite ; precisely, 
exactly | fU"j-b (badr) and >U" jj (qamar) 
full moon; LoUl **U1 fie" j at 6 o'clock 
sharp; 5J&I J** *& (ma'nS hkeUima) 
in the full sense of the word; t\3\j 
entirely, completely 

4*5*" tamima pi. f\x" tama'im* amulet 
s\ atamm 2 more complete, more perfect 

'<*£ tatimma completion; supplementa- 
tion; supplement 

**£? tatmlm completion ; perfection ; 
consummation, execution, fulfillment, re- 
alization, effectuation, accomplishment 

>U'I itmam completion; perfection; ter- 
mination, conclusion; consummation, ex- 
ecution, fulfillment, realization, effectu- 
ation, accomplishment 


fl^lJ istitm&m termination, conclu- 

*\5 tdmm complete, perfect, entire; con- 
summate ; of full value, sterling, genuine 

liLe" tumbdk Persian tobacco (esp. for the 

JLc" tamtama to stammer, mumble, mutter; to 
recite under one's breath (^ 

jK tamr (coll.; n. un. #, pi. tamardt, jji tw 
mur) dates, esp. dried ones | ^x* y:' 
(Hindi) tamarind (bot.) 

^■j£' (eg. tamargl), ^jji, ^yrjUJ. ^sS* 
pi. -ya male nurse, hospital attendant; 
"<*rj£ pi. -at female nurse 

jje look up alphabetically 

-L*x timsah pi. *«--lc" tamdsih 2 crocodile 

Ik/ tamga stamp; stamp mark J Ikx" 3jj 
waraq t. stamped paper 

ji tumman rice 

jj£ tammUz' July (Syr. t Ir., I*eb., Jord.) 

l ^j tunn tuna (zool.) 

*^cJ tinnin pi. ^JLJ tananxn* sea monster; 
Draco (astron.); waterspout {meteor.); see 
also alphabetically 

tiU feSni' pi. »lJ tunna' resident 

iJLu (uniaifc (pronounced tumbSk) and iLil 
tumbah Persian tobacco (esp. for the 

jLil tfwidZ pi. J-jUJ tanabiP short, of small 

jCj (Ft. (imfcre) tontfear pi. jbS tanabir 3 
stamp (magr.) 

j<ju mviambar stamped (magr.) 

JJJ (Turk, tembel) tambal pi. <LLj tanabila 

Jc-*Cj {Ft. tungstene) tongzsten tungsten 

iXJ (It. tenda) landa awning ; roping, sun roof 

j^ tannur pi. j^UJ tanfinir* a , kind of 
baking oven, a pit, usually clay-lined, 
for baking bread 

ljj£ tannura (eyr., leb.) (lady's) skirt 

IJ J3 tennis 

I *ihj tanak tin plate 

j^SJj tanakji tinsmith, whitesmith 
4&j tanaka pi. -di tin container, can, 
pot; jerry can 

8 iUlj fdntfei see iJU alphabetically 

t>rs w tennis 

,>jj tannin tannin, tannic acid 

42^ tahtaha to stammer, stutter 

**^ tuhma pi. -^ tuham accusation, charge; 
suspicion; insinuation 

*tXf tih&ma* Tihama, coastal plain along 
the southwestern and southern shores of 
the Arabian Peninsula 

Ijj tavnuan right away, at once, immediately; 
just (now), this very minute | jdl K-(- 
tawwi at once, right away, also with pers. 
suffixes: ^_^J li-tawwi, UyJ {t-fau.*wt'Aa 
(I have, she has) just . . . ; at once, pres- 
ently, immediately 

cJlj? (Fx. toilette) tuwdlet toilette 

^Ijj see ftp 

(v!>) V^ ^ a w ("tO-* tot*6, i^j tauba, «_jU* 
matdb) to repent, be penitent, do pen- 
ance; with jp: to turn from (sin), be 
converted from, renounce, forswear; (said of God) to restore to His 
grace, forgive (J* s.o.) | <il Jl ^L" to 
turn to God in repentance II to induce 
to repentance or penitence, make repent 
(» s.o.) X to call on s.o. (») to repent 

*jjj tauba repentance, penitence, con- 
trition; penance 


v'> tawaSb doing penance; repentant, 
penitent, contrite; forgiving, merciful 

k-jlJ ti£ib repentant, penitent, contrite 

Ji> see JJ 

yj»ji> td>o}rqfiy3 topography 

■OjJ MX mulberry tree; mulberry | ^J Oy 
(ardi) and ^fjil Ojj (»/ran?i) straw- 
berry; SjZ Cjy (hula) and jJJI Cy 
t. al-'uliaiq raspberry 

'Ojj" i£f the first month of the Coptio calendar 

LjjJ tUtiyd, ,Ljjj <iU»ya', SJy MUiya zinc 

^y II to crown (. s.o.j also fig. i_> * 
with) V to be crowned 

rlj taj pi. uUwj ft/tin crown; miter {of 
a bishop) | ij*JI -Lj 1. al-'amud capital 
(of a column or pilaster); SjSOl -U (. al- 
bum calotte 

£y tvwaij little crown, coronet 

£>S tatvnj crowning, coronation 

j~y USgo and xlyry Uk/Bland (Eg. spelling) 
Togo (region in W Africa) 

<£>) ^15 see p 

•jU tdratan once; sometimes, at times | 
•->lj — *jtj, UA — *j^ (fauran), &^-\ — IjlJ 
(u£rd) sometimes — sometimes, at times 
• — at other times 

! \jy taurah Torah, Pentateuch ; Old Testament 

■*=;-)>> ^.Jp" turpid, turbid torpedo (sub- 
marine misBile) 

Jyjy lurbin pi. -at turbine 

SJjjJ torta pi. -« pie, tart 

(Jjj) ol5 fogo u (tou?, oIj_h tawaqan) to long, 
yearn, wish (Jl for), hanker (Jl after), 
desire, crave, covet (Jl, strive 
(Jl for), aspire (Jl to) 

iy tauq, o\jjj tawaq&n longing, yearn- 
ing, craving, desire 

i\y lawwaq longing, yearning, eager 
(Jl for), craving (Jl 

Jill t£iq longing, yearning, eager (Jl 
for), craving (Jl 

i~>l>\~'f'y ItBkaam&miya; eg.)beltbucb)»(mil.) 

Jjj tvl tulle 

jryy see ^J 

dy fun and ij^l tuna tuna (zool.) 

£y (Turk, (tmf) ftmj bronze 

^^7 funus*, funis' Tunis 

jjjjl fum'si pi. -fin, i-j\y faudnMa 
Tunisian (adj. and n.) 

i-jjj tunica pi. Jljj tawani alb of priests and 
deacons (Chr.) 

(•y) ati 6SA0 u and II = (<j) tU MAo « and II 

i*jj tuAa daughter 

jy'lj (It. teatro) tiyatrd theater 

D JV tailal pi. JlLj see Ji! 

,yy^ titanus tetanus (med.) 

(r*J) £p taha i to be destined, be foroor- 
dained (by fate, by God; J to s.o.); to be 
granted, be given (J to s.o.) IV to destine, 
foreordain (> J to s.o.; to grant, 
afford, offer (* J s.o.; pass, utiha 
to be destined, be foreordained, be 
granted, be given (J to s.o.) | jjyjl «J _J| 
(utiha) he met with success, he was 
successful; <*0jil\ <l -jl (/urjo) he was 
given the opportunity, he had the chance 

jLJ tayyar pi. -at flow, stream, course, current, 
flood; fall (of a stream); movement, tend- 
ency, trend; draft (of air); {el.) current | 
O ^r-U- jUj (mubdSir) and j*i— . jLj 
(mustamt'rr) direct current; O vj^ J^J 
(mutandwib) and O >£• jU (muta> 
gayyir) alternating current; O ^.^ jL; 
(mutadabdib) oscillating current (el.); 
O o*^ J^ (n&bid) pulsating current; 


O "J^l «_r* jW («""»' at-taraddud) 
high-frequency current; O **jft »,ji«i j^j 
(toff* (ri-toraddud) low-frequency current; 
O -^ il* J 1 ^ C*B J-#»M) high-ten- 
sion current; O J*^' ti^'j J ^ («**$»* 
al-jahd) low-tension current; O J^ J^J 
(#W») Belf-induced current 

O jli* tnaJar (*yr.) dynamo, generator 

•jo (Turk, teyze) #za maternal aunt 

^ tou pi. ^Ul atyaa, ^^J tuyua billy goat 
l _ r u\ atyos* foolish, crazy 

iji^LJi <_^i- 1 al-humm& t-tifudiya typhoid fever 

^jV (t/fi* typhus 

ilJ (tifco fern, of the demonstrative pronoun 
l]lj dSJfca 

*J^ II (from Turk, td) to cable, wire, tele- 
graph {syr.) 

'Jj til hemp; linen 

s iLj fibs fiber, staple 

j (-j) aU t&ma i (taim) to become enslaved, 
enthralled by love; to enslave, make 
blindly subservient ( • s.o. ; through 
love) II to enslave, enthral (love; * s.o.); 
to make blindly subservient, drive out 
of his mind, infatuate (• s.o.; love) 

-i. mutayyam enslaved, enthralled (by 
love), infatuated 

K]^j taima' 1 Taima (oasis in NW Arabia) 

jj tin (coll.; n. un. i) fig | Sj^ a? (Sauki) 
fruit of the Indian fig (Opuntia ficuB- 
indica Haw.) 

iLJ tainika see iStt alphabetically 

(<J) «U fcJAa » to get lost, wander about, lose 
one's way, go astray; to stray, wander 
(thoughts); to escape (^» s.o.), slip (,> 
. s.o.'s memory); to perish, be destroyed, 
be lost; to be perplexed, Btartled, as- 
tonished; to be haughty; to swagger, 
boast, brag (J* to b.o.) | I.LJJ I t^-j J* *-U 
a smile flits over his face II to mislead, 
lead astray (• s.o.); to distract, divert 
(« s.o.); to confuse, confound, bewilder 
(. s.o.) IV = II 

4J tih desert, trackless wilderness; 
maze, labyrinth; haughtiness, pride 

•LJ tayydh straying, stray, wandering; 

OLfJ Utihan* straying, stray, wandering; 
perplexed, at a loss, bewildered; proud, 

•LfO taihd'* and S*ls* mataha a trackless, 
desolate region; i»L. maze, labyrinth 

*JU ta*ih straying, stray, wandering, 
roving, errant; lost in thought, distracted, 
absent-minded; lost, forlorn; infinite; 

^J^J (Engl.) tulip 

i abbreviation of Litt second (time unit) 

*tt fd' name of the letter ^ 

cJu ta'iba a (<J\5 to'6) and VI to yawn 

♦LjJj juW yawning, yawn; fatigue, 

jtt ta'ara a (to'r) to avenge the blood of 
(• or <-•), take blood revenge (» or <~> for 


s.o. killed), take vengeance, avenge o.s. 
(>_i • on s.o. for, also j* or J for) IV and 
VIII jlJl itta'ara to get one's revenge, 
be avenged 

Ji ta'r pi. -at, jGl afar, jttT dtar re- 
venge, vengeance, blood revenge ; re- 
taliation, reprisal | »jU i»-l or jUL JU-I 
to take revenge, avenge o.s.; jtt)l SljU« 
mubdrat at-t. return match (sports) 

J\j td'ir avenger 

J_jJji tu'lul and *JjJjJ tu'lula pi. Jjlj ta'5/tZ 3 

t/J fo'a scars 

Cjj tabata u (&\J taiaf, Cjj-J |u6tM) to stand 
firm, be fixed, stationary, immovable, 
unshakable, firm, Btrong, stable; to hold 
out, hold one's ground {J against s.o. or, be firm, remain firm (J toward s.o. 
or, withstand, resist, defy (J s.o. 
or; to be established, be proven 
(fact); to remain, stay (<~> at a place); 
to maintain {J*, keep, stick, ad- 
here (Jp to, abide or stand by 
(J*; e.g., by an agreement); to insist 
(Jp on) | 44*- j j Cm (/» tvajhihi) to 
hold one's own agamst s.o., assert o.s. 
against s.o. II to fasten, make fast, fix 
(a; to consolidate, strengthen (a; to stabilize {a; to confirm, 
corroborate, substantiate (a ; to 
appoint permanently (» s.o.; to an office); 
to prove, establish (a, demonstrate, 
show (oh that); to prove guilty, con- 
vict (Jp a defendant); to confirm (Chr.) | 
*j »j**i Cm (ba§arahu) to fix one's eyes on, 
gaze at; <^Ji Cm (qadamaihi) to gain 
a foothold IV to establish, determine 
(a; to assert as valid or authentic, 
affirm (a; to confirm, corroborate, 
substantiate (a; to prove (J* a 
to s.o.; J to s.o., jl that); to demon- 
strate, show (a; to furnish compe- 
tent evidence (a for); to bear witness, 
attest (a to); to acknowledge (a, 

e.g., a qualification, a quality, J in s.o.), 
concede (J a to s.o.) ; to prove guilty, 
convict (Jp a defendant); to enter, re- 
cord, register, list (J a in a book, in 
a roster, etc.) j <5jJ\ j «JI (waraq) to 
put down in writing, get on 
paper; u *±Jd\ Cm\ (&ak?a) to determine 
s.o.'s identity, identify s.o.; *£.-*.# Cm\ 
(iak#iyatahu) to identify o.s., prove one's 
identity V to ascertain, verify (j, 
J* if), make sure (j of, Ja if); 
to consider carefully (j, proceed 
with caution ( j in) X to show o.s. stead- 
fast, persevering; to seek to verify (a, try to make Bure (a of), seek con- 
firmation of or reassurance with re- 
gard to (a); to ascertain, verify (a, 
make sure (a of; to find right, 
proven or true, Bee confirmed (a; 
to regard as authentic (a 

Cm tabt firm, fixed, established; stead- 
fast, unflinching; brave 

Cm tabat reliable, trustworthy, credible 

Cm tabat pi. oLJl atbdt list, index, roster 

oLj tabat firmness; steadiness, con- 
stancy, permanence, stability; certainty, 
sureness; perseverance, persistence, en- 
durance; continuance, maintenance, re- 
tention (J* of, adherence (J* to) 

C/jJ tubut constancy, immutability, 
steadiness; permanence, durability; cer- 
tainty, sureness | _^lll Ojj t. ai-Sahr 
the official determination of the be- 
ginning of a lunar month 

Cm\ atbat* more reliable, firmer, stead- 
ier, etc. 

Cmm tatblt consolidation, strengthening ; 
stabilization ; confirmation ; corrobora- 
tion, substantiation | C-j^iJl j-> sirr at-t. 
the Sacrament of Confirmation (Chr.) 

d IJ I itbat establishment ; assertion ; 
confirmation ; affirmation , attestation ; 
demonstration; proof, evidence; regis- 


tration, entering, listing, recording; doc- 
umentation, authentication, verification | 
CjLJI -iaU witness for the prosecution; 
oLiVl *<->* r ib' al-i. burden of proof (jur.) 

JLjI itbati affirmative, confirmatory, 
corroborative, positive 

•l~Sj tatabbut ascertainment; verifi- 
cation, examination, check; careful, cau- 
tious procedure, circumspection; inter- 
ment (of the remains of a saint; Chr.) 

C-jLj tabit firm, fixed, established; sta- 
tionary, immovable; steady, invariable, 
constant, stable; permanent, lasting, du- 
rable, enduring; confirmed, proven; a 
constant | ^iU-1 c-jIj'i undis- 
mayed, fearless, staunch, steadfast; c-jIj 
fj*JI (. al-'azm firmly resolved, deter- 
mined; oil i\*&>\ and otf Jlj*l im- 
movable property, real estate, realty; 
O eU^VI c-jU unidirectional, 
rectified {el.) 

h*\j tabita pi. c*j\jj tawabifi fixed star 

CjjJ^ matbut established, confirmed; 
certain, sure, positive, assured; proven 

jv tabara u to destroy, ruin (» s.o.) ; {jyi tw 
bur) to perish III to apply o.s. with zeal 
and perseverance (J* to, persevere, 
persist (J* in) 

jjJ tubur ruin, destruction | ^jjU 
Jjr^^J lW-2 (^ j or ) n&da (da'd) bi-l-wail 
wa-t-t. to wail, burst into loud laments 

Syli. mutdbara persistence, persever- 
ance, endurance; diligence, assiduity 

JaJ taba}a u and II to hold back, keep, pre- 
vent (^ » s.o. from doing; to 
hinder, handicap, impede, slow down, 
set back {*, « s.o.,; to bring about 
the failure (* of, frustrate (* 

<Ji tubna pi. j\* tvban lap, fold of a garment 
(used as a receptacle) 

jL! tiban = ii*j tvbna 

Jjlu look up alphabetically 

£ tajja u to flow copiously 

r\jf- tajjaj copiously flowing, streaming 

jfi- takuna u to be or become thick, thicken ; 
to be firm, Bolid, compact IT to wear out, 
exhauBt, weaken {« s.o.) | \j^i <ifi-\ (darban) 
to wallop s.o. , give s.o. a sound thrashing ; 
j.ull j Jz I {'adu-w) to massacre the 
enemy; r}jk^i ^1 to weaken s.o. by 
inflicting wounds 

jjc tikan, i>Uc takana, ~*jj£ tukuna 
thicknesB, density; consistency; compact- 

&£■ takin pi. »LJc tukand* 3 thick; 

^aJ tody and tadan m. and f., pi. »loJI atda' 
female breast; udder 

j tarr abounding in water | «a]l ^ lj {dam') 
tear-wet, tear-blurred (eye) 

*~>j taraba i (tarb) and II to blame, censure 
(• and J* s.o.) 

■_-j^ tatrib blame, censure, reproof 

j j tartara (• j- j tartara) to chatter, 

j\jj tartar prattler, chatterbox; »j^j 
tartara do. (fern.) 

%j j tartara chatter, prattle 
j j- tarada u to crumble and sop (* bread) 

a±j tarid a dish of sopped bread, meat 
and broth 

j^w mitrad bowl 

r) tarama i {tarm) to knock s.o.'s (•) tooth 
out; — tarima a {taram) to have a gap 
between two teeth 

{jj and &j) ,£j tariya a to become wealthy 
IV to become or be rich, wealthy (<-> or 
^through; to make rich, enrich 

(. S.O.) 


gj taran moist earth; ground, soil | 
L_^jl Ja jjil ,^1 aina t-t. min at4urayya 
(proverbially of things of disproportionate 
value) what has the ground to do with 
the Pleiades? »\j -oil <_J» (fayyaba) 
approx. : may God rest him in peace 1 

tfj tariy pi. »\jj\ atriya'* wealthy, 
rich | <->j^-' iiJ war profiteer, 
nouveau riche 

&\jJ tariy&t plantations 

»jj tarwa and Aj tara* fortune, wealth, 
riches | *jjt\ J»l ahl at-t. the rich, the 
wealthy; «-._>J Ijj (qaumiya) national 
wealth; IJl. *JJ (ma'iya) abundance of 
water, abundant supply of water (of a 

\jj furayyd Pleiades; (also hj) pi. 
oLy turayyat chandelier 

_A* rnvtrin wealthy, rich 

jLo tu'bSn pi. Jot*? ta'abin* snake | »Ul jLJ 
(. al-ma eel 

jl_«J tubani snaky, snakelike, serpen- 
tine; eely 

u-*i. ma£ab pi. i_-*LlU mofd'*6 a drain 

SJLJ Ju'oto fox 

U*2 ta'lab pi. ,_JUJ ia'alib* fox | ^Xdl »Ia 
alopecia (med.), loss of hair 

,-LJ la'labi foxy, foxlike 

LLo ta'laba vixen ; O tetter (med.) 

jii tagr pi. j^« |U0ur front tooth; mouth; 
port, harbor, inlet, bay; seaport 

•^j tugra pi. yJ tugar breach, crevasse, 
crack, rift, crevice; opening, gap; cavity, 
hollow; narrow mountain trail 

fUu tagdm white, whiteness 

>tf tagim white (adj.) 
(jii) UJ taga u (»UJ tuga') to bleat (sheep) 

»Lu |«pa' bleating, bleat 

pU iojtn bleating | Lelj Vj i-ilj *I U 
(ragiya) he has absolutely nothing, he 
is deprived of all resources, prop.: he 
has neither a bleating (sheep) nor a 
braying (camel) 

jlu pzfar pi. jUjI atfar crupper (of the 

Jij tufl dregs, lees, Bediment; residues 

jJu III to associate {» with s.o.), frequent 
s.o.'s (•) company; to pursue, practice 

cm tafina pi. -&t, ,yj tifan callus, 

'Ju\ look up alphabetically 

<iJ see jJj 

L_-iJ taqaba u (iaqb) to bore, or drill, a hole 
(* in, pierce, puncture, perforate 
{* II do. II and IT to light, kindle 
(* V and VII to be pierced, be 
punctured, be perforated 

^Jutaqb piercing, boring, puncture, per- 
foration; (also titqb pi. <->yi tvqUb, <~>\Ju\ 
atqab) hole, puncture, borehole, drill 

IJJj tvqba pi. i_JU luqdb hole 

l_jU»J and <_>UiJl j_jp f fid a|-(tg56 match- 
stick; matches 

u>jSj lu^Cfi keenness, acuteness (of the 


x_ Vi- miiqab pi. ._Jli. matdqib 2 borer, 
drill, gimlet, auger, brace and bit, wimble, 
perforator; drilling machine 

i^ISJI itqab kindling, lighting 

i_Jlj (dgtft penetrating, piercing, sharp 
(mind, eyes) | Ji$\ t-Jli (. an-nazar per- 
spicacity; sharp-eyed; ^Cill i^-ili (. oZ- 
fikr sagacity, acumen, mental acuteness; 
shrewd, Bagacious, sharp-witted 

oUIj tdqibdt borers (200I.) 

<Jam iaqifa a (taqf) to find, meet (• s.o.); — 
taqifa a and taqufa u to be skillful, smart, 
clever II to make straight, straighten 
(*; to correct, set right, straighten 
out (* ; to train, form, teach, edu- 
cate (* s.o.); to arrest (• s.o.); to seize, 
confiscate (a Ill to fence (• with 
s.o.) V to be trained, be educated 

*iUJ taqdfa culture, refinement; edu- 
cation; (pi. -at) culture, civilization 

j\ju taqdfi educational; intellectual; 
cultural | jUi J*JL (miUhaq) cultural 

!_i-iij tatqif cultivation of the mind; 
training, education; instruction 

uili* muidqafa fencing, art or sport of 
fencing, swordplay, Bwordsmanship 

i_iiij tataqquf culturedness, culture, re- 
finement, education 

JiiL. mvtaqqaf educated; trained; oul- 

JJu iaqula u (tiql, *JUj taqdja) to be heavy; 
with w: to load or burden, make heavy; to be hard to bear (Jo for 
s.o.) t weigh heavily (J* on), be burden- 
some, cumbersome, oppressive ( J* to s.o.); 
to be heavy-handed, sluggish, doltish, 
dull-witted; to be too dull, too sluggish 
(j* for, to do, not to bother 
(je about) II to make heavy, weight 
(a; to burden, encumber (J* s.o., 
a with, overburden (J* s.o.), over- 
tax s.o.'s (J*) strength, ask too much 
(J* of s.o.); to trouble, inconvenience, 
bother (J* s.o., i~* with, pester, 
molest (J» s.o.) | *1aIT JJtf and *1a1T JUI 
(kShQahU) to burden s.o. or ; Ja£* JiJ 
k)1>il to burden the budget IV to 
burden (a, * s.o.,; to oppress, dis- 
tress (* s.o.), weigh heavily (• on); to be 
hard to bear (» for s.o.) | *UlT JiJI 
(ic&hilahu) see II; TI to become or be 
heavy; to be troublesome, burdensome 

(J* to s.o.), trouble, oppress (J* s.o.); 
to be sluggish, doltish, slow; to be in a 
bad mood, be sullen, grumpy; to find 
burdensome and turn away (^ from; not to bother (j& about); to be 
too dull, too sluggish (^ for, to do X to find heavy, hard, burdensome, 
troublesome (a, find annoying (a, 
• b.o., | -Hi JiiL-1 (?tttoA«) to 
find s.o. unbearable, dislike s.o. 

JiJ tiql pi. JtfJI atq&l weight; burden, 
load; gravity; heaviness | JUJVl Vj raf 
al-a. weight lifting (atftiet.); ^jDl Jiill 
(nau'%) specific gravity 

JiJ tigal heaviness; sluggishness, dull- 

Ji* taqcd pi. JliJi atq<U load, baggage 

u">Ui)l at-taqalan the humans and the 


*U3 iaqla trouble, inconvenience, dis- 

UUJ taqala heaviness; sluggishness, 
doltishness; dullness 

JJu taqil pi. »'^Ju iuqaW*, JUJ iiqdl 
heavy; weighty, momentous, grave, se- 
rious, important; burdensome, trouble- 
some, cumbersome, oppressive; unpleas- 
ant, disagreeable, distasteful (person) | 
pJI J-S? (. ad - dam insufferable, un- 
pleasant, disagreeable (person) ; rjj\ J~iJ 
*. ar-rHh doltish, dull (person) ; a bore ; 
JUI JjJoj £. a^-z%U disagreeable, in- 
Bufierable (person); ^H\ J-iJ }, al-jahm 
slow of understanding, slow-witted; J^SJ 
**Jl |. a&'&am' hard of hearing; i«L-* 
*LiJ (fina'a) heavy industry; JJu *l* 
heavy water (phys.) 

JiJI algal 2 heavier ; more oppressive 

Jlii. mitqal pi. J-»li* mataqit* weight 
(also placed as an equipoise on the 
scales of a balance) ; miskal, a weight (in 
Egypt = 24 J*ljJ =* 4.68 g) | Ij J Jlii. m. 


4arra the weight of a dust speck, i.e., a 
tiny amount; a little bit; ^ J Hi. a little 
of, a little bit of 

JJ& tatqil weighting, burdening; mo- 

Ji& tatdqul sluggishness, dullness 

JiU mutaqqal and mutqal burdened, 
encumbered; overloaded; weighted (<-. 
with; oppressed (o> by); heavy 

J»l±u mutat&qil sluggish, dull; sullen, 

J& takila a {takal) to lose a child (•), also: 
to be bereaved of a loved one (•) by 
death IV Uolj |*VI J&l atkala l-umma 
waladaM to bereave a mother of her son 

J& talcal state of one who has lost a 
friend or relative; mourning over the loss 
of a loved one 

Jt^SCj $aJU&n(*) bereaved of a child 

J&S takld bereaved of a child (mother) 

HS*tf t&kila pi. JTIjJ taroakil 3 bereaved 
of a child (mother) 

*i£j tukna pi. jSo tuhan, -at barracks {mil.) 

J} talla u (JL* toloZ) to tear down, destroy, 
overthrow, subvert (*, esp. Ujp 
'arSan to topple a throne) VII to be 
subverted, overthrown (throne) 

ili tuUa pi. Jtf tvlal troop, band, party, 
group (of people); military detachment 

!_Jj tahba i {talb) to criticize, run down (• 
s.o.); to slander, defame (• s.o.) 

,_Jj toft slander, defamation 

*ii* matlaba pi. cJli* mo*aZ»& 3 short- 
coming, defect, blemish, stain, disgrace 

lJIj tdlib slanderous, defamatory; 

iii II to triple, make threefold (*; to 
do three times (* 

iiJJ («# pi. i^tfl aiia one third; {vlvi 
a sprawling, decorative calligraphic style 

M faZa/a (f. £>t>U tal&t) three; tf^J 
talaian three times, thrice 

J-jC taZaft tertiary; Tertiary {geol.) \ 
j^l Jj L* pre-Tertiary 

_ r J* ii")C taldtata 'aSara, f. I_ r i* ^^ 
taJata 'aSrata thirteen 

iJUIl aHaWf the third; liltt jdlifan 
thirdly; liltf l /eo of a second 

j_jJ^j taldtun thirty 

.U^l at-}alatd* and *U:&11 *jj yaum 
aM. Tuesday 

i'stf fwZd* 1 and *iii. matlai* three at a 

J:AJ tvldti tripartite, consisting of three, 
{gram.) triliteral, consisting of three 
radicals; tri-; trio (mus.) | WjjJI J*^ $• 
z-zawayd triangular; olij^Jl J^J t. J-uw* 
raqat trifoliate 

ijjlj Jalwt Trinity {Chr.); trinity, triad ; 
triplet I i!>_^UJI 5y>j zakrat a{-t. pansy 

£-& tatftt doctrine of the Trinity; 

Trinity {Chr.) 

JJiJ ta/ftH trigonometric(al) 

iii* mutaUa} tripled, triple, threefold; 
having three diacritical dots (letter); 
triangular; (pi. -a*) triangle (geom.) \ 
o\J^\ iiiill iljll (raya), dJiLI ^1 ('atom) 
and iiiil the tricolor; jU-1 iiiil {k&dd) 
acute-angled triangle; WjjJI <iii* m. az- 
zawdyd triangular; ^tUI ^jl— III tiJill 
(mu&wau* *-sa^ain) isosceles triangle; 
p-'yU-iVi tfjl— lil ii^.1 equilateral triangle; 
/ttJI iitil right-angled triangle 

oliiiil al-mutaUaiat and i^liliil uL*- 
hisab al-m. trigonometry 

-U talaja u: *\J>\ c^JJ (sa??ia'u) it snowed, 
was snowing; — taty'a a to be deUghted, 


be gladdened (soul, heart; *-> by) XI to 
cool with ice (*; to freeze, turn into 
ice (* IV *^Jl c*JJI it snowed, was 
snowing; to cool, moisten (* | JjI 
•j-U» {fadrahu) to delight, please, gratify 
s.o. T to become icy, turn into ice, 
congeal; to freeze 

Jtf talj pi. £jlj juiuj snow; ice; artificial 
ice | JiJI ii-lj mtdfat af-|. snowflake 

L ^JJ ta/ys snowy, snow- (in compounds) ; 
icy, glacial, ice- (in compounds) 

pU" taJi; icy 

p^J tattd; pi. -un ice vendor 

4*-^j tallaja pi -St iceberg, ice floe; 
refrigerator, icebox 

l»Jju matlaja pi. Mi* mai&li? icebox, 
refrigerator; cold-Btorage plant 

rjk* mafluj snow-covered; iced, icy; 
oU-jii. frozen food; iced beverages 

Ji- muiailaj iced; icy, ice-cold 

j? falama i ((aim) to blunt, make jagged (a, break the edge of (*); to make a 
breach, gap or opening (a in a wall); to 
defile, sully (a reputation, honor) ; — $a* 
lima a to be or become jagged, dull, blunt 
II to blunt (* T to become blunt 
VII to be defiled, be discredited (repu- 

1J talm nick, notch; breach, opening, 
gap; crack, fissure, rift | w-j-Jl J? (. 
at-fit defamation 

<Jj tulma pi. li fvlam = talm | Utt .u 
sadda tulmatan to fill a gap; J— T V Sjj 
(fu«u2du) a gap that cannot be closed, 
an irreparable loss 

i\j talim dull, blunt 

pli* matlum defiled, sullied (reputation, 

Itu mutafaUim blunted, blunt; crack- 
ing (voice) 

c^**li ill* muntalim aa-£ti of ill repute, 
of dubious reputation 

f lamma there [ /• ,y» min famma hence, there- 
fore, for that reason 

s tumma then, thereupon ; further- 
more, moreover; and again, and once 
more (emphatically in repetition) | *& < "& 
(kalid) no and a hundred times no ! * ,y 
min tumma then, thereupon 

ie lammata (a ) there; there is | ^ 
lc there isn't 

>U tumdm a grass | * ^Jl .Jt^U J* (^a* 
raji t-t.) within easy reach, handy; J**- 
[•IfJi <J>^ J* he made it readily under- 
standable, he presented it plausibly for all 

Xcl look up alphabetically 

j£ famara u to bear fruit IV do. X to profit, 
benefit (a from); to exploit, utilize (* 
to invest profitably (a money) 

ye tamar pi. jU |:*Mdr, jLc I a^mar 
fruits, fruit (coll.); result, effect, fruit, 
fruitage; yield, profit, benefit, gain 

lj£ tamara (n. un. of tamar) pi. -at 
fruit; result, effect; yield, profit, benefit, 

j^L.1 istitmdr exploitation (also pel.- 
earn.), utilization, profitable use 

jJu muimir fruitful, productive, prof- 
itable, lucrative 

jJS~* mustatmir pi. -fin exploiter (pot.- 
earn.); beneficiary 

J* lamila a (tamal) to become drunk IV to 
make drunk, intoxicate {• s.o.) 

Jx tamal intoxication, drunkenness 

*Lc tamala drunken fit, drunkenness 

Jr tamil intoxicated, drunk(en) 

ilU tvmala residue, remnant, dregs (of 
a liquid), heeltap (of wine); scum, foam, 


l yt II to appraise, assess* estimate (*, 
determine the prioe or value (a of; 
to price (a | jJj V Id yutammanu 
invaluable, inestimable, priceless 

jx faman pi. uLc 1 atm&n, «Lc I a$nuna 
price, cost; value | ^Vl ^1 (afti) coat 
price; ^-U^M j^l (osdsi) par, nominal 

jue* famin costly, precious, valuable 

jx I olman 1 costlier, more preoioua, 
more valuable 

j*JS fafmin estimation, appraisal, as- 
sessment, valuation, rating 

o>*JU majmun object of value 

jJL> mvfammin estimator, appraiser | 

j*U mutamman prized, valued, valu- 
able, precious 

j*i* mu|mtn costly, precious, valu- 

j-JU mviman objeot of value 
■SJU jamdniya (f. ulc famdmn) eight 

j-tp «Jlc tamaniyata *aiara, f. JyJ* jU 
(am&niya 'aSrata eighteen 

jrc fumn pi. uLe I atjndn one-eighth 

ex tumna pi. -OX a dry measure {Eg. = 
i/, c u5 = .268 1; PoJ. = ca. 2.26 1) 

jjjLc tamanun eighty 
j*b)l oMa""n the eighth 
j*i. mutamman eightfold; octagonal 
cJ funna pi. ju junan fetlock 

Ij-Cj lundu'a, (unduvn pi. itJ landdin breast 
(of the male) 

^J |and » (jany) to double, double up, fold, 
fold up, fold under (a; to bend, flex 
(*; to turn away, dissuade, keep, 
prevent, divert (j* • s.o. from) | Ob* £ 

t-ji {'in&na farasikl) he galloped off 
II to double, mako double (a ; to do 
twice, repeat (a; to pleat, plait 
(a; to form the dual (a of a word); 
to provide with two diacritical dots (a 
a letter) IV to commend, praise, laud, 
extol (J*, s.o.), speak appreciatively 
(J* of) | .bJI >U U* JJI fdftra t-tan&*) 
to speak in the most laudatory terms of 
s.o. V to double, become doublo; to be 
doublod; to be repeated ; to bend, fold; 
to be bent, be folded, be folded up or 
under; to walk with a swinging gait 
VII to bend, bond up, down or over, lean, 
incline, bow; to fold, be foldable, be 
folded back; to turn away (j* from), 
give up, renounce (j*; to turn, face 
(Jl toward); to apply o.s., turn (Jl to; (with foil, imperf.) to set out, pre- 
pare (to do X to except, exclude 
[j* • or a or s.o. from), make an 
exception (a of 

JJ fany bending ; folding ; turning 
away, dissuasion, keeping, prevention 

j? l* n y pl* *^j' «£»*' f°ld, pleat, plait, 
crease (in cloth); bend, twist | Am Lil 
Jj Hnyan ba'da {inyin from time to 


»LJI atn&'a (prep.) during; in the 
course of j »UjI j /» alnd't do.; J 
•UVI »Ja j, .b'VI ^ J, ^Jli .b'l in the 
meantime, during all this time, mean- 

L*J tonya pi. tanay&t fold, pleat, plait, 
crease (in cloth) 

Lw Janfya pi. UUJ tandyd middle in- 
cisor; narrow pass; mountain trail | 
LUi j in, inside, among, between, fre- 
quently only a fuller, rhetorically more 
elegant expression for "in", e.g., LL? j 
<~Ju in his heart, inwardly, t^^&l UL> j in 
the books ; L UJ jv» in, inside, among, be- 
tween; ULill f^ foUtT of-f. one with 
high-flung aspirations 


»Uj tan&' commendation, praise, eu- 
logy; appreciation 

»b* Juno" 1 and Ji. maPnS, two at a 

(£^j tanawi dualist 

hjj $anawiya dualism 

Jtj* torwi laudatory, eulogistic 

JLj ttma'i twofold, double, dual, bi- 
nary, bi-; biradical (gram.); duet, duo 
(mvs.) | jljlll JU iij* (muAaffti J. I- 
miho&r) two-cycle engine 

O V& tunS'iya dualism; duet, duo 


DUit t*ndnt, f. Oliul tfnatdm two 

^ LjI itnS 'a&ara, f. ly^ Uifl itnaid 
'airata twelve 

^Oj*1/I ■ f j* yaum aZ-ttnatn and (joiVI 

Jlill a$-t&ni the second; the next; LJU 
t&niyan and *Jl) taniyatan secondly; for 
the second time, once more, again | 
jojl JU (. |natn the second of a pair, pen- 
dant, companion piece, match 

LjU i&niya pi. jljJ |au4ntn second 
(time unit) 

t^tt tanawi secondary; minor | jj*\ 
o^Jtf matters of secondary importance, 
minor matters; <iy\j «u-_>J* secondary 
school; ^jiti ^j-J subletting 

5^ tatniya repetition; plaiting, pleat- 
ing; doubling, gemination; (gram.) dual; 
second sequel (e.g., of a collection of 
short stories); commendation, praise, 
eulogy | f-ljwVI V-" Deuteronomy 

»UjjI iit$iwt* bending, flection; flexibil- 
ity, foldability | »LJu*I JjU foldable, 

;.Uil iniin&'a pi. -5* (n. vie.) bend, 
flexure, curve 

r I ■,*;-! totyut' exception, exclusion | 
»U&-L with the exception of, except; 
»U&>1 Oj-Xt without exception 

JUiL-l iafiind't exceptional; LJUil-t 
utitnd'tyan as an exception | 4-JUJ&*! J^>-l 
emergencies; SJUilJ <JU- (;'oi«i) emer- 
gency session 

Jl* mainly folded; plaited, pleated; 

Ji. mufannan double, twofold; in the 
dual (pram.) 

J±w* mustatnan excepted, excluded 
(,>. from) 

*y tuwa see ^ji 

l {^y) cjli W&a u to return, come back 
(also, e.g., a state or condition, Jl or J to 
s.o.); with v : *° r« turn s-th. (Jl to s.o.) | 
*-ii Jl ._jIj to regain consciousness, come 
to; »Xij *JI ^15 (rw&friAu) to recover 
one's senses II to reward (• s.o.; said of 
God) IV to repay, requite <* a with) ; 
to reward (J* » s.o. for) X to seek reward 

\^y faub pi. t-»LJ tiyab, «-■'>' atwiib 
garment, dress; cloth, material ; (fig.) garb, 
outward appearance, guise, cloak, mask; 
pi. ^LJ clothes, clothing, apparel | cjIj 
tj^JI J. «-5aAro formal dress, evening 
clothes ; iu-j v^* J hi plain, homely form ; 
^Lill j*lt of flawless character, irre- 

lyljj tatodb requital, recompense, re- 
ward (for good deeds); (Ial. Law) merit, 
credit (arising from a pious deed) 

iijt* matwaba requital, recompense, re- 
ward (bestowed by God for good deeds) 

ljIi. ma$ab and ili* ma}aba place to 
which one returns ; meeting place ; rendez- 
vous ; resort, refuge 

ijli. matdba (with foil, genit.) place or 
time at which appears or recurs; 


manner, mode, fashion ; see also pre- 
ceding entry | ili* (with foil, genit.) like, 
as ; tantamount to, equivalent to, having 
the same function as 

2 Vj& = .->•& (t_Jj VI) to yawn 

(jjj) jLj tdra u to stir, be stirred up, be a- 
roused, be excited ; to swirl up, rise (dust) ; 
to arise (question, problem; a difficulty, 
*4*-J J /* «">?A*A» before s.o.) ; to be trig- 
gered, be unleashed, break out; to revolt, 
rebel, rise (Je against); to rage, storm | 
•yli jtf (t&'iruhu) to fly into a rage, be- 
. come furious, flare up IV to agitate, 
excite (• s.o., a; to stimulate (» 
s.o., a; to irritate (• s.o., *; 
to arouse, stir up, kindle, excite (a, 
e.g., feelings), cause, provoke, awaken 
(a; to raise, pose, bring up (*Jt— . 
mas'alatan a question, a problem) | jtil 
*3j\S (td'iratahu) to infuriate s.o., excite 
s.o. X to excite, Btir up, kindle (a, 
esp. passions) ; to rouse (a; to 
arouse, awaken (a, esp. feelings); 
to elicit, evoke (a wails, outcries, j* 
from s.o.) ; to incite, set (J* * s.o. against) ] 
' , jr- jlil-l (gatfabahu) to infuriate s.o., 
make s.o. angry 

jjl taur pi. d\ju txrdn bull, steer; ox; 
Taurus (astron.) | jjiJI Jji *>Jj" SOrabat 
dail aUt. oxtail soup 

*jy taura excitement, agitation; out- 
break, outburst, fit (of fury, of despair, 
etc.) ; eruption (of a volcano) ; (pi. -at) up- 
heaval, uprising, insurrection, riot, rebel- 
lion, revolt, revolution | 3JL»I ijy (ahliya) 
internal strife, civil war 

,Sjy tauri revolutionary (adj. and n.) 

iSJJy taurawi revolutionary (adj. and 

ulj_jj tawardn agitation, excitation, 
flare-up, eruption, outbreak, outburst; 
dust whirl 

jli* matar incentive, stimulus, motive, 
spur, occasion, cause | J.U-1 jli. m. al- 
jadal and flj^l jli* object of controversy, 
point of contention 

•jlil i}ara excitation, stirring up, kin- 
dling; agitation, incitement; provocation, 
(a)rousing, awakening; irritation, stim- 

J\j l&'ir excited, agitated, raving, fu- 
rious, mad; rebellious; fury, rage (in the 
idiomatic phrase *j 15 jl> see above) ; (pi. 
j\y tttunvar) insurgent, rebel, revolution- 

•J\$ td'tra pi. J\y tawd* if* tumult; ex- 
citement, agitation; fury, rage 

jJL- mutir exciting; provocative; stimu- 
lative, irritative; excitant, irritant, stimu- 
lant; instigator; germ, agent; pi. dljd. 

rjijy tdriyUm thorium {chem.) 

JjJ VII to swarm, crowd, throng (J* around 
s.o.); to come over s.o. (J*>) 

6y taut and J*J1 JjJ |. an-nahl swarm 
of bees 

*jj |«m (coll.; n. un. 5) garlio 

gy tawd i (»\y tatod*, ^y tuwiy, ^i. matwan) 
to stay, live (<-■> at a place); to settle 
down (<~> at a place); pass.tuwtya to 
be buried IV to stay, live; to lodge, put 
up as a guest (• s.o.) 

,jjj tawiy guestroom 

ly tuwa pi. tfy tuwan signpost, road- 

gy\* matioan pi. jli* matawin abode, 
habitation, dwelling; place of rest 

i_-w tayyib pi. -3i a deflowered but un- 
married woman, widow, divorcee 

J^J taital pi. JjLJ taydtiP a variety of wild 
goat (Capra jaela) 


J-UU- jataliq = jii*- 

J?Jr 7V7V pi. *^-V ja'«?*'' breast; prow, 
bow (of a ship) 

jU- ja'ara a (ja'r, j\fr. ju'ar) to low, moo; 
to supplicate, pray fervently (Jl to God) 

jl»- ja'r and jl£»- jVfir lowing, mooing 
(of cattle) 

iiU yd: pi. -dt (Eg. spelling) gas 

^U- ;dz jazz 

^jjW (Fr. jazon, Eg. spelling) g&tin lawn 

^iU pa'afo a (j'a'i) to be agitated, be con- 
vulsed (with pain or fright) 

,jiU- ja'a* emotional agitation; heart, 
bouI I *iU- Jijj rabafa ja'Sahu to remain 
calm, composed, self-possessed ^U- 1 J«jlj 
or^U-l cjI* calm, composed, cool, self- 
possessed, undismayed; iajtj ^jLtf with 
unswerving courage, unflinchingly 

*£%•» ^^V *nd «=/V &x&to jacket, coat 

<!>jJL- yoZSn gallon 

if jjIU (Eg. spelling) galirl gallery ((Aea(.) 

I>U- jam pi. -df cup; drinking vessel; bowl 

*SJ*- j&makiya pi. -#, ■iLlj»- jawdmik 2 

t/*>*U- jdmi« pi. tr **l_y r ;aw5mi** buffalo 

**->»U- jdmwao buffalo cow 

iJ^U- (pronounced i&rareg, from Turk, ca- 
neH§i; coll.; n. un. idmrgiye) a variety 
of small green plum with several stones 

•l>- j3h rank, standing, dignity, honor, glory, 


ijU- 7'dwa Java 

^jU. ;dwi Javanese; benzoin; (pi. -un) 
a Javanese 

jljjU- jawad&r rye 

^jU (ffluni sergeant = ^jLi, ^jLi 

1 t r j*- 71*60 pi. uUI o;6d6, uU- jt&do well, 
cistern; pit 

**:*- jubba pi. ^-»- jtiiafc, «->L>- jdwJfr, ^-JL*- 
jab&'ib* jubbah, a long outer garment, 
open in front, with wide sleeves 

re- jabh, pi. re- 1 
ajbah beehive 

ajbuh, »U- jibdh, _U-I 

i«»- jabjc&na, jabakdna powder magazine; 
ammunition; artillery depot 

»- jabara u (jabr, j^>- jubur) to set (* broken 
bones); to restore, bring back to normal 
(a; to help back on his feet, help 
up (* s.o. ; e.g., one fallen into poverty); 
to force, compel (Je • s.o. to do | 
•jUU- jw- (k&firahu) to console, comfort, 
gratify, oblige s.o.; to treat (s.o.) in a 
conciliatory or kindly manner II to set 
(a broken bones) III to treat with kind- 
ness, with friendliness (• s.o.), be nice 
(» to s.o.) IV to force, compel (J* • b.o. 
to do; to hold sway (J* over) 
V to show o.s. proud, haughty; to act 
strong, throw one's weight around; to 
show o.b. strong or powerful, demon- 
strate one's strength or power; to be set 
(broken bones) | iijL 41I j*£ (bi-bnika) 
God has demonstrated His power on 
your son, i.e., He has taken him unto 
Himself VII to be mended, repaired, 

jv~ jabr setting (of broken bones) ; force, 
compulsion ; coercion, duress ; power, 


might; (predestined, inescapable) decree 
of fate; \jv- jabran forcibly, by force | 
jj-l Jp 'Urn al-j. algebra ; j*J\ j*? pj yaum 
j. al-bahr a local holiday of Cairo (the 
day on which, in former times, the water 
of the Nile was channeled into the now- 
abandoned kaltj, or City Canal, thus mark- 
ing the beginning of the irrigation season) 

ifj^r jabrt algebraic ; compulsory, 
forced ; — jabari an adherent of the doc- 
trine of predestination and the inescap- 
ability of fate; fatalist 

<iS~- jabariya an Islamic school of 
thought teaching the inescapability of 
fate; fatalism 

jL»- jabbar pi. -un, _rL»- jdbabir 2 , «yL*- 
jababira giant ; colossus; tyrant, op- 
pressor; almighty, omnipotent (God); 
gigantic, giant, colossal, huge ; Orion 
(astron.) \ *jU^\ jL>- j. al-kuftva striding 
powerfully, taking huge strides 

ijU- jibara (art of) bonesetting 

•JVf fabira and *jL»- jib&ra pi. j-'L*- 
jabd'ir 2 splint (surg.) 

Cjjjv- jabarut omnipotence ; power, 
might; tyranny 
tlij^r jibriya' 1 pride, haughtiness 
O j$4 tajbir, flliJI j^J- orthopedics 
jL>-l ijbar compulsion, coercion 

tSjL*-l ijbdri forced, forcible, com- 
pulsory, obligatory | ^jUj-Vl J-^Jl com- 
pulsory recruitment; military conscrip- 

_jl»- jSbir and j<£- mujabbir bonesetter 

jj^r majbur and jjt mujbar forced, 

Jjjwj- jabra'lP, Ji^n*- jtftrfP Gabriel 

1 w J *r H *° pl&ster, coat, patch, or fix with 
plaster (a; to put in a cast, set in 
plaster {a 

(J -« r jibs gypsum; plaster of Paris 

i-L»- jabbdsa gypsum quarry; plaster 

* cr **- jabaa (coll. ; n. un. * ; ayr.) watermelon(s) 

1 J 7 *- jobala u i (jabl) to mold, form, shape, 
fashion (a; to knead (a; to 
create (J* • s.o. with a natural disposi- 
tion or propensity for) ; pass. J* J-*- (jttbila) 
to be born for, be naturally disposed to, 
have a propensity for 

<L*- jibla, jibiUa pi. -at natural dis- 
position, nature, temper 

a J-*- jabal pi. <JL*- fifcdJ, JL*-1 a;6aZ mountain ; 
mountains, mountain range | *_JVl JL»- 
j. al-alb the Alps; ,^-ljjlfl JU*- the Awes 
Mountains (in £ Algeria); J-U- J-»- ice- 
berg; L^- J-»- j. af?»d Mount Sinai; J;>. 
JjlL Gibraltar; jli J-»- volcano 

J-»- ;o6a/i mountainous, hilly; moun- 
tain (adj.); montane; (pi. -fin) highlander, 

iSS$~»r gabaidwi (eg.) highlander, moun- 

4j ^U- gabalaya pi. -5* (eg.) grotto, cave 

^*- jabuna u (jvbn, *JL»- ;'ai<Jna) to be a 
coward, be fearful; to be too much of 
a coward (j* to do, shrink (jt- from II to cause to curdle (a milk); to 
make into cheese (a; to curdle; to 
accuse of cowardice, call a coward (• s.o.) 
V to curdle (milk), turn into cheese 

,>*- jvbn and iJL*- jab&na cowardice 

,>». jvbn and 4_*~ 7'tdma cheese 

dLr- jabdn pi. »L-j*. jvbanS* coward; 

jL*- jabban cheese merchant 

,>-»- jabin pi. ,>>- jubun, i-»-l ajbina, 
J<. r \ ajbun forehead, brow; facade, front; 
f ace I issfr 0* m * n jotonf I alone; J* 
■IfJI ,jw>- in the sky 


J-jj. jabinl frontal 

^-■\ ajban 1 more cowardly 

*iL*- jabbana pi. -at cemetery 

,>-*? ta/fctn cheese making, processing 
into cheese 

1 4 t *- jabaha a to meet, face, confront (• s.o.) 
Ill to face, confront, oppose, defy (• b.o., 

a, show a bold front (* to); to face 
(» a problem, a difficulty) 

*r>- jabha pi. *L>- jibah, oLp*- jabah&t 
forehead, brow; front, face, facade; front- 
line, battle front 

iflf m-ujdbaha facing, confrontation, 

2 i>U- <**■ see *iU^»- 

^ jobs, t (it*- jibaya) to collect, raise, 
levy (a taxes, duties) II to prostrate o.s. 
(in prayer) VIII to pick, choose, elect 
(a, • s.o.) 

oL»- jibaya raising, levying (of taxes) ; 
(pi. -o() tax, duty, impost 

JL*- jibd'% tax- (in compounds); fiscal 

^£ majban pi. <^ljf majSbin tax, impost 

t->U- jSbin pi. !L#- jufttlA tax collector, 
revenue officer, collector; (bus, etc.) con- 
ductor (*r.) 

LjU- ;diiyapl. vl>r jouhSomi pool, basin 

b-. j'a<5 (abbreviation of A$\ <- r ^ r ) cosine 

£*. joga « (jog) and VIII to tear out, uproot 
(a a tree, also fig.) 

*V /uga pi. <ii»- jutoj, £>lif I aj|a| body ; 
corpse, cadaver; carcass 

li^Lf mujtaU uprooted (also fig.) 

J±»- 70*! thick, dense (esp. hair) 

J-li«- jt#tg pi. UJli»- jataliqa catholioos, pri- 
mate of the Armenian Church 

if jatama « » (;ajm, >»ji»- jiilum) to alight, 
sit, perch (bird); to crouch, cower; to 
fall or lie prone, lie face down; to beset, 
oppress (J* 

<*i*- joima (n. vie.) motionless sitting 
or lying 

j»li»- jttidm and f>V jdlum nightmare, 

j |^»- jutmdn pi . - of body , mortal 

iJ!^- jutmdm bodily, physical, cor- 

rU- jStim pi. ^ jiUtam squatting, 
crouching; perching; prostrate, prone 

(jb?) li»- joW u (711/uu)) to kneel, rest on the 
knees; to bend the knee, genuflect; to 
fall on one'B knees 

jif- jut&w kneeling position 

•A- jvfpn roc ^ P ue i mound; sepulchral 
mound, tumulus 

J* majlan hassock 

i^U- jatin kneeling; Jli-1 Hercules 

jfi jahada a {jahd, j_j*; juhtid) to negate 
(a; to disclaim, disavow, disown, 
deny (a; to refuse, reject, repudiate 
(a; to renounce, forswear, adjure 
(a a belief); to deny (a * s.o. his right) | 
*L^ J& (jamilahu) to be ungrateful to s.o. 

a* jahd denial; repudiation, disavowal, 
rejection, disclaimer; unbelief (rei.) 

*jt[ juhUd denial; evasion, dodging, 
shirking (of a moral obligation) ; ingrat- 
itude; repudiation, disavowal, rejection, 
disclaimer; unbelief (rel.) 

.U-U- j&hid denier; infidel, unbeliever 
_^- VII to hide in its hole or den (animal) 

j# jiihr pi. jl*H ajhar, jj* juhur hole, 
den, lair, burrow (of animals) 


J& jahi pi. ^l* jih&i* jLL* jihSdn, 
^1*1 ajJutf young donkey; (pi. ^j* 
jvhuS) trestle, horse 

ii*f jah&a young female donkey 

Ji* jahaza a (-!»>*; juAu?) to bulge, pro- 
trude (eyeball) 

><Jl J»j* /uAfl? aX-'ain exophthalmio 
goiter, abnormal protrusion of the eye- 

J*& jahafa a (jahf) to peel off, Bcrape off 
(a; to sweep away (*; to have 
a bias (*- for), side (*. with s.o.) IV to 
harm, hurt, injure, prejudice (v s.o.,; to ruin, destroy (^ s.o.,; 
to wrong (i-> s.o.) 

J»l*H \jhaf injustice, wrong; bias, prej- 

«Ju*jf mujhtif unjust, unfair; biased, 

Ji*; jahfal pi. JiU^ jahdfil 3 multitude, le- 
gion, host, large army ; army corps 
(Syr.); eminent man 

^ jakim f. (also m.) fire, hellfire, hell 
-J; jahimi hellish, infernal 

V- jakjca (eg.) to lord it, give o.s. airs; to 
boast, brag; (syr.) to dress up (slightly 

^l* jakkdk boaster, braggart 

i-u- jadd pi. JjJ*- judud, ilo»-l ajdad grand- 
father; ancestor, forefather | J* VI -il-l 
(a'la) ancestor 

3.U- jadda pi. -at grandmother 

S -U- jadda i to be new; to be a recent devel- 
opment, have happened lately, have 
recently become a fact; to be added, crop 
up or enter as a new factor (circum- 
stances, costs); to appear for the first 
time (also, e.g., on the stage); to be or 
become serious, grave; to be weighty, 

significant, important; to take (j 
seriously; to strive earnestly (j for), go 
out of one's way (j to do, make 
every effort (j in); to be Berious, be in 
earnest (j about), mean business; to 
hurry (j one's step) 11 to renew (a; 
to make anew, remake (a ; to 
modernize (a; to restore, renovate, 
remodel, refit, recondition, refurbish (*; to be an innovator, a reformer; 
to feature new or novel, produce new; to rejuvenate, regenerate, 
revive, freshen up (a; to renew, 
extend (* a permit) ; to begin anew, repeat 
(a, make a new start (a in,); to 
try again (Ji*- hazzahu one's luck) IV to 
strive, endeavor, take pains; to apply 
o.s. earnestly and assiduously (j to), 
be bent, be intent (j on; to hurry 
(j one's step); to renew, make new (a V to become new, be renewed; to 
revive X to be new, be added or enter as 
a new factor, come newly into existence; 
to make new, renew (a 

i*- jadd pi. jj-ju- judud good luck, good 

-u- jidd seriousness, earnestness; dil- 
igence, assiduity, eagerness; l-i»- jiddcm 
very, much | Jj£ and .u- j- earnestly, 
seriously; JifcU -u- jiddu bahizin very high 
(price); Ji* J*- j. 'azimin very great; 
J»*>fc^VI -u- byilie {Jidda l-iktildf) they 
differ widely; J -ii-1 JL- J* i-iij (sag* 
l-j.) to apply o.s. with diligence to, take 
pains in, make every effort to 

il-U- jidd* serious ; earnest ; Lj j_»- 
jiddiyan in earnest, earnestly, seriously 

o-u. jiddiya earnestness; seriousness, 
gravity (of a situation) 

•Jj- Jidda newness, recency, novelty; 
modernness, modernity; O rebirth, ren- 

*-U- judda 2 Jidda (seaport in W Saudi 
Arabia, on Red Sea) 

4j4»- jadid pi. i-u- jvdvd, judad new, 
recent; renewed; modem; novel, un- 
precedented | uUol-1 al-jadid&n day and 
night; .bo*. j* anew, again; {eg.) .U.U- 
«U yodid Ian? brand-new 

.u-l ajadd* more serious, more intent; 
newer, more recent 

-bo*: fa;dt(2 renewal (also, e.g., of a 
permit); creation of new, origina- 
tion; new presentation, new production 
(theat.); innovation; reorganization, re- 
form; modernization; renovation, restora- 
tion, remodeling, refitting, recondition- 
ing, refurbishing; rejuvenation, regenera- 
tion ; pi. -at innovations ; new achievements 

iJjf tajaddud renewal, regeneration, 

jU- jddd in earnest, earnest; aerious 
(as opposed to comic, funny) 

oU- j&dda pi. -it, iij»- jatvtidd* main 
street; street 

3jJdt majdud fortunate, lucky 

■s-Lf mujaddid renewer; innovator; re- 

iJjf- mujaddad renewed, extended; re- 
modeled, reconditioned, renovated, re- 
stored; rejuvenated, regenerated; new, 
recent, young 

Jjf- mujidd painstaking, diligent, as- 

J *«'■■■« muftajidd new, recent; incipient 

•u- jadvba u (*>j-*»r jvduba) to be or 
become dry, arid (soil) IT to Buffer from 
drought, poverty or dearth; to be barren, 
sterile; to come to nothing, go up in 
smoke, fall fiat, fizzle out; (ayr.) to 
explode in the barrel (shell; mil.) 

V**- jadb drought, barrenness, sterility; 
sterile, barren 

t—d-**- jadxb and ^-Or' ajdab*, f. »Ij*- 
jadba'* barren, sterile 

<-»0j£ mujdib barren, sterile; desolate, 
arid; unproductive, unprofitable 

i-U- jadai pi. ilj*-l ajd&i grave, tomb 

a^-4^ judjvd pi. 4Ja*. jaddjid* cricket 


b-u- joduro u (SjIju- jad&ra) to be fit, suit- 
able, proper, appropriate (<-» for s.o., for; to befit, behoove (<-> s.o.,; to 
be worthy (^ of), deserve (i_> | 
•/*,» jj*: (4%kruhH) and jTULj j-b< it is 
worth mentioning 

j0»- iorfr wall 

jr*r yoiir pi. -tin, »lj.u- jttdartf* 
worthy, deserving (._> of ; becoming, 
befitting («_»; proper, suited, suit- 
able, fit (vj for), appropriate («_> to) | y-u- 
jTuJIj (4ȣr) worth mentioning 

>a*-I ojior 1 worthier; more appro- 
priate; better suited, more suitable 

•jl-U- jadara worthiness; fitness, suit- 
ability, aptitude, qualification; appro- 

jio»- jiddr pi. j-u- ;udur, ulj-U- juoVfin 

L$j1a*. ;id£rf mural, wall (adj.) 

i».u- ;Wtra (pass.) and II to have smallpox 

tfj-U- judari, jadari smallpox 

j^tf majdur and j-b* mujaddar in- 
fected with smallpox; pock-marked 

•jiaf mujaddara dish made of rice or 
(in Syr.) of bulgur with lentils, onions 
and oil (eg. t ayr.) 

*£J*- jada'a a (/<wT) to cut off, amputate 
(a, esp. some part of the body) 

«Ju"lH £0* bi-jad'i l-anf (prop., at the 
cost of having the nose cut off) at any 
price, regardless of the sacrifice involved 

f.u.1 ajda' 2 mutilated (by having the 
nose, or the like, cut off) 

3 D f-U- gada' (= £i»- ja4a') pi. jU.u- 
gieF&n (eg.) young man, young fellow; he- 

1 Jub*- II to curse, blaspheme (J* s.o., esp. 

«Jo-i*i to/dt/ imprecation, blasphemy 

■J»-U- jadafa t and II to row (a a boat) 

■Jil-uf mijdaf pi. tJujLf majddif 2 oar 

1 Ji» jadala u i [jadl) to twist tight, tighten, 
stretch (a a rope); to braid, plait (*, 
the hair, etc.) II to braid, plait, (a 
Ill to quarrel, wrangle, bicker (• with 
s.o.); to argue, debate (• with s.o.); to 
dispute, contest ( j VI to quarrel, 
have an argument; to carry on a dispute 

J-i>- jadal quarrel, argument; debate, 
dispute, discussion, controversy | ^^ 
II *r farada jadalan to assume for the 
sake of argument, propose as a basis for 

J.U- jadali controversial; disputatious; 
a disputant 

JLu- jaddal and J I a* mijddl disputa- 
tious, argumentative; mijddl see also 

iL.U- jadxla pi. JJl^ jada'iP braid, 
plait; tress 

Jl-Lf mijddl pi. Jiilf majddtP flag- 
stone, ashlar; see also above under 

Jlo». jidaZ and iblf mujddala pi. -eW 
quarrel, argument; dispute, discussion, 
debate | JI-iA-l J^ V (yw/fiaJw) incontest- 
able, indisputable; JI.U- V Jo ;'tda£a and 
JI-U- ^b 6»-io j. incontestably, indispu- 

Jj^jf mapdul tightly twisted; braided, 
plaited; interwoven, intertwined (tress 
of hair); slender and trim, shapely (e.g., 

Jjlf mujddil disputant, opponent in 

*Jj-U- jadwal pi. Jji-U- jaddiviP creek, brook, 
little stream; column; list, roster; index; 
chart, table, schedule | ,^-Lp Jj-V {diva* 
si) curriculum; i^j_jJl Jj-^- stock list, 
i^j^Jl Jj.u- rjl*- (harija) not quoted 
(stock exchange); Jt>VI Jj-i»- agenda; 
working plan 

(>u-) iu*. /add u to give a present (J* to 
s.o.) IV to give as a present (^ J* s.o., present (<-> J* s.o. with); to be of 
use, be useful, profitable | LUi j-i»-' 
(na/'an) to be useful; itL-fcf V l-i* that 
won't help you, that will be of no use 
(to you); li» dkc. £&._ U do.; ^Ui jo* V 
(fatilan) = ^Ui ^^ij 1/ , see J*a X to beg 
for alms; to implore, beg (a • s.o. for, plead (a for 

»Lu- jada? advantage, gain (je for s.o.) 

<£j-u- jadwd gift, present; advantage, 
benefit, gain J &**■ ^j (bi-ld) and ji- J* 
t£ji*r (§airi) of no avail, useless, futile, in 

t^-U-l ajc 

I more useful, more advanta- 

^o»- 7'adj/ pi. »l-i»- ;tdd*, oUi»- jidydn kid, 
young billy goat; Capricorn (astron.); 
ti jlLI the North Star 

Ju- jadda u (jajjdj to cut off, clip (a 

•Jl-U- judada pi. -at slip of paper; pi. 
CjUI-U- small pieces, shreds, scraps, clip- 

<_jJU- jadaba i (jadb) to pull, draw (a; 
to attract (a; to pull out, draw out, 
whip out (a, draw (a a weapon, or 
the like); to appeal, prove attractive 
(♦ to s.o.), attract, captivate, charm, 
allure (• s.o.), win (» s.o.) over (<Jl to 
one's side) III to contend (• with s.o.) at 
pulling, tugging, etc. (a | JJ-I *oU- 

(habla) to vie with s.o.; (to be able) to 
compete with s.o., measure up to s.o., 
be a match for s.o.; f^l&l ^il*- or *jiU- 
lii-W or vlo<U-l »J»IJ»I 4jiU- (afrafa l-h.) 
he engaged him in conversation, involved 
him in a discussion; SjUii-l <JijjM *»SU- 
{afr&fa l-haddra) to vie with s.o. in cul- 
ture VI to pull back and forth (»s.o.); to 
contend (», a for) ; to attract each other | 
iljoi- ! <J»l_^l ^ji^f (&t r &f a !-$•) *bey were 
deep in conversation, they were talking 
together VII to be attracted; to be 
drawn, gravitate (Jl toward, to) VIII to 
attract (• s.o., a, *JI to o.s.; also 
magn.); to allure, entice {• s.o.); to win 
(• s.o.) over (*JI to one's side); to draw, 
inhale (a puffs from a cigarette, etc.) 

<_j.L>- jadb attraction; gravitation; 
appeal, lure, enticement, captivation | 
Ij-U- j^l to wrest away, take away by 
force; ,^-iA-l *-> JJ^ (jinsi) sex appeal 

ujIJu- jaddab attractive ; magnetic (fig.) ; 
suction, suctorial; winning, fetching, en- 
gaging; charming, enticing, captivating, 

u>i*-l ajdab* more attractive, more 

<_jl4*£l injid&b attraction, inclination, 
proneness, tendency 

<-» '■*=*-' ijtidab attraction; entioement, 

■-oU- j8$ib attractive; magnetic (fig.); 
winning, fetching, engaging; charming, 
enticing, captivating, gripping 

4;j^L- ja4*biya gravitation; attraction; 
attractiveness; charm, fascination; mag- 
netism (fig.); lure, enticement | O <s>'^>r 
Jiill j. at-tiql gravitational force; <rfiU- 
A~~.>ks. (magnafiHya) magnetism; 4-0U 
U JX I j. al-jins sex appeal 

wj jjjt majfiub attracted ; possessed, 
maniacal, insane; (pi. i-jik? maj&dib*) 

maniac, lunatic, madman, idiot | 
1-.JJWI mustaSfa l~m. mental hospital 

i^i jUi. mutajadib mutually attractive; 
belonging together, inseparable 

i-jJUm munjadib attracted ; inclined, 
tending (Jl to) 

jX«- jadara u (jadr) to uproot, tear out by the 
roots (a II do.; to extract the root 
(a of a number; math.); to take root 

J.W- ji£r t jadr pi. j>U- judilr root (also 
math.); stem, base, lower end; (pi. jl-U-l 
aj4&r) stub (of a receipt book, or the 
like) | ju/ jj_»- (tarbii) square root 

iSJ^r 1*4 r * radical, root (adj.) 
j\£ tajdir evolution, root extraction 

f-i»- jada' pi. jUJu- jud'dn young man, young 
fellow (cf. Q f-Ji»- gada'); new, incipient | 
is.U- t-»ji. I col* (harbu, jada'atan) the war 
broke out again, started all over again; 
U.U- j^\ jUl (l-amra) he reopened the 
whole affair, he reverted to the earlier 

Mr ?hT pl* ?\'-M <*■?£&% fjV J 1 *^**' 
stem, trunk; stump, tree stump; torso 

•fj*r /hT' truncal 

iji*- II to row (a a boat) 

JjlJLf mijddf pi. *Juilf majadif 

JJU- ja^iZo a (/<w£a/) to be happy, gay, 
exuberant, rejoice IV to make happy, 
gladden, cheer (• s.o.) 

Ji*- jidl pi. JIA»-1 a/^aZ, Jj-U- ;u^ul 
stump (of a tree) 

Jji- judail wooden post on which 
camels rub themselves 

JJu- jo^al gaiety, hilarity, exuberance, 

Jif. ja4U pi. oVV j«#dn gay, hilar- 
ious, cheerful, in high spirits, exuberant, 

OW jadl&n* gay, hilarious, cheerful, 
in high spirits, exuberant, happy 

-i»- jadama i (ja4m) to cut off, chop off 
(a, esp. a part of the body); to 
remove, take out, excise {a e.g., the 
tonsils, the appendix ; surg.) ; pass. 
judima to be afflicted with leprosy 

j-o*. j%4m pi. (j0»- jv4um, flu*- 1 aji&m 

*IJb- judam leprosy 

i.l-U- juddma stubble 

f.u-1 ajdam 3 pi. t/i*- fadma mutilated 
{from having an arm, a hand, etc., cut 
off); leprous; leper 

Ajjji- majdum leprous; leper 

jj*j*- judmur stump 

•jj*r ja4wa, jidwa, judioa pi. ^J*- jidan, 
judan, »1Ju- jidd' firebrand; burning log 

j^ jarra u (jarr) to draw, pull (a; to 
drag, tug, haul (*; to tow (*; 
to trail (a; to drag along {. s.o., 
a; to draw (J* a on s.o.), 
bring (a down (J» upon s.o.); to 
lead (Jl to), bring on, cause (Ji; to 
entail (a e.g., some evil, J* for s.o.); 
(gram.) to pronounce the final consonant 
with t, put (a word) into the genitive | 
» Jjr j*- (jariratan) to commit an outrage, 
a crime (J* against s.o.); Ij^J _*- (guyH' 
dan) to be in shackles, go shackled; 
<-*J Jl jUJI j>r (qurpihi) to secure advan- 
tages for o.s., feather one's nest; ^ *^ 
~<j£.t *JLJ (lisdnaku bi-kalima) he won't 
let a word escape his lips IV to ruminate 
VII passive of I ; to be driven ; to be swept 
along, drift, float | *\jj\ Jl >f I (ward'i) 
to withdraw, fall back, give way VIII to 
ruminate j *-^T Jw-I (aldmahu) to mull 
over one's grief 

j*- jarr pull(ing), drawing, draft; trac- 
tion; drag(ging), tugging, towage, haul- 
ing; bringing on, causing; genitive | 
J?\ J>j~ harf al-j. {gram.) preposition; 
\y r J>j wa-halumma jarran and so forth 

~*j*r jw ra pi* J^j*r pf&r (earthenware) 

*/r jarra-* jurra trail, track; rut (left 
by a wagon) | A* ij& bi-j. qalam with 
one stroke of the pen 

•j*r P na cu< * (°* a runihiant) 

tfj*. ^ min jarrd because of | llt^»- j* 
because of you, on your account, for 
your sake 

,lj*. ^a min jarrd'i because of, due to | 
jl »lj»- j* because 

j\j*. jarrdr huge, tremendous (army); 
potter; (pi. -at) tractor; tugboat, steam 
tug, towing launch 

jjjU jarur pi. jjjr jawarir* (syr.) 
drawer (of a desk, etc.) 

•jjjU- jdrura [leb.) rake (tool) 

•jjt J arira P 1 - J^sr i ar& ' ir% &&*•'* 
offense, outrage, crime | *j_rr Cr* min 
jarirati because of, on account of 

•jL»- jarrdra pi. -at a variety of Bcor- 
pion; tractor 

jl mijarr trace, tug (of a harness) 

ij£. majarra galaxy 

Ljl^l ingirariya (eg.) towage charges 
for watercraft 

jjA ma 7 rir dra^™. dragged, towed, 
etc.; word governed by a preposition, 
word in the genitive form; (pi. j_M- 
magdrir*) drain, sewer {eg.); jrjlf sew- 
ers, sewage system (eg.) 

Jwt mujtarr ruminant (adj. and n.) 

}j»- jaru'a u (:!_*- jur'a, S»1 J »- jard'a) to dare, 
venture, risk, hazard (J*, take the 
risk (J* of, jl of doing, have the 


courage (Jp for II to encourage 
(J* • b.o. to V to dare, venture, 
risk, hazard ( J* VIII to be venture- 
some, be daring; to become bold, make 
bold (J* with s.o.); to venture (J* 
or upon, have the audacity (J* to 

*tf/r J ar ? pl- •kyr' ajriyiC 1 bold, 
courageous (<_>, J* in; forward, 
immodest, insolent; daring, reckless, fool- 

•vr jur'a and ••Ij*- jar&'a courage, 
boldness, daring; forwardness, insolence 

IsJf mujtari' bold, forward 
^Ij*- (Fr.) garSi pi. -St garage (eg.) 
Aj*? gram gram (eg.) 
C-u^j*- ffranU granite (eg.) 

J^Lrt- Qraniti granitic (eg.) 

'•tOT j^riba o (jamb) to be mangy; (eg.) to 
fade (color) II to test (a; to try, try- 
out, essay (*; to sample (a; 
to rehearse, practice (a ; to attempt 
(a; to put to the test, try, tempt 
(• 8-0.) | j 4-Ju t _j_ rt - to try one's hand at; 
(LVI «-..*- (ayydma) to gather experience 

V>r jarab mange; itch, scabies 

<-*jr jarib mangy; scabby 

Vj*-' ajrab 1 , f. *\jj*- jarbd'*, pi. «_j^». 
jurb and ol^*- jorftdn* mangy; scabby 

^Lrt" ymSft pi. 3u_^-i ajriba, «_j_^- jurwA 
sack, bag, traveling bag ; knapsack ; 
scrotum; covering, case; sheath, scab- 
bard (for the sword) 

^j*r jurSb pi. -St stocking, sock 

<_~j>»- jarib a patch of arable land 

hjd tajriba pi. ^j'jf tajarib* trial, test; 
tryout; attempt; practice, rehearsal; 
scientific test, experiment ; probation ; 
trial, tribulation; temptation; experience, 

practice; proof sheet, galley proof, also 
iLftJi* Atjf (matba'iya) 

<~ij4 tajrib trial, teBt(ing); trial, trib- 
ulation; temptation 

igj* tajribi trial, test (adj.); ex- 
perimental ; based on experience, em- 
pirical | ^>j>^\ ,jJrt\ ^ film, an-nafs) 
experimental psychology 

O «-«>£ tajribiya empiricism (phUoa.) 
i~*j£. mujarrib experimental; tester; 
examiner; tempter 

<~>jt mujarrab tried, tested; proven or 
established by experience, time-tested, 
time-tried; experienced, practiced, sea- 
soned ; man of experience 

'VJ-tr l°°k U P alphabetically 

»i_^- jarbada = ijj- 

jj*r jwbuz pi. *y\j»- jarabiza impostor, 
confidence man, swindler 

•/>»■ jarbaza (also »i^-) deception, 

jerboa (zool.) 


S*4>r jarabandiya (and «jXjI^) knapsack, 

?yj-T j^rfum, ~*+yj^-- jvrf&ma pi. *j!j-»- 
jor^im* root; origin; germ; microbe, 
bacillus, bacterium | tyjL I C~£ tahi al-j. 

g^j*- look up alphabetically 

Sryr jarjara (•>»->•- jarjara) to gargle; to 
jerk or pull back and forth; to trail, drag 
(a; to tow away (a | •\L>- jtj* 
{kufdhu) to drag one's feet, shuffle along 
II tajarjara pass, and refl. of I 

V»Vr jarjara gargling; rumbling noise; 
rumble, clatter (of a wagon) 

■ jirjir (large, thick) beans 

■ jirjir watercress (eg., syr.) 

119 >jr 

rj*r joraha a (jark) to wound (» s.o.); to 

against s.o.); to send, dispatch (a a 

injure, hurt (» s.o.; also fig., the feelings) 

military detachment, troops, -ui or J* 

II to invalidate (a testimony), challenge, 

against s.o.); to free (^ a or • s.o. or 

declare unreliable (• a witness), take from) ; to isolate (a ; to abstract 

formal exception (*, a to) VIII to commit 

(a; to divest [,y, • a.o. of his citizen- 

(a an outrage, a crime) | oLJl ry^i 

ship, of a rank, of a vested right, etc.) | 

(myyi'ai) to do evil things 

W~Jl ja Oj»- to disarm s.o. ; j* *— iJ ^*- 

rjr f ttr ^ > pl* r}sr yirdA, tjjt juntA, 
cA^-jj*- juruhdt, ^Ij>-1 ajrdh wound, in- 
jury, lesion 

to free o.s. from, rid o.s. of, give up 
T pass, of 11; to strip o.s., rid o.s., get 
rid (j>. or je. of), free o.s. ( j- or ^ from) ; 
to be free (^» or je- from, J for a task); 

r}j>- jarrdk pi. -«n surgeon | r}j>- 

to devote o.s. exclusively (J to; to 

jb-^l dental surgeon 

give up, renounce (j- or ^; to 

*~'>T j* r oha surgery 

isolate o.b.; to be absolute 

t^'jr j^ohi surgical | v-l/r *J U * 
( f amaUj/a) surgical operation 

^j»- jarih pi. ,y-j*- jarhd wounded, 
injured, hurt 

t-A tyrih surgery; defamation, dis- 

^jU ;'3r*A injuring; wounding, sting- 
ing, painful, hurting; rapacious (beast), 

«*-jl*- j&riha pi. rj[>»- jauwriA 1 pred- 
atory animal or bird | j*LII jy'j*- V 
aj-fair predatory birds 

ry|>r jaw&rih* limbs, extremities (of 
the body) | **-j\j*- JC with might and 
main, with all his strength 

rJj* majruh pi. £jUf fna;<JfiA' 
wounded, injured, hurt 

*j»- jarada u (jard) to peel, paxe (a; to 
remove the shell, peel, rind or husk (a 
of; to denude, divest, strip, bare 
(a; {com.) to take stock; to make 
an inventory (a?LoJ! of goods on hand) 
II to peel, pare (a; to remove the 
shell, peel, rind or husk (a of; to 
denude, divest, strip, dispossess, deprive 
((>. a or • s.o. or of); to withhold 
(j>. * from s.o.; to draw, unsheathe 
(tJ-JI the sword); to unleash (J* a 

Vr 7 ar <* bare, threadbare, shabby, 
worn; (com.) inventory; stocktaking 

ij*- jarid without vegetation, barren, 
bleak, Btark (landscape) 

■*_*■' ajracP, f. »ijj*- jardd ,, t pi. j_^- 
jurd desolate, bleak, without vegetation; 
hairless, bald; threadbare, shabby, worn 
(garment) ; open, unprotected (border) 

i\j~- jarad (coll.; n. un. I) locust(s) | 
Jl*-j ilj*- (rahh&l) migratory locust(s); 
j*J\ i\j*- j. al-bahr langouste, sea oray- 
fish; Ujl_^f bi-jaradtha in its entirety 

•HjT jarid palm branches Btripped of 
their leaves; jereed, a blunt javelin used 
in equestrian games 

*^ij*r jarida pi. -lJl_^- jarifid* (n. un. 
of 4jj*-) palm-leaf stalk; list, register, 
roster, index ; newspaper j ~*~»y m *-^>«r 
[yaumiya) daily newspaper; #1—11 -AjI_ht 
;'. ai-majd' the evening papers; i-b^A-l 
iitUl and i-ILu-JI •-b^l-l the newBreel 

tS^j^l ajrudi {ayr.) beardless, hairless 

j_^f mijrad pi. ijbf majdrid 2 scraper 

-u j*i tajrid peeling, paring ; dis- 
robement, stripping; denudation; depri- 
vation ; divestment ; disarmament ; dis- 
patching (of troops); freeing; isolation; 
abstraction | »-*^JI ^* Oj^sf disarmament 



» Jj jt- iajrtda pi . -at, -bj laf tajdrid 1 
military detachment, expeditionary force 

ij£ tajarrud freedom (a* or j* 
from); isolatednesa, isolation; independ- 
ence, impartiality; absoluteness; ab- 
Btractness, abstraction 

ij^ mujarrad denuded, bare, naked; 
freed, free (j- or j* from); pure, mere, 
nothing more than; sole; very, absolute; 
abstract; selfless, disinterested; 1st stem 
of the verb (gram.) | (with foil, noun in 
genitive — mere, sheer, nothing but:) 
ji $jfi- mujarradu lahwin mere play, just 
fun; o^ail i>*J^ with the naked eye; 
U Sj**£ bi-mujarradi ma as soon as, at 
the very moment when 

Jj_/r jardal pi. Ja^ jaradil 3 bucket, pail 

*sr jvrad pi. oliji*- jir<$5n t jurdan large 

j, i_rt- jirdaun pi. j»ilj»- jar&din 1 large 

1 (j"j J r ?*»*** * () ar «) to ring* toll, knell, 
(re)sound II to make experienced, inure 
by severe trials, Borely try (• s.o.; time, 
events); to compromise, disgrace, dis- 
credit, expose, bring into disrepute (w 

^j^ jars, jirs sound, tone 
tfj* jaras pi. u --l>»-' ojras bell 
<-^»- /«»■«! defamation, public expo- 
sure ; scandal, disgrace 

l *i\**j*r jiraaya, v*jT jiraiya pi. -at jersey, 
woolen sweater; ^j*- jersey cloth 

J.J** jarajfa u {jari) to crush (a; to 
grate, bruise, grind (a 

^i^*- jari a grating, scraping noise 

crijT ? ar '* crushed, bruised, coarsely 
ground; crushed grain; grits 

iijjU- jdru&a pi. ^jl^*- /awdrM 3 
quern, hand mill (for grinding grain) 

j>j-<r 7"ori^a a (;aratf): *_Sjj- ,>j^r (&»- 
riqihi) he choked on his saliva, could not 
swallow his saliva (because of excitement, 
alarm, or grief), he was very upset, 
in a state of great agitation, deeply 
moved; — jarada u (yard) to choke, 
suffocate (• s.o.) IV ajuj *->^*-l (cf, I) 
to alarm s.o., fill s.o. with apprehension 

c+lsr jaridi ^-b^Sl! Ojj u*l£\ J^ 
hala l-j. duna l-qarld (proverb; lit.: 
choking prevented poetry, i.e.) in the 
face of death one does not think of 
rhyming (among other interpretations) 

fj* jara'a a (jar') and jari' a a (jara f ) to 
swallow, gulp, devour (a ; to pour 
down, toss down (a a drink) II to make 
(• s.o.) swallow (a; to gulp down 
V to drink (a VIII to swallow, gulp 
down (a 

**>r j'w'a, ;<w'« pi- f/T J ura \ *«' g^P. 
mouthful, draught; potion, dose (med.) 

J»_^- jarafa u {jarf) and VIII to sweep away 
(a; to wash away (a; to 
shovel away (a; to remove (a; 
to tear away, carry off (a; to carry 
along (a or • s.o. or VII to be swept 
away, be carried away 

«J»j*- jurf r ;uru/pl. <-Jj_^- jurfi/, J»ljjfl 
ajr&f undercut bank or Bhore; cliff, 
steep slope, precipice; bluff (along a river 
or coast) | ^*^1*- »J>r (jalidi) avalanche 

iilj*. jarrSfa pi. -dt, iJujl_^- jararif 2 
rake; harrow 

J»jjf majraf pi. Jijtf maj&rif 2 torrent, 
strong current 

«^jf mijrafa shovel, scoop; (*yr.) mat- 
tock; trowel 

J»l^ mijraf pi. Ju jUf majarlp shovel, 

«J»jU- j&rif torrential (stream, moun- 
tain creek); stormy, violent (emotions, 



qSjVi al-jarkas the Circassians 

fjSfr farto** pi- *-$*!>*■ jarakisa Cir- 
cassian (adj. and n.) 

fj>- jarama % (jam) to bone ( JH al-lahma 
the meat); — to commit an offense, a 
crime, an outrage (J* or Jl against s.o.), 
sin (Jp or Jl against s.o.), injure, harm, 
wrong (Jc or Jl b.o.) II to incriminate, 
charge with a crime (» s.o.; syr.) IV to 
commit a crime, to sin (J* or Ji against 
s.o.), do wrong (J* or Jl to s.o.), harm, 
wrong (J* or J! s.o.) VIII = IV 

pjjj. garm pi. f J-rt - jurum (e#.) long, 
flat-bottomed barge, lighter (naut.) 

aj*- jirm pi. (•!_*-' o,JTdm t *j»- jurum 
body; mass, bulk, volume (of a body) | 
<£la)\ (•J/t-V (falakiya) the celestial 

tj*. jurm pi. a\j>-\ ajrdm, ajj- jurum 
offense, crime, sin 

*,»- V Jo jarama surely, certainly, of 

(.j? jarxm hulking, bulky, huge, vo- 
luminous, of great size 

**.jr ? or * Tna pi* f 'yr jo-rd'im 3 crime; 
offense ; sin | (^^li* or) ^jf <e.j>- (Jcubrd, 
'uzmd) capital offense; fljJ-1 Ojj\j penal 

ffyj-1 ijram crime; culpability, delin- 

cf'yr' W&ml criminal 

fjyf *i- lahm majrum fillet (meat) 

*»j4 c** *ana mujarrama an entire 

f_^£ mujrim criminal; (pi. -tin) a crim- 
inal; evildoer, culprit, delinquent | p£ 
jJU recidivous criminal 

J*'^*" jwdmiz 2 and >»lj*- jaramiz 3 limbs, 
legs | »>*jj*- *> ({(amma) he beat it, he 
made off 

oU^-1 al-jarmdn the Germanic tribes, the 

jUjjj. jarmdni Germanic, Teutonic 

l Oj>- jurn pi. ul_,»-l ajrdn (stone) basin; 
mortar; {eg.) threshing floor, barn | 
*jjj**il Oj*- j. al-ma'mudiya baptismal 

2 jlj*. ;trdn the front part of a camel's neck | 
4jl_^£ v^ *° become established, take 
root ; *J \j>- <uU Jil (o/jd, jirdnahu) to apply 
o.s. to and adjust to it, accustom 
o.s. to 

Jlij»- iurnal (eg. also gurndl) pi. J^lyr &wa- 
niZ 3 (ejj., j/ardnij 3 ) journal, newspaper, 

£**j\j>- granlt granite 

<i=^yr gtanitl granitic 

j^»- jono (jirw, jurw) pi. ^l a/rin, »ljjr ;ird', 
.1^1 ajrfl", o^l ajriya puppy, whelp, 
cub (of a dog or beast of prey) 

"*^jj*r 9 r5 * a gross (=12 dozen) 

(jij*- jard i (jary) to flow, stream (water) ; to 
run; to hurry, rush; to blow (wind); to 
take place, come to pass, happen, occur ; 
to be under way, be in progress, be going 
on (work); to befall (J s.o.), happen (J 
to); to be in circulation, circulate, bo 
current; to wend one's way (Jl to}, 
head (Jl for); to proceed (J* in accord- 
ance with); to follow («, yield, 
give way (** to, e.g., to a desire); to 
entail (i_>; (with »ljj) to run or 
be after, seek to get | *J &J*- 
u io-u- he had a talk with; *\j£- gj*- 
(majrdhu) to take the same course as, 
be analogous to, follow the same way as, 
proceed or act in the same manner as; 
*-dl ijje. *^1\ *u (jij^ (minhu $-$ai'u 
majrd d-dam) it had become second 
nature to him; ^J*i\ Jp ^j*? (alaun) 
to circulate, make the rounds (rumor) ; 



uU JS* Jp tij*- to be on everyone's 
lips; <Ji J* ^j*. (gaJamtAi) to come to 
8.o/s pen (e.g., a poem); ii*A J* ^^ 
(&t#a) to follow a plan; J*Jl <J* ^^ U 
('omo/tt) the way things are handled, 
what is customary practice ; J**JI *j ^j*. 
to be in force, be valid, be commonly 
observed (law, custom); .-» oUI o^ 
to be customary, be common practice, 
be a common phenomenon, have gained 
vogue; J* oUIIj i sj r to do custom- 
arily, be in the habit of doing; 
^ol* ^JIoj Oj*- that was their habit 
II to cause to run | <kij ^j*- (rigahu) to 
make s.o.'s mouth water III to concur, 
agree, be in agreement (» with s.o., J 
in; to keep pace, keep up (» with 
B.o.; also intellectually); to be able to 
follow (. s.o.); to go (along) (a with); to 
adapt 0.8., adjust, conform (a to), be 
guided (a by) IT to cause to flow, make 
flow (a; to cause to run, set running 
(a, » 8.0.,; to make (a take 
place of happen, bring about (a; 
to carry out, execute, enforce, put into 
effect, apply (a, e.g., rules, regu- 
lations); to carry out, perform (a an 
action); to set going, set in motion (a a 
project), launch (a an undertaking); to 
channel (J* or J a to), bestow, 
settle (J* or J a upon s.o.); to 
impose, inflict (J» a, a penalty, on 
s.o.) I <iji£ ^j*.! (tajribatan) to carry 
out an experiment; iJLi*: j^l to con- 
duct an investigation; iiUI *l ^»-l (t'fi* 
natan) to grant s.o. a subsidy; j^f •!_*-! 
(majrd, with foil, genitive) to treat 
in the same manner as, put on 
equal footing with 

(jj*- jary course | J* \tj>- jaryan 'old 
in accordance with, according to 

iJljr o - min jar&ka and <£l?1j»> »> 
min jar &* ilea because of you, on your 
account, for your sake 

*'.*- ?<MTfi" runner, racer 

**\j*- jirdya pi. -# daily (food) ra- 
tions; pay, salary | ol^*. J&. 'i$ giraya 
(eg.) coarse bread 

jbj»- jarayan flow, flux; course; stream 
iSjt majran pi. Jj£ majdrin water- 
course, stream, rivulet, gully; torrent or 
flood of water; pipeline; canal, channel; 
drain, sewer, pi. sewers, sewage system; 
power line (el.); ourrent (el.); current (of 
a stream); guide rail (lechn.); course (of 
events), progress, passage | JjJl ^jt m, 
l-bavl urethra (anat.); iJ Jcs}\ (^If m. (• 
tanajfus respiratory tract {anat.); gjt 
*\jk\ m. l-hawa* air stream, current of 
air, draft; «1^f J>>-\ to take its course; 
see also ^j*. I and IV 

C*ljj*-L majaraydt, m&jariy&t (pi. of 
tSsr ^*) (course of) events, happenings 

SljLf muj&rdh keeping up (with foil, 
genitive: with); conformity (with foil, 
genitive: with) j J •Ijlf muj&r&tan li 
in conformity with, in accordance with, 
according to 

'Lht' V p £* pl* '^ performance (of an 
action) ; execution ; enforcement ; pi. 
measures, steps, proceedings | oU^ 1 jjc\ 
[tUafca&a) to take measures; 3JjjtfcAij*.1 
(q&n&niya) legal steps, proceedings at law 

jU- jdrin flowing, streaming, running; 
circulating; current, present | jjU-l j+Zi\ 
(Sahr) the current month 

«>jU- j&riya pi. -at, j\j^ jaw&rin girl; 
slave girl; maid, servant; ship, vessel 

- jazza u (jazz) to cut off, clip (a; to 
Bhear, shear off (a ; esp. the wool of 

•j»- jizza pi. j_^- jizaz, J\j>- jaz&'iz* 
shorn wool, fleece, clip 

•jlj*- jnzdza pi. -at slip of paper; label, 

jlj*. jazzaz pi. -un shearer, woolshearer 
jfi- rnijasz woolshears 



lj»- joza*o a and Tin to be content, content 
o.s. (<-* with) II to divide, part, separate, 
break up, cut up, partition (* 
V to divide, break up, be or become di- 
vided; to be separated, be detached, be 
partitioned off; to be divisible, separable 
(je. from) 

»j*- ?W pi. Jj»-I ajzff part, portion; 
constituent, component; fraction; divi- 
sion; section; the 30th part of the Koran 
(= 2 hizb) 

Ojr juz'i partial; minor, trivial, in- 
significant, unimportant; (jur.) minor, 
petty ; LJj*- juz'iyan partly ; C*LSj»- 
juz'iy&t details, particulars; trivialities; 
subordinate parts; divisions, sections 
(e.g., of a court of justice) | 4*!j*- i|_>- 
{mawSdd) petty cases (jur.); 5Jj»- ^*- 
(jwnah) summary delicts (jur.); V>r 5"^ 
courts of summary justice; SJj*- ilJ 
(n*t/t56o) parquet of a summary court; 
5Jj»- luiU- minor incident; yj»- <>_*-j 
(tasuriya) part payment; oU&lj oLlji-l 
{kuttiy&l) the particular and general as- 
pects, the minor and the major issues 

*t$jr /«*»** pi- -<** molecule 

Jlj»-1 a;»t'{ pi. -fin pharmacist, drug- 

^Ij*-! a;zd;'t pi. -Sj/a pharmacist, drug- 

Vl>r' ajz&'iya and iiU-lj*.! ajzajp&na 
pi. -<M pharmacy, drugstore 

*Jjjf tajzi'a division; partition; sep- 
aration; dissociation; breakdown (into 
classes, categories, etc.); fragmentation f 
«jy^iU JjI* divisible; «jj>*rJt ili\S divisi- 
bility; *I>jJI j*r^ retailer, retail merchant 

ul-sj*- juzd&n, jizddn pi. -of wallet; change 

'jj*- jazara u (;'«»*) to slaughter; to kill, 
butcher (a an animal); — i u (jazr) to 
Bink, fall, drop, ebb (water) 

jj>- jazr slaughter; butchering; ebb 
(of the sea) 

•jjr ?«*«* blood sacrifice 

jjjih ;azfir pi. j^»- j'uzwr slaughter 

jlj»- jazz&r pi. •, -fin butcher 

•/>■ jazira pi. j-'ljr jazdfir*, jj*- ju* 
zur island | *j->r V* <KM* J- peninsula; 
Sy^ji-i Al Jazira, (Northwest) Mesopo- 
tamia; J\jL\ Algeria; Algiers; <->jii\ * j^ 
j. al-arab Arabia, the Arabian Peninsula; 
olJU-'l y Mjii(^«Z&) the Canary Islands; 
Aj+£ I IjjA (£a^ru*') Algeciras (seaport in 
SW Spain) 

tfjjr jazari insular; (pi. -fin) islander 

isJ\j»r jax&'iri pi- - fi » Algerian (adj. 
and n.); islander 

jjjf majzir pi. j jU mo^Assr 1 slaughter- 
house, abattoir; butchery 

Ijjjf majzara pi. jjlf maj&zir* butch- 
ery; massacre, carnage 

*jj»- jozor (coll. ; n. un. •) carrot(s) 

fj»- jazi'a a (jaza", fj^r ?«***') to be or be- 
come anxious, worried, concerned; to 
be sad, unhappy (^ about); to feel 
regret (J* for s.o.), pity (J* s.o.); to 
mourn (J* for s.o.) V to break apart, 
break, snap 

f- j»- jaz* onyx 

{j- juz' axle; shaft (techn.) 

fj*- jaza' anxiety, uneasiness, appre- 
hension, concern; anguish, fear; sadness 

fjr i* 12 ** restless, impatient; anxious, 
worried, uneasy, apprehensive 

£jj*- ¥**& an ^ fjU jazi' restless; im- 
patient; anxious, worried, uneasy, ap- 

fj£ mujazza* marbled, veined; varie- 
gated, dappled 


oj*. Ill to act at random, blindly, indis- 
criminately, take a ohance; to speculate 
(Jin.); to speak vaguely, in general terms; 
to risk, Btake (<-j ,| *-ij <J»jU- to 
risk one's life; ,j *> wJjU- to plunge s.o. 
into (some adventure) 

J»lj»> juz&f purchase of a certain a- 
mount of things- (lal. Law) ; Ulj»- juzd* 
fan at random, haphazardly 

«»Jt£ mujazafa rashness, recklessness, 
foolhardiness; risk, hazard; adventure, 

ijjljt mujazif rash, reckless, foolhardy; 
adventurous; venturesome 

l i}jj? jazula u to be considerable, abun- 
dant, plentiful IV *ILJI *j J^l ('a^'o) 
to give generously, openhandedly, lib- 
erally to s.o. VIII to write shorthand 

J^r jwd and Jjj*- jazxl pi. Jl^- /»- 
zdl abundant, plentiful, ample, much; 
pure, lucid, eloquent (style) | ^tjl Jj»- 
of sound, unerring judgment; I^SCt t j£j. 
"$ij*r iakarahu iukran jazilan he thanked 
him profusely; *>^i>»- IjSli many thanks! 

*J jjf j«to piece, slice 

iJljij- jazala profusion, abundance ; 

(rhet.) purity (of style) 

J>£ mujtazil stenographer 
'Jj>r look up alphabetically 

•j*^ jazama i {jazm) to cut off, cut Bhort, 
clip (a; to judge; to decide, settle 
(a; to be positive (uj about), be 
absolutely certain (o» of; to assert 
authoritatively (»-»; to make up 
one's mind, decide, resolve (J* to do; to impose, make incumbent (J* a on s.o.); (gram.) to pronounce the 
final consonant (of a word) without a 
vowel; to put (a a verb) into the apoco- 
pate form or the imperative 

l»j*- jazm cutting off, clipping; decision; 
resolution, resolve; apodictio judgment; 
(gram.) apocopate form j *j*.l 4a*$* *alamat 
al-j. = jazma 

"**}>■ jazma diacritical mark (°) indi- 
cating vowellessness of a final consonant 

j»jU- jazim decisive; peremptory, def- 
inite, definitive, final; firmly convinced, 
absolutely certain (u> of; (pi. (Jlj»- 
jawazim 2 ) governing the apocopate form 

*jj£- majzum cut off, cut short, clipped ; 
decided, settled; (gram.) vowelless (final 
consonant) ; in the apocopate form 

fjj^u munjazim (gram.) in the apoco- 
pate form 

***jr jazma pi. -at, aJ»- jizam (pair of) shoes, 
(pair of) boots j J»L j- **/•- (bi-ribd}) laced 
boots; 5*11 i*j>- (lammsTa) patent-leather 

ij£-JT gazmagi (eg.) and Jl*j>- gizamdti 
(eg.), jazmdti (syr.) pi. -iya shoemaker 

jjj*- jazd i (*\j»? jazd*) to requite, recompense 
(• s.o., u or J* for), repay (• to s.o., 
i_> or J*; to reward (* b.o., c-> or 
J* for); to punish (• s.o., ^ or Je for); 
to satisfy (• b.o.), give satisfaction (a to 
B.o.); to compensate, make up (o> a for with or by); to compensate, offset 
(jp | l_r*- *iil iJl_/7 (kairan) may 
God bless you for it! jUj— »\j»- *])>■ (jaza'a 
ainimmdra) he returned to him good 
for evil III to repay, requite («-> a 
with, l-j • s.o. for), recompense (<~> • s.o. 
for); to reward (J* or ^ * s.o. for); to 
punish (J* or »_j • s.o. for) | \j*~ >i)U- (jcai* 
ran) he invoked God's reward upon them 
IV to suffice (• s.o.), do for s.o. (•); to 
take the place, serve instead (j* of), re- 
place (j* 

»lj»- jazd' requital, repayment; rec- 
ompense, return; compensation, setoff; 


amends, reparation ; punishment, pen- 
alty | (i-li »!>" (lag*) fine 
Jlj»- jazd't penal 

4jj»- /i2ya pi. ^J*- jtam, »\j>- jiz&* 
tax; tribute; head tax on free non- 
Muslims under Muslim rule 

iij*i tajziya reward 

iljlsf mujdzdh requital, repayment; 

^^ jaasa it O'a**, *-* ma;tw«a) to touch, 
feal, handle (a; to palpate, examine 
by touch {*; to test, sound, probe 
(a; to try to gain information 
(a about), try to find out (a; to 
spy out (a | 4^lj ^f-*- (nabdahu) to 
feel s.o.'s pulse, (fig.) »^l u ^ ^ to 
probe, sound out, try to find out 
V to try to gain information { a about), try 
to find out (a; to reconnoiter, scout, 
explore (a; to be a spy, engage in 
espionage ; to spy, pry, Bnoop {J* on s.o.) | 
ljl^-1 *J 4 (abb& ran ) to gather in- 
formation for s.o., spy for s.o. VIII to 
touch, feel, handle (a; to spy out 

u ^ r joss: u J r \ ^J* fariy al-j. delicate 
to the touch, having a tender surface, fresh 

.j-jJ^- jdsus pi. ,^-i-l^r- jatvSsis* spy 

L-^-U- j&susa woman spy 

^y-j-U- jasuai of espionage, spy- (in 

ij-j^U- jdsuaiya spying, espionage 

i— -^ jauaaaa spying, espionage 

( _ r rf. majasa spot which one touches or 
feels; sense of touch | U ~M jis- kaUn 
al-m. coarse to the touch, having a rough 

xJ ^t. mijcua probe (med.) 

u 4 tajassus spying, espionage 

^L- jd&i' hard, rough, rugged 

#- II to make corporeal, invest with a 
body, embody, incarnate (a, give 
concrete form (a to; to render or 
represent in corporeal form (a V to 
become corporeal, assume concrete form, 
materialize; to become incarnate (Chr.); 
to become three-dimensional 

4—*- jasad pi. jl—*-l ajsdd body | -L» 
a_U 'id al-j. and a— i-l tr i»- Corpus Christ] 
Day (Chr.) 

i$-t— »- jasadi bodily, fleshly, carnal 

(jli-*- juaddnl bodily 

J— jf taja&sud materialization ; incar- 
nation {Chr.) 

x~jz mujaaaad embodied, oorporified 

a->^l. mutajassid corporeal; incarnate 

^- jasara u to span, cross, traverse (a ; 
(JjL^- jas&ra, jj~r- jusur) to venture, 
risk (J*, have the courage (J* to do II to build a dam or dike; to em- 
bolden, encourage (• s.o., J* to do 
VI to dare, venture, risk (J*, have 
the audacity (J* to do; to be bold, 
forward, insolent, impudent (J* with 
b.o.) VIII to span, oross, traverse (a 

j— »- jisr pi. j— »-l aj&ur, j>-*- jusur 
bridge; dam, dike, embankment, levee; 
— (pi. *jj-»r jttsura) beam, girder; axle, 
axletree | iJ^^w __,—»- (mutaharrik) movable 
bridge; jL* _ r * r (mu'aUaq) suspension 
bridge; <U j^- pontoon bridge, floating 

j j— *■ jaaur bold, daring; forward, in- 
solent, impudent 

ijl—*- jas&ra boldness, recklessness, in- 
trepidity; forwardness, insolence 

jjj- tajdsur boldness, recklessness, in- 
trepidity; forwardness, insolence 

^Uju miUajarir bold, daring; forward, 
insolent, impudent 



jk-*. see jL*»- 

— *- jaeuma u (i»L*- jTudma) to be great, big, 
large, bulky, huge, immense II to make 
corporeal, invest with a body (a, 
give (a shape or form ; to materialize 
(a ; to cause to stand out, bring out 
(a; to enlarge, magnify (a; 
e.g., microscope); to make big, bulky, 
huge (a; to play up, exaggerate 
(a V to become corporeal, become 
embodied; to materialize; to assume a 
form, take shape, become tangible or con- 
crete; to be materialized; to become big, 
large, huge, increase in volume, grow in size 

— *- jism pi. |»L»-! «7«««i, (>-*- jusum 
body (also O of an automobile); sub- 
stance, matter; mass; form, shape 

f j*~* r jismi bodily, physical; substan- 
tial, material 

.*_»- jasim pi. * L»» jit&m great, big, 
large; voluminous, bulky, huge; vast, 
immense ; stout, corpulent; weighty, most 
signiBcant, momentous, prodigious 

*-*- jusaim pi. -Hi particle (phys.); 
corpuscle (biol.) 

— *-! ajsam* more voluminous, larger; 
stouter, more corpulent 

i.L*- jasama size, volume; stoutness, 

d\~»r jusmSn body, mass 

J^-»- jusmdnl bodily, physical, cor- 
poral | (j^-i-l w-JilJI corporal punishment 

-*jf tajtnm embodiment; relief; en- 
largement, magnification, magnifying 

_* mujassam bodily, corporeal ; 
(math.) body ; three-dimensional ; tangible, 
material, concrete; raised, relieflike, 
standing out in relief (e.g., **-jf &lj*- 
relief map); relief; enlarged, magnified | 
_af 1* (film) three-dimensional (stereo- 
scopic) film, 3-D motion picture 

vWf jasm&niya* Gethsemane 

(j-*-) L-r 7°** u *° become hard, solid 

u !j r j'aJia u (?a&) to grind, crush, bruise, 
grate (a 

il*- ju&b hoarseness, huskiness, raucity 
(of the voice) 

i^i*. ja&l ground, grated, crushed 

K fe-\ ajaiP, f. »Li»- TaJfJa' 1 hoarse, husky, 
raucous (voice) 

U*- II and V to belch, burp 

•Li*- ju&S* and »U*- ;'uj*a belch(ing), 

jli*. 7«i<5r livestock 

«-£».' ;'ast'a a (/a* 1 *) an< * v to be covetous, 

*£*- joAo* greed, avidity, inordinate 

&1»- /a**' greedy, covetous 

-£*- jaJHma a (jabn, *.Li*- jaS&ma) to take 
upon o.s. (a some hardship) II to make 
(* s.o.) suffer or undergo (a; to 
impose (a • on s.o. difficult), burden 
(a » s.o. with V to take upon o.s., 
suffer, undergo (a, e.g., hardships) 

^£»- (eg., of. ^ii &&»{) sample, specimen; 

tr «»- II to plaster, whitewash (a 
lJ ** r jiff gypsum; plaster of Paris 

jL***. II tajaffana to lounge, stretch lazily, 

«•»- 7*"a beer 

<_^*> II to corrugate (a 

4-*»- ya'6a pi. v^~ ?*'<^ quiver; tube, 
pipe; gun barrel; O oartridge pouch 
(Syr.) | jLj^I ^^ y. akbar town gossip 


«w- ja'ja'a (***»*»- ja'ja'a) to clamor, roar, 
shout; to clatter, clap; to bluster, ex- 
plode in anger 

<*>***- ja'ja'a hubbub, rumpus, clamor, 
roar; creak, clapping noise (of a mill 

wheel) ; bluster 

pU—»- ja'ja* clamorous, boisterous, 
noisy; bawler, loud-mouthed person 

.U-. ja'uda u (ojw. ju'uda, oU*. ja'dda) and 
T to become curly, frizzed, kinky, curl 
(hair); to be wavy; to be creased; to be 
wrinkled II to curl, frizz (a; the 
hair); to wave (a; the hair); to 
crease, pleat, plait (a cloth); to wrinkle 
(a the skin) 

-u»- ja'd (or oJI a**- j. alyad, ,J&\ -u*- 
j. al-kqff) stingy, niggardly, tightfisted 

■.u»- ?'a r iia curl, lock, ringlet 

iS-x**- ja'di and w-t aj'ad* curly 

i^-L«- pa'etfi (ep.) bum, loafer, good- 

4-* I* taja'UP wrinkles, lines (of the face) 

kl>IOMf taja"uddt wrinkles 

.uf muja"ad curled, frizzed; wavy; 
furrowed, creased; wrinkled 

o*»*l» mviaja"id curled, frizzed; wavy; 
furrowed, creased; wrinkled 

iijju.. ja'dana idle talk, gossip (fc6.) 

j**- ;a*ora a (;'a'r) to drop its manure (animal) 

ol_^« r _^l abii ji'ran* scarabaeus; dung 

yij*- ja'far little river, creek 

J*»- ja'aio a (;a7) to make (a; to put, 
place, lay (a; to create (a; 
to effect, bring about (a; to make 
(* a a rule, a principle, or the like, 
• « s.o., e.g., leader, king, etc.), appoint 
(• • b.o. to an office, rank, or the like); 
to fix, set (a a a sum, a price, at); to 

think, deem, believe (<_> • or • • s.o. to 
be . . ., a a to be . . .), take (oj • or • • 
s.o. for, a a for); to represent (a, Ijj^ j as, or in the form of, 
else); to appoint, settle (J a s.tb. for 
s.o., in s.o.'s favor) ; to give, grant, 
concede (J a, an advantage, to s.o.), 
put s.o. (J) in the way of (a); to 
attribute (a J to s.o., maintain that (a) belongs to s.o. (J); to entrust 
(Jl a to s.o.) ; to put, get (» s.o., 
a, into a specific state or condition); 
(with foil, imperf.) to begin to, set out to] 
J*«j *Lu>- to induce s.o. to do; to make 
s.o. do (in a narrative); "d'jjt A**- 
(bi-manzilati) to place b.o. on equal 
footing with ; «0j Jjbi* j 4*>- (/i mutand* 
wali yadihl) to bring or put within 
s.o.'s reaoh III to seek to bribe, try to 
win («_j » s.o. with 

J**- ju'l pi. JIjuj-I afal pay, wages; 
piece wages ; reward, prize 

J**- ju'U: J..*, jlill {iUifSq) piece- 
work contract 

J**- ju'al pi. o">U»- ji'l&n dung beetle; 

ill**- ji'ala, ja'ata, jit'Sla pi. JJl*»- 
ja'a'iP pay, wages; allowance; reward, 
prize; bribe 

Ulji*- jugrSfiyd and ijl>*- jujjrdfiya geog- 
raphy | i-*-i» vLr**- (£*to'*yo) physical 

jl>»- jugrafi geographical; geographer 

i_i»- Jaffa (1st pers. perf. jafaftu) i (ijU*- 
jafdf, JsjJtJr jufuf) to dry, become dry; 
to dry out II to dry, make dry (a 

oLu- jafaf dryness; desiccation; dry- 
ing up; dullness 

J>lu£ tijfaf pi. lJuiU" tajdfif* protective 

.Juit tajfif drying; desiccation; 
hydration; drainage 



«-J^*- j&ff dry I «J^r-^*" i* (jotow #*&»*) 
ball-point pen 

ijtif mujaffaf dried, desiccated, de- 
hydrated; olLuf dehydrated foods 

u- ;w/d* useless, vain, futile | »U»- «_jo 
dahaba jufd'an to be in vain, be of no 
avail, pass uselessly 

i*- j't'/(, c-i»- ct/( (pronounced &/(; ep.) 
pincers, tweezers; metal clamp | cu*- 
ub^-i j. Saryan arterial clamps 

(pronounced UftiSi; eg.) filigree 

jifilik farm, country estate; govern- 
ment land {Pal.) 

ji^ jafr, jiL-\ it 'tfm aZ-7*. divination, for- 


ijj**- jufra pi. jjL>- j'u/ar pit, hole 

Ji»- jafala i u (;'a/f, J>i*- jufiil) and IV to 
start, jump with fright; to shy (horse) 
II to Btart, rouse (a, • b.o.); to scare 
away {» s.o.) 

Ji»- ja/I and J_^i*- ju/ui fright, alarm; 

iiiU»- (pronounced Siflik; eg.) = ill^i*- 

ji»- ;a/n pi. j>i*- ju/un, jli*-l aj/dn eyelid 

ci*- ;'a/7M» pi. 6LU j*/d», oLi*- jafandt 
bowl; grapevine 

(_***-) U*- jo/d" u (7o/ w » '^r ? a / d *) to De rough, 
coarse; to treat (• s.o.) roughly, harshly; 
to turn away (• from), shun, avoid, flee 
(• s.o.) Ill to treat (• s.o.) roughly, 
rudely, harshly; to be cruel (• to s.o.); 
to be cross (• with s.o.); to elude, flee 
(» s.o.; slumber); to offend (a against 
good taste, one's sense of honor, or the 
like) VI to withdraw (j* from), shun, 
avoid (• b.o.); to loathe (je s.o.,, 
have an aversion (je to) ; to display rude 
manners, act the ruffian 

jjU- jafto roughness, harshness 

iji*- jafwa roughness; estrangement, 
alienation; disagreement, dissension, 

•U>- jo/a* roughness, harshness; stern- 
ness; antipathy, aversion, distaste, loath- 
ing; estrangement, alienation 

i y r \ ajfa refraining even more (J 
from), more averse (J to 

J»U- jafin pi. «li*- jufah harsh, rough, 
coarse; brutish, uncouth, rude 

iiTU- look up alphabetically 

^5^- III (syr.) to tease (• b.o.) 

*J>- jalla » (J^»- jcttiti) to be great, lofty, 
exalted, illustrious, sublime; to be too 
great (jp for), be beyond (je), be 
far above (jc) | ^-J-l jp J*, ('on 
il-hafir) to be innumerable II to honor, 
dignify, exalt {• s.o.); to cover (a, 
esp. the ground, as snow, plants, etc.); 
to envelop, wrap, drape, clothe; to border, 
edge {*, «_j with) IV to honor, digni- 
fy, revere, venerate, esteem highly, exalt 
( • s.o.) ; to deem too high, too exalted {je 
for, consider far beyond (je-) 
VI to deem o.s. far above (jp) X to 
be great, exalted, sublime 

J»- jail great, outstanding; balky 

J»- jutt major portion, bulk, majority, 
main part | *U- 7'utiuAfi most of it; *-V' J»- 
j. al-umma the majority of the people; 
«ui L. J*- its main contents; *jl JUL U J»-j 
{jitllu) that much, at least, can be said 

Jl*- jalaX important, significant, mo- 
mentous, weighty 

J*. jvOA pi. JU- jttial matter of great 
importance, momentous undertaking, 
great feat, exploit 

*U- jvUa, jilla droppings, dung (of 
animals); julla pi. JU julal (cannon) 
ball; bomb 



il»- juUa attire, clothing | <ijyX\ 3JLA- 1 
(iJ^£jl) (habramya, kahnutxya) epis- 
copal (sacerdotal) vestments (CHr.) 

J_L- joZU pi. oU-1 a;iH<S' 8 , *U-1 ajt'Ha, 
JJ^U- jald'U 3 great, important, significant, 
weighty, momentous; lofty, exalted, 
sublime; revered, honorable, venerable; 
glorious, splendid 

J"iU. jalal loftiness, sublimity, august- 
nesa; splendor, glory 

"*}•&*■ jalala loftiness, sublimity, august- 
ness; majesty | U'iU.I (i-»-U*) i_-»-L> His 
(Her) Majesty, jJlil iJ^U- 7. al-malik His 
Majesty, the King 

J*-l aj'aH 1 greater; more sublime; more 

&£- majalla pi. -a( periodical; review, 
magazine | -Lp*—-' <bf (ua&u'iya) weekly 
magazine; *j_^-i il* (iaArt^a) monthly 
publication; ^ i-*U Hf (fcapsa) pro- 
fessional journal for...; fB^-V' ii* 
lawbook, code; (joj^l iLf do. 

<Ui tojtja and J:iUl tjJaJ honor, 
distinction; esteem, deference, respect; 

a ij j r ?«W rose 

i-*^*- ;wZafi, y«W56 rose water; julep 

,>;■}*>- (Fr. gelatine) ieldtin jelly 

V-'S 1 *- (Fr. glad) glaseh (eg.) kid leather 

1 ( __U- jalaba i u (jalb) to attract (a; to 
fetch, get, bring (a, J to s.o.); to im- 
port (a goods); to bring about (a a state, 
condition) ; to bring (a harm, shame, etc., 
Jp upon s.o.) ; to gain, win, obtain (a ; 
to earn {a; (v>k- jvlub) to scar 
over, heal (wound) II to shout, clamor; 
to be noisy, boisterous IV to earn, gain, 
acquire (a; = II; VII pass, of I 
VIII to procure, bring, fetch, get (a; to draw (a on; to import (* 

goods) X to import (a goods); to fetch, 
summon, call in (» s.o.); to attract, draw 
(a, a s.o.,; to seek to attract or win 
(a, • s.o.,; to get, procure (a 

i_J*- jalb bringing, fetching; procure- 
ment; acquisition; importation, import; 
causation, bringing on, bringing about 

^J*. jalab imported; foreign 

k_JU- jalab and «JLr jalaba clamor ; 
uproar, tumult, turmoil 

LU- julba scar 

i_-~L- jalib imported, foreign; (pi. ,^1*- 
jdlba, »UU julabd' 2 ) foreign slave 

<_>-)U- jalldb attractive, captivating; 
importer, trader; see also alphabetically J 
x_jJI v^T" a lfc v © trader 

4-j*5U gallabiya (eg.) pi. -at, wJ'iU- gala* 
lib* galabia, a loose, shirtlike garment, 
the common dress of the male population 
in Egypt 

ujjLU- see below under t^JU- 

<_~ U-l ajlab 2 more attractive, more 

iJjfi majlaba pi. ._JLf majalib 1 causa- 
tive factor, motive, reason, cause, oc- 

i r >')U^-l istijldb procurement, acquisi- 
tion; importation, import; supply; at- 
traction | ,>*:UI ^}In£-.I promotion of 
tourist traffic 

<_JU- jalib causative factor, motive, 
reason, cause, occasion 

2 <->~&>r juldb, jullab rose water; julep 

3 LU- jalaba jalap (bot.) 

L-—U- II iajalbaba to clothe o.s. (i_> with), be 
clothed, be clad (*_j in a garment, also 

i_jUL. jilbab pi. «_-x)"^U. jalablb* garment, 
dress, gown; woman's dress 



uLU- jvliibbdn chickling vetch, grass pqa 
(Lathyrus Bativus) 

l J*JL- jaljala to reverberate; to resound, ring 
out; to rattle; to shake (* 

J**U jvljvl pi. J^-^r jdajW (little) 
bell, Bleigh bell; cowbell; jingle 

*JUJ»- jaljala sound of a bell; load, 
shrill sound 

J»Jjf mujaljil shrill, piercing; ring- 
ing, resounding, reverberant 

*4L»1»- jidjtila, lLii-1 J^ jabalal-j. Golgotha 

■O^J*- jtdjul&n, jUjildn sesame 

«U- ;aZita a (;aZaA) to be or become bald 

jJ*-! ojfap, f. »UL- jathd'*, pi. ^ ju$ 
bald-headed, bald 

iJ*- jalafca a and II to sharpen (*; to 
whet, hone (a a knife), strop (a a razor); 
to stretch, extend, roll out (a metal) 
»J*- ;a/& grindstone, whetstone, hone 

aJU- jalada i {jald) to whip, flog, lash (• s.o.); 
— jalida a to be frozen, freeze; — jalvda 
u to be tough, hardy, undismayed, stead- 
fast, patient II to bind (a a book); (to 
cause) to freeze (* Ill to fight (# s.o.) 
IV to freeze; to be frozen, be covered 
with ice V to take heart; to show o.s. 
tough, hardy, robust; to resign oa. to 
patience; to bear, suffer VI to engage in 
a sword fight 

ol*. jald flogging; — (pi. V)Ul ajUd) 
staunch, steadfast; strong, sturdy 

-il»- jild pi. i^U- jtdad t i^U-l ajladakm, 
hide; leather f OUi* aU- {aufcit'ydn) 
morocco; pU. oi»- (Zomm5') patent leather 

».lL- jtWa skin, hide; piece of leather; 
race | LJJ*- ,^i ton jildalind our country- 
man, our fellow tribesman, pi. bJol*- ^j 
famu ;. 

tS-uV jtfdi dermal, cutaneous, skin 
(adj.) f 3jJlU- t/*'j*' SB ^ n diseases 

•oJU- julaida pi. -5* membrane, pel- 
licle; O film (pAot.) 

ol*- ;ala<2 endurance; suffering; pa- 
tience; firmament 

•xl»- joWa lash, stroke with a whip 

oJU- jalid pi. *IaU- jtdada*' staunoh, 
steadfast; strong, sturdy 

0-U- /ofti ice | jJU J-»- ja&aZ j. iceberg; 
■iJX} j- 4*Li (qif'a) ice floe 

jJ-U joZidtioy, ice-covered, glacial, ice 
(adj.); snow-covered | ^-lU;I j-«JI (*a#r) 
the Ice Age 

a^L- /aZ&Z long-suffering, patient 

i 1 ^ ;'a#5i pi. -fin leather merchant; 
executioner, hangman 

»y>U- jal&da and •*>!*- jvluda endurance, 

ijLf mijlada whip, lash, scourge 

xJLf ta//«i freezing; bookbinding 

A'lU- ji&fcf fight, battle (against) 

jJLf tajaUvd endurance, patience 

olf mujattid: i^j^II -ibf m. aZ-&ufub 

oLf mujaUad frozen, icy, ice-covered; 
bound (book); (pi. -Si) volume (book) 

jJl£ mujdlid pi. -fin gladiator 

.llU^u mvlajallid patient 

jjj*- jillaiu (coll.; n.un. •) hazelnut; hazel 

^^JU- jaiaea i Cj-jU- jvlfa) to sit down (Jl 
with s.o., at a table, etc., J* on a chair); 
to sit (Jl with s.o., at a table, J* on a 
chair) | *Upl Jl ,^-U. {rasaam) to sit for 
a painter HI to Bit (* with s.o., next to 
s.o., in s.o.'s company); to keep s.o. (•) 
company IV to ask to sit down, make sit 
down, seat (• s.o.) 

i~U- jalsa pi. -St seat (in an auditorium) ; 
session (of parliament, of a committee, 



of a court, etc.) ; party, gathering, meet- 
ing | 5-JU- Jj* *aqada jaUatan to convene 
<*U i-JU ('dmma) plenary 

*—L»- jtfaa manner of sitting 

)>r ^U- joiia pi. »UL- julasd'* participant 
in a Bocial gathering; table oompanion; 
one with whom one sits together; *~*L»- 
the man who was at the party with him 

i-jJU ?'att*i lady oompanion; fern, of 

^JL. ^uifij sitting ; sitting down ; 
accession to the throne; pi. of ^U- 
j&lia sitting 

^Af majlia pi. ^Lf ■majdlis 1 seat; 
session room, conference room; party, 
gathering, meeting; social gathering; 
session, sitting; council meeting; council; 
concilium ; collegium, college ; board, 
committee, commission; administrative 
board; court, tribunal | *-Xf j in a.o.'s 
presence, in s.o.'s company; ^-jjtll l>r JLf 
and ^jjIj ^jA*. disciplinary board; ^JLf 
i^-fc constituent assembly; jliT ^-,1* 
regional court (frtfrunaZ regional; Tun.); 
i*Vl ^/iaf m. al-umma parliament (Jr.); 
!>.Vl ^Jjf m. al-amn the Security 
Counoil; LoLJI tr i* m. al-baladiya and 
i^-dj tr Lf (feajatft) local council, munic- 
ipal council; v_^-' Lr-^? m - oi-harb war 
council; t5 -»- ^-Lf (hasbx) probate court 
(for Muslims; Eg.); JJat ^.U (mu£toZ»J) 
mixed court (eg.); fli-UI l>r Jjf defense 
council; SjbVI ,^1? m. al-iddra ad- 
ministrative board, committee of manage- 
ment, directorate; board of directors (of 
a corporation or bank); iyJJU ,jJL* m. 
al-mudiriya provincial council, provincial 
parliament (.£?.); iJjall l>r U m. ad-daula 
Supreme Administrative Court (Eg.) ; 
i^-JJ tr^? (**£*) religious court, clerical 
court (of the Coptic Church); ^j^i ,^-U 
*JjJI to. silrfi d-daula council of state; 
£j-£lf ,j-Lf council of elders; senate (#£.); 

Jo* ,jAjC. ('adli) court, tribunal (flyr.); 
(&£-* or) jjt ^-U ('wr/», 'aakari) 
court-martial; fVI L-** ,^-lf m. 'i^fca^ 
e^umam Council of the League of 
Nations; aj**II (jJrf the House of Com- 
mons; jLtVI ^-Lf to. (U-a'y&n senate 
(/r., Jord.); £_IJSVl ^-U draft board, 
recruiting commission (mtf.); ^jj ,j~Lf 
(garawi) local council; jiL-cil ,jJjt 
(iqtip&di) economic council; ^Ji ^Jf 
(qaumi) national assembly ; IaIJ ( _ / Jjf 
•jjill m. qiy&dai af-taura Supreme Rev- 
olutionary Tribunal (Eg.); jS}\ ^Jl^I 
and jjfVl ^JUI (oitfior) the Grand 
Counoil (== le Grand Conueil; Tun.); 
joj_>iJi ^-Irf- the House of Lords; ^Jjt- 
<-*!>■" m. an-nuwwSb lower house, cham- 
ber of deputies; (jLi ^.Lf (niyo&i) par- 
liament; «^J-l l _ r JLf to. al-jiha approx.: 
provincial council (= conseU de region; 
Tun.); *\jjj\ ^Sa to. al-wumra' cabinet, 
council of ministers 

iJLf mujSlasa social intercourse 

uJU- ;fiZw pi. ,^-^U- julus, ^-^U /uttdj 
sitting; pi. ^"^ participants in a social 

.Li*- jalapa i (jal$) to chafe, gall, abrade (a 
the skin); to shave (^T^JI ar-ra'aa the 

ILL- ju#a lump, clot | ijj-J ILL- (da* 
matviya) blood clot, thrombus 

._iU- j*i/ pi. <JoUl o;Zo/ boorish, rude, un- 

.LaU- jalfafa (iLiL- jalfafa) to calk (* a ship) 

jiL- galfana (eg.) to galvanize 

ciU- galfana galvanization 

u yiLf mugalfan galvanized 

tfiL- jalaqa: ijjy U-^U- (garawtyo) yokel, 

L» jalama i (jalm) to clip, shear off (a 
1*- jo2am pi. j»*>U-! ajlam shears 


_j-JU- jjI aiu grajamftfi (ep.) a variety of crab 

.uU- II tajcdmada to be petrified 

jlJU- jalmad pi. -u^»- jalamid* and 
ajJU julm&d pi. -A--^- jaldmid' rock, 

jUL- juUanar pomegranate blossom 

(jl»- and J»-) ^U- 70W t* to clean, polish (a ; to elear ( * the view) ; to make clear* 
make plain, clarify, clear up (a, 
throw light on (a); to reveal, unveil, 
disclose (a; to dislodge, oust, re- 
move (jp a or • s.o. or from); to 
shine, be brilliant, distinguish o.s. (j in; to be or become clear, evident, 
manifest; to pull out, move out (j* of a 
place), go away, depart (^e from a 
place), leave, quit, evacuate (j* a place); 
— J»- jald i to polish, burnish (a 
II to reveal, disclose, bring to light (&> or 
a; to show, represent (• s.o., a; IT to remove, dislodge, oust, 
drive away (a, • s.o.,; to evacuate 
(• s.o., £p from); to move away, go away 
(^ from a place), leave (& a place) 
Y to become clear, evident, manifest; to 
reveal itself, be revealed; to appear, 
show, come to light, come out, manifest 
itself; to be manifested, be expressed, 
find expression VII to be clean or cleaned, 
be polished, be burnished; to be removed, 
be dislodged, be ousted; to move away 
(^ from a place), vacate, evacuate (y> 
a place) ; to be dispelled, vanish, go away, 
pass (crisis, difficulty, etc.) ; to dis- 
appear; to reveal itself, be revealed, be 
disclosed; to be unveiled (bride) ; to 
become manifest, manifest itself; to 
become clear or plain; to clear up and 
reveal (^; to lead, come (^ to), 
end (jfi in) ; to result (^ in) j ** J*JJ U 
j*"$\ the outcome of the matter, what 
will come of it VIII to reveal, disolose 
(a; to regard (a, look at 
(a) X to seek to clarify (a; to 

clarify, clear up (a, throw light 
(a on); to uncover, unearth, bring to 
light, find out, discover, detect (a 

^U- j I ibn jald a famous, well-known 
man, a celebrity 

J** jalxy clear, plain, evident, patent, 
manifest, obvious, conspicuous; LU- ja» 
Ixyan obviously, evidently 

4-U- jalxya pi. {/$*■ jal&ya sure thing, 
plain fact j j**}\ 5-U- jaliyat al-amr the 
true state of the affair 

J»-l ajld clearer, more obvious, more 

ijL- jiliva unveiling (of the bride) | UJ 
•jU-l lailat aUj. wedding night 

»^»- jald' clarification, eluoidation; 
clarity, clearness, plainness, distinctness; 
departure, (e)migration (^ from) ; evac- 
uation (jt of an area; mil.); »*jU 
clearly, plainly 

oUL- jalaydn vision, revelation, apoc- 
alypse (Chr.) 

Jlf majdlin (pi. of J* majlan) 

<JU? tajliya: i*A^I SJLsf (Udhiya) divine 
revelation; theophany (Chr.) 

Jjf tajaUin revelation, manifestation; 
Transfiguration (of Christ) | J»JI .t* 'id 
at-t. Transfiguration Day (Chr.) 

»'te r \ ijtild' contemplation 

•^i^t istijla' clarification, elucidation 

iJU- jaliya pi. -(W, Jl^- jawalin colony 
(of foreigners) ; colony of emigrants 

\M al-mujaUi the winner (in a race) 

J»ju mutajaUin obvious, evident, mani- 
fest, patent 

jjl*- galdn pi. -at gallon (eg.) 

il)_>Lf mvgaltvan galvanized (eg.) 

Jj* juUd see 1 J»- 


^jjJ>- gilyotln guillotine (eg.) 

^r abbreviation of &j**a <^>- Egyptian 

*-»- jamma i u (jamm) to gather; to collect 
one's thoughts, concentrate ; to rest II and 
V to grow luxuriantly (plants) X to 
gather; to collect one's thoughts, con- 
centrate; to rest, relax, seek recreation 
(j. from); to be covered with luxuriant 
vegetation (ground) 

.»- jamm abundant, plentiful; much, 
a great deal of; many, numerous; mani- 
fold, multiple; crowd, group of people | 


;'. al-atar effective, efficacious; 

Lr- t L»- -u»-I (akabbahu kubban) to be more 
than fond of; i* oJlji numerous ad- 
vantages, ample benefits; _mp jn. large 
crowd, throng 

>l> jamdm rest, relaxation, recreation, 
gathering of new strength 

^t majamm place where gathers 
or flows together | <u*>^_.j J[j\ Ioa A 
{mustajma'uhv,) what this opinion a- 
mounts to 

***i tagmim (eg.) bobbed hairdo (of 

flcSU*l istijmam colleotedness ; con- 
centration; attentiveness, attentive rev- 
erence; rest, relaxation, recreation 


ijjh*: ' 

j^-t i^J'-r*- 

tfj^l (from It. gambero) gambari, ^j^ gam- 
mart (eg.) shrimp (zool.) 

1 f~> jamjama (<****\ jamjama), fVftl *Jh 
(kalama) and II tajamjama to articulate 
indistinctly, stammer; to express o.s. 
poorly, speak incoherently; to mumble 

****!> jumjuma pi. ^-L^ jam&jim 2 skull, cra- 

jumjumi cranial 

pjh jamaha a {jamk, ^U; jitndh, »•_>> ju* 
m«/t) to bolt (horse); to be refractory, 
unruly, recalcitrant; to be defiant; to be 
capricious, whimsical; to run out on her 
husband, run away from home (wife) 

rX^jimdh recalcitrance, defiance; will- 

r^ jumuh recalcitrance, defiance ; 

rj*: jamuh headstrong, defiant, un- 
ruly, ungovernable 

*U- jamih headstrong, defiant, un- 
ruly; indomitable, untamable 

*-L*7 jamada u, jamuda u (jamd, ij^ ju» 
mvd) to freeze ; to congeal, harden, 
stiffen, be or become hard or solid, solid- 
ify; to coagulate, clot (blood); to be 
rigid, inflexible (in one's thinking); to 
stagnate; to be apathetic, indolent, dull, 
indifferent | J» *— aj o-i> to be indifferent 
toward, put up with, acquiesce in; OXr 
»-b (yaduhu) to be niggardly, tightfisted 
II to freeze, frost, congeal (a; to so- 
lidify, coagulate, harden, stiffen (a; 
to curdle (a; to freeze (a assets) 
V to freeze, become frozen, turn into ice, 
freeze up, become icebound; to freeze to 
death; to congeal; to solidify; to harden, 
set (e.g., cement) ; to coagulate, clot 
(blood) VII to freeze up, become ice- 
bound; to freeze, become frozen, turn to 

Jut; jamd freezing; congelation, solidi- 
fication, coagulation | x^l i>-j.s darajat 
al-j. freezing point 

Xi^ jamad ice 

.ilr; jamad pi. -at a solid; inorganio 
body; mineral; inanimate body, inani- 
mate being; O neuter (gram.) 

Aj*; jumud frozen state; solid, com- 
pact state, compactness, solidity; rigor, 
rigidity, stiffness ; inorganic state ; harden - 


ing, induration; hardneBB, inflexibility; 
deadlock, standstill; inertia, inaction, 
inactivity; lethargy, apathy, passivity, 

Ujjh jumuda solidity, hardness 

■Ujf tajmid solidification, hardening; 
consolidation; reinforcement (of a foun- 
dation) | Jlj*VI -l*j* t. al-amwal freezing 
of assets 

Juf tajammud freezing; frost; conge- 
lation; solidification; coagulation 

a \g I injtmad freezing up or ov er, 
icing up; ice formation 

.uL- jamid hard, solid; stiff; rigid; 
motionless; inanimate, inorganic; (gram.) 
defective; dry, dull (book, and the like); 
impervious to progress or innovation, 
ossified, ultraconservative; pi. -JUlj*- ja* 
wamid 2 inanimate things, inorganio mat- 
ter, minerals 

jUj^i* mutajammid frozen, icy; stiff, 
congealed; coagulated 

.u^L« munjdmid frozen, icy, ice (adj.); 
arctic | x^l\ Ji^l (muhif) the Arctic 

"(pLj^ jumadd name of the fifth and sixth 
months of the Muslim year (JjVI tfjl*; 
j. l-ula Jumada I and lj^i\ jiL*: j. l-dkira 
Jumada II) 

[j* II to roast (* meat) VIII to burn incense 

j*> jamr embers, live coal | J* o& 
jiA £. j*-\ (aharra) to be on tenter- 
hooks; to be in greatest suspense, be 
dying -with curiosity 

ij*- t jamra (n. un. of j*) live coal; 
firebrand, smoldering embers; rankling 
resentment; (pi. -Si) carbuncle (med.) | 
O luJ-"l IjM anthrax 

jl> jummdr palm pith, palm core 
(edible tuber growing at the upper end 
of the palm trunk) 

mijmara pi. j-Lf majamir* bra- 

zier; censer 

^iSj*: see j^*; 

ilj* (eg.) gumruk pi. iijU; gam&rik* customs; 
customhouse | fJ^J;! ^-j rami al-g. cus- 
toms duty, tariff 

Sj*: gumruH customs, tariff (used at- 
tributively) | Sy. ^1 (ittihad) customs 

iij^jf mttgamrak duty paid 

>> jummaix (coll.; n. un. I) sycamore (Fi- 
cus sycomorus; hot.) 

ifj-i*- look up alphabetically 

^^h jamaSa % u (jami) to unhair (* 
II to make love, caress, pet 

*jh jama' a a (jam') to gather (a; to 
collect (a e.g., money); to unite, combine, 
bring together (parts into a whole); to 
put together, join (a things); to set, 
compose (a type; typ.)i to compile (a 
a book) ; to summarize, sum up (a ; 
to rally, round up ( > people) ; to pile up, 
amass, accumulate (*; to assemble 
(> several persons); to convoke, con- 
vene, call (a a meeting); to add (a num- 
bers), add up (a a column); (gram.) to 
make plural, pluralize (a a word); to 
unite, link, bring together (jw several 
things or persons) ; to combine (j — Cry 
e.g., both strength and courage); to con- 
tain, hold, comprise (a | <J»ljWl £> 
*^}\ (afrdfa) to summarize, sum up ; 
to give a survey of; ^* icI^Ol ^ 
IfiljM (barS'ata) to be very efficient, do 
an excellent job, do superlatively good 
work; aJ**)! Jt" »*; (Samla l-q.) to round 
up the herd; I^ImL* j^. v^" C*^ 
(fafahdiihS) the book contains, lists . . . ; 
^Ori J* £*±! r^t (yw?™**!*) t n « plural 
of bait is buyvt U. to pile up, amass, accu- 
mulate (a; to rally, round up (a, 
a s.o.); to assemble (a the parts of a ma- 


chine) III to have sexual intercourse (U 
with a woman) IV to agree (J* on, to 
do; to be agreed (J* on); to decide 
unanimously {J* on), resolve (J* to do | j>j*\ \j**~) (amrahum) they 
came to terms, they made a joint de- 
cision V to gather; to assemble, congre- 
gate; to rally, band together, flock to- 
gether (people); to pile up; to accumu- 
late; to gather into a masB, agglomerate; 
to cluster; to coagulate VIII to be close 
together; to como together, meet, join; 
to unite, combine (i_» with); to assemble, 
meet, convene (an organization, a com- 
mittee, etc.); to be or get together, have 
a meeting, interview or conference, hold 
talks (i_j, m* with s.o.), meet (>->, *- s.o.); 
to concur (J* in), agree, be agreed (J© 
on X to gather, collect (*; 
also »\j$ quwaku one's strength, «jt&l 
afkdrahu one's thoughts); to summarize, 
sura up (*; to possess, combine 

a*: jam' gathering; collection; com- 
bination; connection, coupling, joining; 
accumulation; (arith.) addition; union, 
merger, aggregation, integration d>i of); 
holding together (j\j of divergent, sep- 
arate things); (pi. 9-jj-; jumu) gathering, 
crowd, throng; gang, troop; (gram.) plu- 
ral | J— iJi »^ j. as-Saml union, integra- 
tion; _n_5^JI m.^ the broken (= internal) 
plural, iLJI -J^l the regular (= external) 
plural; *>l —.1 ism al-j. collective noun 
(gram,); oJl -^ j. al-yad fist 

**7 jum', !_a^3I **; j. al-kaff, jJI *j^ ;'. 
al-yad fist, clenched hand | <u-o «*j£ with 
clenched fists 

i*j~ jum' a pi. ■> juma', -at week; Fri- 
day | ajJ^\ Ay_ yaum al-j. Friday; fV*^l **> 
Passion Week; 4,.,U*JI Z*J^\ and <*J^\ *^j 
ojj-i Good Friday {Chr.) 

1_*^ jam'iya pi. -at club, association, 
society; corporation, organization ; as- 

sembly | s*j\ v^ j. al-umam League 
of Nations; hj^- i-*^ (kairiya) chari- 
table organization; JiU-V' v^ j. 
al-is'af approx. : civil ambulance serv- 
ice ; 4z*ij£ i-*> (tairi'iya) legislative 
assembly; «—_>>■ *^*; ('umumiya) and 
1.U L*j^ ('dmma) general assembly; gen- 
eral meeting; plenum, plenary session; 
SJjljJ 4_*#; (ta'awuniya) cooperative 

*^> jami' (with foil, genitive) total; 
whole, entire; all; entirety; e.g., ^.Ul *-^ 
all men, all mankind; m^I all people, 
everybody; the public at large; L^ ja* 
mi'an in a body, altogether, one and all, 
all of them; entirely, wholly, totally 

*^l ajma' 2 pi. -un, f. »Ui7 jam'a' 2 , pi. 
*> juma' 3 entire, whole, all | jlUll 
C*~) t/V-'Vl (ajma'a) the entire Islamic 
world ; »l**7 j I -ill {jam' a' a) the whole 
house; 4*^L bi-ajma'ihi in ita entirety, 
to its full extent, completely, altogether; 
«+*■*: ^ 'jjW- a ^ °f them came 

p U; jumma aggregate ; total, total 

O ^.jif t}**. jamma kahrabd'i storage 

**U; jama a pi. -at group (of people); 
band, gang, party, troop; community; 
squad (military unit; Eg. 1939) | oUl^ 
bly lj jamd'atin iva-afrddan in groups and 

^Uf jamd'i collective (as opposed to 
fjiji fardi individual) 

»*jf majma' pi. *-bf majami' 2 place 
where two or more things meet, place or 
point of union, junction; meeting, con- 
gregation, convention, assembly; (also 
^jJs- **£■ m.'ilmi) academy (scientific); 
college (e.g., of ecclesiastical dignitaries); 
synod | ^jL **j£ (baladi) provincial synod 
(Chr.) ; Jo jJS"l «*jft (ikliriH) clerical 
synod (of the Coptic Church); ^U^c, -U-l 
^>j\j^\ to win or captivate the hearts; 


«_L* a-L»»x. 6»-m. 'otnatAt (to look at a.o.) 
with complete concentration, intently 

( j>~£- majma'i academy member, aca- 

«-*^ tajmV assembly, assemblage (of 
the parts of machinery) 

f Lf; jimd' sexual intercourse ; 
comprising or involving another thing 
or a number of things | fVI H*: j^-'l al- 
kamr j. al-itm wine involves sin, wine 
is the vessel of sin 

9\*-\ ijmd' agreement, unanimity (also 
i*M H - *^)' unanimous resolution (J* to 
do; {I at Law) consensus (of the 
authorities in a legal question; one of 
the four upul of Islamic Law) | fl^Yl* 

^1*4 ijma'i based on general agree- 
ment, unanimous; collective, universal 

«** tajammu' pi. -ai coming together, 
meeting; gathering; troop concentration; 
crowd, throng, mob; agglomeration; 
O agglutination (chem..-med.) 

M^-l ijtimd' pi. -at meeting (<-» with 
s.o. ; of a corporate body; of parliament) ; 
get-together, gathering, assembly ; re- 
union; rally; convention; conjunction, 
constellation {astron.) ; confluence (of 
rivers) ; life in a social group* community 
life, social life; fjr*- 1 ^ human society J 
J^UI f\fr-\ ijtimd' af-turuq crossroads, 
intersection, junction; f-l^-Vl Jp 'ilm al- 
ijt. sociology; fl^*-Yl »lfL* sociologists 

^1^-1 ijtim&'i community, group (used 
attributively); social; socialist(ic) ; socio- 
logical j ILp^Y' jjLiJI Sjljj ministry 
for social affairs; i^l^-Vl iJU-l personal 
status; S-ftl^^l **jX\ (kidma) social 
service, social work; <u*^»-VI iljl— I! 
{musdw&h) social equality; J-p^-V IlA' 
(kai'a) human society 

Vlrr' ijtima'iya socialism 

«.U jami' comprehensive, extensive, 
broad, general, universal; collector; com- 
piler (of a book); compositor, typesetter; 
(pi. £•'_>*- jawami' 2 ) mosque | **L- J**—. 
(masjid) great, central mosque where the 
public prayer is performed on Fridays 

*A-U- jdmi'a pi. -at league, union, asso- 
ciation; community; federation; reli- 
gious community, communion; common- 
ness, community of interests or purpose; 
university | O *^.j^^ ***U- j. al-kahrabd' 
storage battery, accumulator; /V' -**U- 
j. al-umam League of Nations; U-Li-j 
V^*Y' {isldmxya) Pan-Islamism; **Ai~\ 
*sO*" ('arabiya) and 1^^*11 Jj-Uf i^U- 
[duwal) the Arab League; *— *i ***U- 
(aa'biya) university extension, adult edu- 
cation courses, evening courses 

ij«*U» jami'% academic, collegiate, uni- 
versity (adj.); university graduate 

Pj+*r majmu' collected, gathered; to- 
tality, whole; total, sum (arith.) \ Jtjjl-\ 
5p>*^I matter (typ.); ^*Ji\ ^'j' Tj*^" 
m. arddi l-gufr the total area of the 
country ; *J_jl» £j*J? «*• fulihi its total 
length; iS ~**l\ P>*^l ('asabi) the nervous 

46j*j£ majmu a pi. -ai, ^Laf majdmV* 
collection (e.g., of works of art, of stamps, 
etc., also of stories); compilation, list; 
group (also, e.g., of trees, of islands, 
etc.); series (e.g., of articles in a news- 
paper); O battery (el.); alliance, league, 
bloc (e.g., of states); collective, collecti- 
vistic organization; aggregate; complex, 
block (of buildings); system; bulletin, 
periodical | <■.,».*-) I **j**M (Sameiya) the 
solar system ; 5-pb™* **j~$ (sind'i yd) 

«*jf mujammi' collector (lechn.) ; Q stor- 
age battery, accumulator 

aJs. »*j£ mujma' 'alaihi (that which 
is) agreed upon, unanimous 



*u^f mujtama" pi. -&t gathering place, 
place of assembly; meeting place, rendez- 
vous; assembly, gathering, meeting; so- 
ciety; human society; community, com- 
mune, collective 

iSlr = 3_£.U- look up alphabetically 

J J*; jamah, u (jaml) to sum up, summarize 
(a; — jamula u (Jl»; jamal) to be 
beautiful ; to be handsome, pretty, come- 
ly, graceful; to be proper, suitable, appro- 
priate (<~> for s.o.), befit (<-» s.o.) II to 
make beautiful, beautify, embellish, a- 
dorn (a, • s.o., Ill to be polite, 
courteous, amiable (a to s.o.) IV to sum, 
total, add (a; to treat as a whole, 
mention collectively (*; to sum up, 
summarize (*; to act well, decently, 
be nice V to make o.s. pretty, adorn o.s. 
VI to be courteous, be friendly to one 

31*; jumta pi. J*; jumal totality, sum, 
whole; group, troop, body; crowd; whole- 
sale; (gram.) sentence, clause; 31*; jum- 
latan completely, wholly, on the whole, 
altogether, in general, at all | »4*-lj 31*; 
jumlatan wahidatan all at once, at one 
swoop; oUjlftl 31*; everything in ex- 
istence; h\j*\ 31*; ^* itf he was one of his 
companions, he belonged to his com- 
panions; *JU U *1> j Jtf (jumlati) among 
other things, he said ...; J^oJl *L*:j 
j I wa-jumlatu l-qauli anna or 31*; j 
jl j-Vl in short ..., to sum up ..., 
briefly stated ...; 3li;l J* in short, 
in a word ; 3JJ;Ij wholly, on the whole, al- 
together, in general, at all; by wholesale 
(com.) ; 3i*-i-il »jt'^ ' 31*; j. al-ujra al-mu8' 
iahiqqa gross wages; 3i*;l j*Xi wholesaler, 
wholesale dealer; 31*;l _^u- si'r al-j. whole- 
sale price; 3_r*l 31*; (ismiya) nominal 
clause; 3_l*i 31*; (fi'liya) verbal clause; 31*; 
3jjU>-I (ikbariya) or 3j^ 31*; (kabariya) 
declarative sentence (or clause) ; 31*; 
3JLUI (inSa'iya) exclamatory sentence; 

3JU- 31*; (haliya) circumstantial clause; 
3-U^J 31*; (Sarfiya) conditional clause ; 
<JjU» 31*; (mu'tarwfa) parenthetical clause 

Ji;1 uL^- kisdb al-jummal (or jumal) 
use of the letters of the alphabet ac- 
cording to their numerical value 

Jl> jamal beauty | O t)\M J* 'Urn 
al-j. aesthetics 

J_*; jamil beautiful, graceful, lovely, 
comely, pretty, handsome; friendly act, 
favor, service, good turn; courtesy | 
J-i;L J»lj*l, J-i;l *ijA* ma'rifat al-j. and 
J~Mj o\ijt. ('irfan) gratitude; J-*;l b\j& 
nukran al-j. ingratitude; J-i;! _^"U un- 
grateful; ^A-*; J iLi»- (hafiza) to keep s.o. 
in fond remembrance, remember s.o. 
with gratitude 

J*;l ajmal 2 more beautiful 

J_»*: tajmil beautification, embellish- 
ment; cosmetics 

3i*Lf mujamala pi. -at (act of) courtesy; 
civility, amiability; flattery; 3i*ljf muja* 
malatan amicably, in a friendly way j 
3i.Lt ijljj ziyarat m. courtesy call; o*lj* 
oiUUii etiquette 

JL*;1 ijmal summation, summing up; 
summarization ;VW ijmdlan on the whole, 
in general, generally speaking, as a general 
principle | Jyl illJJ VI*;! to sum up, I 
(would) say ...; *Jl*;i j in its entirety, 
as a whole; JL*;VIj and Jl*;VI J* in 
general, on the whole, altogether; *»-_# 
JL*;VI bi-wajhi l-i. = VW 

Jl*;l ijmdli comprehensive, summary, 
general, over-all, total, collective | jjij 
JL*;I over-all report; 3JL*;1 i.1^ (garama) 
collective penalty; 3JL^I *J*i (nazra) gen- 
eral view 

J*afi mujmil pi. -un wholesaler, whole- 
sale dealer 

J*^. mujmal summary, resume^ syn- 
opsis, compendium ; general concept ; sum, 
total | J*^L* by wholesale 



*J> jamal pi. Jl> jimSl, JW ojmal camel | 
i^Ji J> 7. al-yahud chameleon 

JU; jammal pi. -fin camel driver 

ul> jum&n (coll.; n. un. I) pearls 

j+jh jamhara to gather, collect {*, *, 
b.o.); to assemble {• s.o.) II tajamhara 
to gather, flock together (crowd) 

•_^> ?«??iAara multitude, crowd, throng; 
the great mass, the populace 

J>t*T 7«mAur pi. jal^ jamflAir 8 multi- 
tude; crowd, throng; general public, 
public; j-^J-) the masses, the people 

i£jj4*; jumhuri republican (adj. andn.) 

*>_jj4**i jumh&riya pi. -at republic | 

».u«dl i-jj*!l *tjj^ ('aro&iya, mw/taAida) 
the United Arab Republic ; *j jj^} 
vLLVI i-iUVl (»«*Aadtsra) the Federal 
Republic of Germany; *^\Jtjjui\ *j j_j+^;l 
LJUVI (<Km«gra$»ya) the German Dem- 
ocratic Republic 

^f^£ tajamhur gathering (of people); 

j*- janna u (jann, dj^- junun) to cover, hide, 
conceal, veil (a, J*; to descend, 
fall, be or become dark (night); pass. 
junna: to be or become possessed, insane, 
mad, crazy | y^>- J*- {jununuku) to get 
madly excited, become frantic II to 
craze, make crazy, drive insane, madden, 
enrage, infuriate (• s.o.) IT to cover, 
veil, hide, conceal (a; = II; V to 
go mad, become crazy X to be covered, 
veiled, concealed; to regard (» s.o.) as 
crazy, think (• s.o.) mad 

,j>- jinn (coll.) jinn, demons (invisible 
beingB, either harmful or helpful, that 
interfere with the lives of mortals) 

^j- jinni demonic; jinni, demon 

!Lj>- jinniya female demon 

c*- janna pi. -&t, Ob*- jtndn garden; 
paradise J *<JI oL*- paradise; 01J-.1 jTU 

inhabitant of paradise, deceased person, 
one of blessed memory 

£$*■ junaina pi. -of, JU»- jond'm* little 
garden; garden 

J?b*- ;and'»nt gardener 

c*- ?tnna possession, obsession; mania, 
madness, insanity 

i>- jtmna pi. ,ji»- ;unan protection, 
shelter, shield 

jb- j'andn pi. ob;-! a/nan- heart, soul 

jL#- jann&n gardener 

,>;>. 7'antn pi. o»-l ajinna, ji>-\ ajnun 
embryo, fetus; germ (in a seed, etc.) 

jy*- junun possession, obsession; ma- 
nia, madness, insanity, dementia; foolish- 
ness, folly ; frenzy, rage, fury ; ecstasy, rap- 
ture { u>j djS\ al-j. junun madness has 
many varieties, manifests itself in many 

ijjjf jununx crazy, insane, mad; fran- 
tic, frenzied 

y£ mijann pi. 0I4 majann 2 shield 

o£ majanna madness, insanity 

0U- jann jinn, demons 

jyjf majnun pi. ,>ikf majanin* pos- 
sessed, obsessed; insane, mad; madman, 
maniac, lunatic; crazy, cracked; crack- 
pot; foolish; fool 

^>- janaba u to avert, ward off (* * from s.o. II to keep away, avert, ward off 
(a * from s.o., keep s.o. (•) out of 
the way of (a), spare (a » s.o. Ill to 
be or walk by s.o.'s (•) side; to run 
alongside of (a), run parallel to (a), skirt, 
flank (a; to avoid (a V to 
avoid (a, • s.o.); to keep away (a, • 
from), steer clear, get out of the way 
(a, . of) VI and VIII = V; VIII to be at 
the side of (a), run Bide by side with (a), 
run alongside of (a), skirt, flank (a 


« r J*- janb pi. *->j*r jun&b, v^-r' «7»wS6 
side; /an&a (prep.) beside, next to, near, 
at | ^^r Jl U*- (also >_ji- L^-) side by 
ride; 4-f*- jo (/anftaiAt) inside (it), within; 
4-c»- ju U (oatna ?an&atftt) what it eon- 
tains, comprises, its contents; i_^ J* 
aside, apart; lj-U-I oli pleurisy 

c^- ?an&a pi. janabdt side; region, 
area ] 4jU? j in it, within, inside; *sf 
tfU>- jo ((tommaAtl) to comprise, hold, 
contain; Si^ill oU»- j. aUgurfa the 
whole room; ii^JI oL- jo in (the middle 
of) the room; CjLijLI j^-lj crammed, 
chock-full, brimful, filled to overflowing 
or bursting 

l p*- janbi lateral, side (adj.) 

<_--»- junnb in a state of major ritual 
impurity; not belonging to the tribe, not 
a kinsman | t^iW j4-' the neighbor not 
belonging to the family 

<_jUi>- janab (title of respect) approx.: 
Bight Honorable; &br Your Honor; 
you (polite form) 

*jUj»- janaba major ritual impurity (Isl. 

l-»L>- ?una& (= t-^i-.l oli) pleurisy 

V^-r janfii south ; L jj^ jan&ban south- 
ward, to the south 

cf>>- janvtn southern j Ui^l <-*>*- 
South Africa 

<_~iU- jdnifi pi. >- r -'l>r ;aw£»»6 s Bide; lat- 
eral portion; sidepiece; flank; wing; face 
(geom.); part, portion, partial amount; 
partial view, section ( j* of a scene, pic- 
ture or panorama); quantity, amount; 
a certain number ( j* of)» a few, some | 
*->!*- j* on his part; j* — <_-iU- j* 
^T fc-JU- on the one hand — on the other 
hand; 4JU- Jl to him, to his address; 
at bis (its) side, next to him (it); *JLf 
beside him (it), next to him (it); JU Jl 
and >--lLf side by Bide with; in addition 
to; apart from, aside from; UU- *»w*j to 

put aside; UU- 4pjj to leave 
aside, omit; t^JU- j in comparison 
with, as oompared with, as against; re- 
garding, with regard to; «r*!>»- j" L. 
their hearts; Jl LiU- janibd l-fam the 
corners of the mouth; j« JU a con- 
siderable, or certain, degree of; a con- 
siderable amount of, a good deal of; 
j- jiS <_-*!>■ a great deal of, a large por- 
tion of; ,>. j*j5"\_JU- J* _>» he is very ...; 
j»j£JI j- Jip JU J* jK" (iarom) to be very 
generous; JLX^/i j* Ji* «_Jl»- J» (oAam- 
mlya) of great importance; i_-j'U- Ji*l J* 
•j^W-'l j* 'cifi a'?afl» jdnibin min al- 
kufura of utmost importance, of great- 
est significance; t_JU- Jf j everywhere, on 
all sides; <uU-4) o***~ (b a f a 4 a > jambahn) 
to show o.b. condescending, affable or 
gracious to s.o.; to meet s.o. on fair 
terms; <JUj.l amina jdnibahU to be 
safe from s.o.; f^*l i-JU- »j*l |1 (u'»rAu) 
I paid not the least attention to him; 
«JL- (^>U, ^jy) J*U {jdnibahu) to fear 
s.o., be afraid of s.o.; <-Jli-l ill* milkal-j. 
crown lands; j jJ.1 <_JU- j.aJ-miri (ep.Jfisc, 
treasury; <_-JU-l jJ Zoyywi aZ-j. gentle; 
docile, tractable, compliant; i_JlU jJ Zin 
oZ-j. gentleness; <_-JJ>J-,l v*"J ra fo a ^"?* > 
roomy; spacious, unconfined; oJU-J jJj 
friendly, amiable, gentle; <— »U- t l «-*j*^* 
feared, dreaded; <-JU-J >>■ powerful, 
mighty, strong ; <_J U-J » jp '«arf of-; . power ; 
l-JU-J wjf. moAifc oZ-j. dreaded, respected; 
jUI <-j|>^" J about the house, all over the 
houBe; often v'->r j = V 

(VU- jontfci lateral, Bide, by- (in com- 

(jj^ I ajnabi foreign, alien ; (pi. -un, i-JU-1 
aj£nt& s ) foreigner, alien | irfijrV a^Jl the 
foreign countries, the outside world; Uji 
i~j\*-y\jirqat al-ajanib the Foreign Legion 

<uU»- gannabiya pi. -d( (ey.) curb; em- 
bankment, levee; Bide channel, lateral 
(following a road or railroad tracks); by- 
pass (of a lock or sluice) 

L-Jjf tajannvb avoidance 

<^>b^-l ijtindb avoidance 

of mujanniba flank, wing (of an army) 

^jCjj- see tSjf~, 

jL-*- junb&z, jLi^ calisthenics; gymnastics; 

(£jU»- ;un6d» kijL*;) calisthenic(al), 
gymnastic | ijjL^ I <^UVl gymnastic ex- 
ercises, physical exercises 

£>- janaha a (ryj? j'w»«A) to incline, be in- 
clined, tend (J or Jl to); to lean (J or Jl 
to or toward) ; to turn, go over ( Jl to), join 
( Jl, associate o.s. ( Jl with) ; to strand 
(J* or J' on * coast; ship); to diverge, 
deviate, depart ( j» from) ; to turn away 
(j* from), break (j* with) II to provide 
(* with wings, lend wings (* to 
IV to incline, be inclined, tend (J or Jl 
to) ; to lean (J or Jl to or toward) ; to turn 
(J or Jl to; to strand (ship) 

m> jink side 

~j»- junh, jinh darkness, gloom | »*i*- j 
J-DI (j. il-lail) in the dark of night, under 
cover of night; ^jSCll i fi*- Cri (junhay 
il-kara) lit.: between the two halves of 
slumber, i.e., at night when everyone's 

4mJ>- junha pi. u» junah misdemeanor 
(jur., less than a felony, «jU»», and more 
than an infraction, <a\\jf-) 

^Ujn. jandA pi. **»!»- 1 ajniha, w^-l ajnuA 
wing (of a bird, of an airplane, of a 
building, of an army); side; flank j j U! 
4»-L»- 1 am under his protection; ^U*- Jp 
joVI over the ether, by radio; r-U*- J* 
*a_ / — il (j. is-sur'a) with winged haste 

^U*- jundfy misdemeanor (jur.); sin J 
u I 4-1* ^L*- *i (junaha) it won't be held 

against him if he ... 
harm if he . . . 

it won't do a>ny 

»fc*-l ajnah* more inclined (Jl to) 

rj*- januh inclined (Jl to 

^yjf junuh inclination, leaning, bent, 
tendency (Jl to) 

£U- j&nih side, flank, wing 

«iU- janiha pi. f^j*r jawSnih* rib; pi, 
also bosom, heart, soul \jt\yr Cfii in my 
bosom, at heart ; L^l>*- o^ (fafarat) she 
became happily excited, she trembled 
with joy 

£^ mujannah winged 

-C*- II to draft, conscript, enlist, recruit (• 
s.o. ; mil.); to mobilize (* an army, J* 
against) V to be drafted, be conscripted, 
be enlisted (for military service) 

x*- jund m. and f., pi. jy*- junUd, aU>-I 
a;n4d soldiers; army | ^^1 .u*- j. oZ- 
fcaZds Salvation Army 

t$«u*- y«nd» pi. j*^*» junud soldier, pri- 
vate | Jjl 4jXj*- (awwoZ) private first 
class (Jr., Syr.); .wu* jX*. (muffajutt) 
recruit (/r., iSyr.); J_^l t5^' the Un- 
known Soldier 

ox*- jundiya military affairs; the army, 
the military; military service 

XJjf tajnid draft, enlistment (m»Z.); 
recruitment; mobilization | t£jL*-V -i~*«=J' 
(tjbari) military conscription 

-Cj£ iajannud military service 

-&f mujannad recruit 

(jjU*- ginddri standard-bearer, cornet (Eg.) 

V^ jvndvb pi. <~ob»- y^n^^ 1 grasshopper 

^j-U*- yandoro (ej.) to mangle (a laundry) 

SjXj*- gandara mangling (of laundry); 
press; O rotary press (typ.) 

^jlx*- look up alphabetically 

<*j-U>- iandarma gendarmery 

iX)-^>- iandarmi gendarme 

Ji-Cjf- gandufii (eg.) oysters 


*J4>- jandala to throw to the ground, bring 
down, fell {• s.o.) 

Jx>- jandal pi. Jjl*- janddiP stone; 
pt. Jab*- cataract, waterfall («£.) 

( JjX>- gundul {eg.) pi. Job*- ganddW gondola 

JljU- jendral, ginr&l {eg.) general (military 

'j*~ II to say the burial prayers, conduot the 
funeral service (» for the deceased; Chr.) 

IjL*- jindza, jandza pi. -d* jTbj. ;and'tz 9 
bier; funeral procession 

_}L»- junnaz pi. >Jb#- fandntz* requiem, 
funeral rites, obsequies; funeral proces- 

JriJrU- janzabil (= J^j) ginger 

•fj_>^- janzara {= _^j) to be or become 
covered with verdigris 

jl^»- jtnzar {= jUj) verdigris 

V.-^" ?* nz * r (= JfrJ) pl-yjb*- ?andz»r a chain; 
track (of a caterpillar, of a tank, etc.); 
a linear measure (= 5 qa$aba = 17.75 m; 
also = 20 m; Eg.) \ yj**- SjlU \arat j. track 
sprocket, sprocket wheel 

j'jjt- mujanzar track-laying (vehicle) 

u Jj~ II to make alike, make similar (a ; 
to assimilate, naturalize (• s.o.); to class, 
classify, sort, categorize (a Ill to 
be akin, be related, similar (a, • to), be 
of the same kind or nature (• as s.o., 
a as, be like s.o. or (a, •), 
resemble (« s.o., a V to have o.s. 
naturalized, acquire the citizenship (<_*); 
to be naturalized VI to be akin, related, 
of the same kind or nature, homogeneous 

jjJi*- jins pi. ^li>-l ajnaa kind, sort, va- 
riety, species, class, genus; category; sex 
(male, female); gender (gram.); race; na- 
tion | ( _ r JLi.l -J ism al-j. {gram.) generic 
noun, collective noun of nonpersonal 
things (which form a n. un. in #); j^^U-l 

tf^JuJl (baiari) the human race; b-ij- »LjI 
abna* jinsina our fellow tribesmen; y» 

lar U>,l iS_r** he is Egyptian by nationality ; 
ouUll jJLUI the fair sex; ^LUI ^JLtl the 
strong sex 

(jJ*- jtnaf generic; sexual; racial 

^Jur-V Jd-7tn*i asexual, sexless 

4~J»- jinsiya pi. -di nationality, citizen- 

^riijf tajnv* naturalization; paronoma- 
sia (rhet.) 

,_>«b*- ;»nd» {rhet.) assonance, pun, paro- 

S-JLf mujdnasa relatedness, kinship, 
affinity; similarity, likeness, resemblance 

,_,-*£ tajannus acquisition of citizen- 
ship, naturalization 

^Lf tajanus homogeneity, bomogene- 
ousness; likeness, similarity, resemblance 

(j-ibf mujanis similar, like, related; 

l _ r Ju^* mutajannts naturalized 

^JU^ mutajanis akin, related, of the 
same kind or nature, homogeneous 

ULkjh (Lat. Gentiana) gentian (eg.) 

1 iJc*- VI to deviate (je from); to incline, be 
inclined (Jl or J to 

a <-i;-r look up alphabetically 

^Ui»- junf&p, ^^J^t- junfaip sackcloth, 

>iL>- junk pi. i\j^- junuk harp 

\jLj r janowa Genoa (seaport in NW Italy) 

^ jand i (jany) to pick, gather, harvest, 
reap (a, also the fruits of one's work); 
to pocket, rake in, collect (a; to 
derive (a profit, j* from); to secure, real- 
ize (a profits, an advantage); to incur 
(a evil, harm, punishment); to cause, pro- 


voke, bring about (a; — (*;Ur jind- 
yd) to commit a crime, an outrage { J* on) ; 
to offend, sin (J* against); to commit, 
perpetrate (5jli*- f US danban a crime, an 
offense; J*, less frequently Jf, on or 
against); to inflict (* some evil, J* on 
s.o.) ; to barm (Jp s.o., V to in- 
criminate, accuse, charge with a crime 
(J* s.o.), lay the blame (J* on s.o.), 
blame (J* s.o.); to act meanly YIII to 
gather, harvest (a 

^ jany harvest; reaping (fig.); — 
janan (coll.) fruits 

i>U- jindya pi. -at perpetration of a 
crime; felony (jur.; in the strictly legal 
sense, more than a misdemeanor, <**^-, 
and an infraction, UJUt), capital offense | 
oLIii-J *&■ mahkamat al-j. criminal court 

Jb*- jind'l criminal | v^r *^* i ma ^-* 
Icama) criminal court; JUL jyUJl crim- 
inal law, penal law 

^f majnan pi. OUf majdnin that which 
is picked or harvested, a crop; source 
of profit or advantage 

yc. tajannin incrimination, accusation 
(J* of s.o.); mean way of acting, low, 
underhand dealings 

uU- jdnin pi. »Uj- jundh perpetrator (of 
a debet); delinquent, criminal 

4_i* J^ majniy 'alaihi harmed, in- 
jured; aggrieved party; victim of a crime 

.-Vr (Fr. Geneve) isnif Geneva 

4J>- (Engl, guinea) ginih, also gunaih pi. -at 
pound (eg.) | (JJjwl) i5>L*l <^r pound 
Bterling, English pound; ^j-** V*- Egyp- 
tian pound (abbreviation: *r) 

<4»> see <*-j 

JL^*- jahbad pi. Jil^*- jahdbida man endowed 
with a critical mind; great scholar ; 
bright, brilliant, intelligent 

»- jahada a (jahd) to endeavor, strive, 
labor, take pains, put o.s. out; to over- 
work, overtax, fatigue, exhaust (• s.o.) 
Ill to endeavor, strive; to fight (J-*-- j 
•^1 for; to wage holy war against 
the infidels IV to strain, exert (* ; to 
tire, wear out, fatigue (• s.o.), give trouble 
(♦ to) | j «— ii x^-\ (nafsahu) to go to 
great lengths, go out of one'B way (j for 
or in; J «j& -I**-! (fikrahU) to 
concentrate on, put one's mind to, apply 
o.s. to VIII to put o.b. out (J for, 
work hard; (lal. Law) to formulate an 
independent judgment in a legal or the- 
ological question (based on the applica- 
tion of the 4 usiil; as opposed to taqlid, 

x^>- jahd pi. ij+r- juhud strain; exer- 
tion; endeavor, attempt, effort; trouble, 
pains (j on behalf or for the sake of; O voltage, tension {el.) | »Aj>- -L**- 
jakada jahdahu, also •i^ r (JjU-) ^ to do 
(try) one's utmost, do (try) all in one's 
power, make every conceivable effort; 
j_$»- -ifjC bi'jahdin jakidin with great 
difficulty, by dint of strenuous efforts; 
•u^*- J^»- Om after a lot of trouble O ■*♦?■ 
J I* ('dlin) high tension (el.) 

x^*- juhd strain, exertion; juhda (used 
prepositionally) to the limit of . . . | J**- 
yiiJl juhda \-\dqa as far as possible, as 
much as possible; <cjU> X&- j. tdgatiht 
as much as he can, to the limit of his 
abilities; <ul£*l x^*- juhda imkdniki do.; 
L. Xp? juhda md as much aa, to the limits 
of what . . . ; ^ x+t- juhdi as far as I can 

X&- jahid see -14*- jahd 

jLp- jihad fight, battle; jihad, holy war 
(against the infidels, as a religious duty) 

tfjLf*- jikddl fighting, military 

lx*\jt mujdhada fight, battle 

jl^-l ijhdd exertion; overexertion, over- 


dLfZ>-t ijtihdd effort, exertion, endeavor, 
pains, trouble ; application, industry, dili- 
gence; (let. Law) independent judgment 
in a legal or theological question, based 
on the interpretation and application of 
the 4 uquI, as opposed to taqlid, q.v. ; 
individual judgment 

a_j+af majhud pi. -at endeavor, effort, 
exertion, pains, trouble, work; O voltage, 
tension (el.) | ^jlij^f J-ij to make every 
effort, go to greatest lengths 

■Ifcbf mujdhid pi. -wn fighter, freedom 
fighter; warrior; sergeant (J£j/. 1939) 

-L^f mujkid strenuous, exacting, try- 
ing, grueling; — mujhad overworked, ex- 

Xfjt- mujtahid diligent, industrious ; 
(pi. -un) mujtahid, a legist formulating 
independent decisions in legal or theo- 
logical matters, based on the interpre- 
tation and application of the four usul, 
as opposed to mvqaUid, q.v. 

J+*- jdkara a (jakr, jl^>- jihar) to be brought 
to light, come out, show, appear; — to de- 
clare publicly, announce (a or i_» ; to 
avow in public, proclaim (<_j ; to raise 
(a the voice); — jdhura u (»jl*»- jahdra) 
to be loud, be clearly audible (voice) 
III to declare or say openly, voice, utter, 
express frankly (t_j 

J+*- jahr and jL^>- jihar publicness, pub- 
licity, notoriety; 1_^*- jdhran and ljL^»- 
jiharan publicly, in public 

•ji>- jahratan openly, overtly, frankly, 

tSjVr )ahr% notorious, well-known, public 

_r-p- jahlr loud (voice, shout) 

J 4* r \ ajhar 2 day -blind 

j4>-\ ajhar 2 (elative) louder, more au- 

<jjji»- jahwari loud (voice) 

jtf- mijhar loud-voiced 

jtf- mijhar pi. jh\jt majdhtr 3 micro- 

iSstf- mijhari microscopic(al) 

jl^f mijhar loud-voiced; O loud- 

!j*Lf mujahara frankness, candor (of 
one's words) 

^ jahaza a to finish off (Jp a wounded man), 
deliver the coup de grace to (J*) II to 
make ready, prepare (a ; to arrange 
(a; to provide, supply (a; 
to equip, fit out, furnish, supply, pro- 
vide (u t or > or s.o. with) IV to 
finish off (J* a wounded man), deliver 
the coup de grace to (J*); to finish, ruin 
(J* s.o.) V to be equipped, furnished, 
supplied, provided; to equip o.s.; to 
prepare o.s., get ready; to be ready, be 

jtt*- jakaz (also pronounced jihaz) pi. 
■at, «^4>-l ajhtza equipment, appliances, 
outfit, gear, rig; trousseau; contrivance, 
gadget; implement, appliance, utensil; 
installation, apparatus (techn.); system, 
apparatus (anat.) | jX-V JU**- (la-silki) 
wireless set, radio; ji^j jl#»- radio (re- 
ceiving set); O Jr* 1 — • JUr (muataqbil), 
O JUi-Vl jl*r, O JrUJVl jl«>- receiver, 
receiving set (radio); joi. jlf»- (mudV), 
O Jt-jVl jLp- j. al-irsal transmitter 
(radio); JjjJjLIj JL4*- television set; jl^*- 
ji±~\ drilling rig; oil derrick; jl^*- 
<jjj* (daurx) circulatory system (anat.); 
Sa-ij'ifl c>IjI>aVI J-r— J jU*- or a*\* JU*- 
i~>jVi *-*l/^ (hazzdt,ardiya) seismograph; 
t£j" JVr (*»""*) seoret organization, under- 
ground organization; H^-Vl jlj*- sound 
locator; lS ~a*l\ jl^i-l ( T a$abi) the nervous 
system; -.ill jl^>- ;'. al-hadm digestive 

y+4- tajMz equipment, furnishment; 
preparation; pi. \l>\y+£- equipment, gear 



i$S4* tajhizi preparatory; (of a Bchool) 
preparing for college 

j*U- jahiz ready, prepared; ready- 
made; equipped | «J*l»- (oLy-L or) i-Jl 
(albisa) ready-made clothes 

^t- mujahhaz equipped, provided, fur- 
nished, supplied (ljJ with); armed (i_> with 
guns; of a ship, tank, etc.) 

^i^j- IV to sob, break into sobB | »l£jlj u t4*-\ 
(bukd') to be on the verge of tears, 
struggle with tears; to break into tears 

<±4»- jahSa (n. vie.) pi. -at sob; out- 
burst of tears 

^lfji-1 ijhaS outburst of tears 

*4>- IV to bear young ones, litter; to have 
a miscarriage (woman) J l$— iJ C-..ij*-l 
(najaahd) she induced an abortion 

jihd miscarried fetus 

jahii miscarried fetus 

^Lp-I ijhdd miscarriage, abortion; in- 
duced abortion 

J^*- jahila a (jahl, *JL^»- jah&la) to be igno- 
rant; not to know (.-> or *, how to 
do; to be irrational, foolish; to 
behave foolishly ( J* toward) VI to ignore 
{* ; to refuse to have anything to do 
{* with), shut one's eyes (a to), disregard 
(m a fact); to affect ignorance, pretend to 
know nothing X to consider ignorant or 
stupid (a s.o.) 

J$>- jdhl and Ul^*- jah&la ignorance; 
folly, foolishness, stupidity | J**- jp out 
of ignorance 

J>4»- jahal ignorant; foolish, stupid 

J^jt majhal pi. J*Lf majdhil 2 un- 
known region, unexplored territory | J*k* 
L2j_^I unknown Africa 

J-4^ tajktl stultification 

JaU: tajdhul ignoring, disregard(ing) 

J*U- jdhil pi. iLf»- jahala, J^- juhhal, 
JL^ jukhdl, *^*- juhala? 2 not knowing 
(<_j, how to do; ignorant, un- 
educated, illiterate; foolish; fool 

JaL- jdhUi pagan, of or pertaining to 
pre-Islamic times 

*-UU- jahiliya state of ignorance; pre- 
Islamic paganism, pre-Islamic times 

J^£ majhul unknown; anonymous 
(also — -V' (J>i4 m. al-ism); pi. J-*Utf- ma* 
jahil 2 unknown things | Jj^l ii^ $igat 
al-m. passive (gram.) 

Vjif majhuliya being unknown, un- 
known nature 

-&■ jahuma u (<*l^»- jahama, <*_^>- juhuma) 
to frown, glower V to frown, scowl, 
glower; to regard with displeasure (a, * 
or J s.o. or, frown (a or J on); to 
eye gloomily, coolly, grimly (a, • or J 
s.o., ; to become sullen, gloomy (face) 

j*- jahm sullen, glum, morose, gloomy 

f*lf»- jahdm clouds 

<*L(*- jahama and y^+*- juhuma grim 
look, sullen expression ; gloominess ; brood- 
ing silence 

Ltf- jahannam 2 (f.) hell 

iJ ^4»- jaAan?iam» hellish, infernal 

j>- jaww pi. »'>r' ajwd', *\j»- jiim* (pi. fre- 
quently with singular meaning) air; at- 
mosphere (also fig.) ; sky; weather; sphere, 
milieu, environment; \j>- jaiewan by air; 
by telegraph, telegraphically | ji-\ -U^ 
air mail; ^A-IcjU-^ tabaqdt al-j. air layers; 
J*£ jj^- j (mumfir) in rainy weather 

<Sjr J aww i ftu *i aerial, aero- (in com- 
pounds); airy, atmospheric(al) ; weather 
(used attributively), meteorological ) | 
tjji-l JoJL^Jl {4agt) atmospheric pressure; 
ijj,- oUi (fabaqdt) air layers; ^j*- J^k-l 
[ustvl) air fleet; 1j_j»- »jl* air raid; ^y\\ 


iu_ji.l (quiedt) air force; *±>M «*"^*' avia- 
tion; ij_vr »^?* («*«kO airport; o_>»- jU»jI 
meteorological observations; jy* _/? (fca* 
jar) meteorite 

lj»- (coUoa.) jawwa {pronounced gtiwa 
in Eg.) in it, within; inside 

ijljr. jattnodni, juwwdni inner, inside, 

**!>r ffww'fl/B («ffO guava (fruit); guava shrub 

J!>r («£•) ffww^ pl- -"* sack 

Jjlj*- (It. guemti; eg.) gloves 

1 ._ r p_j*- (Ft. jupe) skirt 

•(trl/r) vW- J** u au &) to travel, wander 
(a through), traverse, roam, tour, ex- 
plore (a, e.g., foreign lands); to 
pierce, penetrate (a, cut through 
(a); to wander, cruise (a about a place) 
III to answer (• s.o., Jo, reply, 
respond (• to s.o., Jp to; to comply 
(a with), accede (a to) IV to answer (• or 
Jl s.o., j* or J* a question), reply, 
respond (» or Jl to s.o., J* to; to 
comply (* with a request), accede, defer 
(a to); to hear (» s.o.), accede to the re- 
quest or wishes of (»); to fulfill, grant 
(a a wish); to oonsent, assent, agree 
(Jl to); to concur (Jl in) | *JJ* Jl uU-l 
(falabihi) to comply with s.o.'s request 

VI to reply to one another; to echo (a, <-» 
from) ; to ring out (voices) ; to be (mutu- 
ally) corresponding, harmonize; to be 
favorable, propitious (** to s.o.; situation) 

VII to scatter, break up, pass over (clouds) ; 
to be dispelled, disappear, vanish (wor- 
ries); to fade (darkness) X <->Ui-l to hear, 
answer (a a prayer), grant (a a request); 
to comply with the request of (J), ac- 
cede or defer to the wishes of (J); to 
react (J to); to respond (J to, <_> with), 
listen, pay attention (J to), show interest 
(J in); to meet, answer (.-» J s.o. with), 
reply (t-> J to s.o. with or by doing ; 

to resound, reverberate, re-echo; to res- 
onate (J or Jl to, be in resonance 
with {phys.); — 1 r , » : *'' istajwaba to 
interrogate, examine, question (a s.o.); to 
hear (• the defendant or witness); to 
interpellate (• s.o.; in parliament) 

t-^- javb traversing, touring, ex- 
ploration (of foreign countries) ; piercing, 

oj»- javba pi. -St, i-tyr juwab opening, 
gap; hole, pit 

<_j1j*- jawdb pi. <ij>r\ ajwiba answer, re- 
ply; ootave (to a given tone; mua.); 
[eg. ; pronounced gawdb pi. -at) letter, 
message | .W^JJI v!>!" ?• dt-kut main 
clause (conclusion) of a conditional sen- 
tence, apodosis 

\jSj*r jawabi answering (used attribu- 

v!«- jawwab traverser (of foreign coun- 
tries), traveler, explorer 

*jU-I ijdba answer(ing), reply(ing), re- 
sponse, respondence; compliance; fulfill- 
ment, granting (of a request); accession; 
consent, assent | £JU lA>-\ ijdbatan U- 
falabikum in compliance with your re- 
quest; in answer to your request 

i-*jUt tajawub agreement, conformity; 

i»Ui-l istij&ba hearing, answering (of a 
prayer); granting, fulfillment (of a re- 
quest); resonance; consonance (phya.) \ 
J i>l*i-' istijabatan li in compliance with, 
in answer to, in deference to 

l/Ijmi-I istijivdb pi. -at interrogation, 
questioning; hearing; interview; inter- 
pellation (in parliament) 

yjUj mutajawib harmonious 

^^^ miuttajtb hearing, answering, 
granting; reverberant, resonant, reso- 
nating; responsive, susceptible, impres- 


Oj*- (Engl.) jut jute 

{ryr) rW - 7*$° w * n< l * T *° annihilate, 
destroy, ruin; to flood, inundate (a the 
land) VIII do.; to cany away, sweep 
away (* s.o., a; storm); to put down, 
subdue, quell (a, e.g., a riot) 

*p-U-l ijdha destruction, annihilation; 
crop damage; crop failure, bad harvest 

^U»-l ijtiyah destruction, annihilation; 
Bubdual, suppression 

^U- jffih crushing, devastating; dis- 

i*U- j&'iha pi. /lj»- jaw&'ifi* calamity, 
disaster, ruin; epidemic; crop damage 

rj*- jvjf pi. £lj»-I ajwak broadcloth 

(i>»-) il>- jada u {«ij*- jilda) to be or become 
good, become better, improve; — (jud) 
to grant generously (<-», be so gen- 
erouB as to do (^> with verbal 
noun); to be liberal, openhanded (<-* with, J* toward s.o.) t bestow liberally 
(o*, J* upon s.o.), grant, give lav- 
ishly (lj of t J* to s.o.), shower 
(<-> J* s.o. with); to donate (i~> a sum of 
money, etc.) j a~Jl> jU- to sacrifice o.s.; 
to give up the ghost; uoJL »U-* ojU- ('a*- 
ndAu 6»-d-dam*) tears welled from his 
eyes; *\ e J\ CoU- (heavens granted rain) 
it rained II to do well (a; to make 
better, improve, better, ameliorate (*; to recite (the Koran; cf. Jj>f) 
IV to do well, do excellently (a; to 
master (a, be skilled, proficient 
(a in), be an expert (a at), be conversant 
(a with an art or field of knowledge); to 
accomplish or say good, excellent things; 
to achieve excellent results; to be ex- 
cellent, outstanding, distinguish o.s. (e.g., 
as a poet) | UJ jU-1 (lugatan) to master a 
language ; jJ UJI J* .J»>Jl jU- I ( r azfa) to play 
the piano well X to think (a good 
or excellent, approve of (a); to consider 
(a suitable for or appropriate to (J) 

•>_>*- jud openhandedness, liberality, 

J _K" 7 av ^ heavy rains 

•iU- see under a -u- 

lij*- jilda goodness, excellence 

J^r jayyid pi. jU- jiySd good, perfect, 
faultless; outstanding, excellent, first- 
rate ; good (as an examination grade) ; lo-»- 
jayyidan well, excellently; thoroughly j 
I.U- 0-»- (jiddan) very good (also as an 
examination grade) 

if>-\ ajwad* better 

*lj»- jawdd pi. jl_^-l ajwad, jjU-1 o^a* 
tc«P, ^iiM ajdietd*, jj*. ;t«i openhanded, 
liberal, generous, magnanimous; jau>dd 
pi. jU»- j*y<3<2, .*L*-I ajySd, -bjU-' ajaufcj* 
race horse, racer; charger | a^V j<l 
noble man 

Oj_jj<i tajivid art of reciting the Koran* 
Koran reading (in accordance with estab- 
lished ruleB of pronunciation and into- 

Juf- mujld adept, efficient, proficient 

J^^jr JQMdatr see jljjl*- (alphabetically) 

Uj*r) jU- jdra u (jaur) to deviate, stray {je 
from); to commit an outrage (J* on), 
bear down (J* upon), wrong, persecute, 
oppress, tyrannize (J» s.o,); to encroach, 
make inroads (J* on another's territory) 
III to be the neighbor of s.o. (•), live 
next door to (•); to be adjacent, be next 
(a to, adjoin (a; to be in the 
immediate vicinity of (», a), be close to 
(•, a); to border (a on) IV to grant 
asylum or a Banctuary (• to s.o.) ; to 
protect (• s.o., <>. from), take (» s.o.) 
under one's wing; to stand by b.o. {«), 
aid (• s.o.) VI to be neighbors; to be 
adjacent ; to have a common border 
X to seek protection, seek refuge («_> with 
s.o., ,> from, appeal for aid (• to 
s.o., j,* against 


jy~ jaw injustice; oppression, tyr- 
anny; outrage 

jU- j&r pi. oljw- jiran neighbor; refu- 
gee; protegl, charge 

»jU- j&ra pi. -Si neighboress 

*J*r 7* ra neighborhood 

•J>r J*fi r * P** J>r jvwar pit, hole 

i£j j«r see alphabetically 

jlj*- j'tuwr neighborhood, proximity; 
jl>tf in the neighborhood of, in the vicin- 
ity of, near, close to 

Sjjlf muj&wara neighborhood, proxim- 

J\*- j&'ir pi. ljj>- jawara, !jU- jara 
unjust, unfair; tyrannical, despotic; ty- 
rant, oppressor, despot 

jj\& muj&wir neighboring, adjacent; 
near, close by; (pi. -fin) student (esp. of 
Al Azhar University; living in the vicin- 
ity of the Mosque) 

jdt. mujxr protector 

jjL^. mviaj&wir having a common 
border; adjoining, adjacent, contiguous 

*-?jyr jaurab pi. t-ol*? 70wart6 a stocking; 

W->>T jorjiya Georgia (republic of the 

l %$jyr ?" r * damask roBe (Rosa damascena, 
hot.) i crimson 

\*Jjr (Engl,) jurt jury 

l (Jjr) JW- ? 5m u (j'_«- jo,waz y j\jtmajaz) to 
pass, come, travel (a through); to pass 
(* an examination, a test); to be allowed, 
permitted, permissible; to be possible, 
conceivable; to work, succeed (4-U with 
s.o. ; deceit, artifice) | <JU-I *i* OjU- 
[hlla) the trick worked with him, he 
fell for the trick II to permit, allow 

(a; to approve (a of), sanction, 
warrant, authorize (a Ill to pass (a or by, go or walk past 
(a); to go beyond (a), overstep, 
cross, leave behind (a, also, e.g., 
^**II (>. j«*&Jl JjU- ('ww) he is past 
thirty; to exceed, surpass (a,); to 
pass over (^), disregard {&, 
pay no attention (j* to); to let (j» 
go unpunished; to give up, forgo, re- 
linquish (j* IV to traverse, cross 
(a, Jl on the way to); to permit, 
allow (a J to s.o.; to authorize 
(a J s.o. to do, also a *); to license 
(a; to approve, confirm, endorse 
(a a decision, a judgment); to approve 
(a of, sanation (a V to toler- 
ate, suffer, bear VI to pass (a or 
by, go or walk past (a); to 
go beyond (a), overstep, cross, leave 
behind (a; to exceed, surpass (a, also J*); to go too far, overstep 
all bounds, encroach, make inroads; to 
pass over (j*), disregard (j*, 
pay no attention (j* to); to give up, 
forgo, relinquish (a; to refrain (j* 
from) VIII to pass, run, go (a through), 
cut across (a); to cross (a a border, a 
street, a mountain range); to traverse 
(a a country or sea); to cover (a a dis- 
tance); to pass (a through the mind; 
said of ideas, thoughts) ; to go (a through 
hard times or a crisis); to surmount, 
overcome (a a crisis) X to deem per- 
missible (a; to ask permission 

jj>- jauz pi. jl^l ajwaz heart, center 
{of a desert, of a large area, etc.) | jl^j-l j 
amid, in the middle of, in; .LiiJI jl_^-l j 
{fatfa*) in space 

jl^»- jawdz permissibility, admissibility ; 
lawfulness, legality; permission, (official) 
permit, license, authorization; possibil- 
ity, conceivability; passing (of an exam- 
ination) | j*J\ j\j^ j. (u-aafar (pi. -at) 
(traveling) passport 



j\j£ majdz crossing; passage; corridor 
[pol-geogr.); metaphor, figurative expres- 
sion (rhet.) | IjU majazan, jUI J,*- Jp 
figuratively, metaphorically 

(£Jl£ majSzi figurative, metaphorical 

SjU-l ijaza pi. -at permission, authori- 
zation; approval; license; = Fr. licence 
as an academic degree; permit; vaca- 
tion, leave (of absence) | _r-«J-l *jM *• **- 
hoar grant of patent, issue of letters 
patent; patent; «-L«tf SjL-1 (qunsuliya) 
exequatur of a consul (dipl.); *->j- SjU-l 
(nuiro^tya) sick leave; Voi' oljU-Vl 
(wwwirastya) school vacation; !JU-VIj <—JU 
on leave, on vacation 

• j j If muj&waza and j jtf tajaivuz 
crossing; exceeding; overdraft, overdraw- 
ing (of an account); disregard (^ for); 
relinquishment (je of 

jLaJ t'jttydz traversing, crossing; pas- 
sage; transit; covering (of a distance); 
passing (of an examination) ; surmounting 
(of difficulties) 

>* U- jo*« permitted, lawful, legal; con- 
ceivable, thinkable 

5>*U ja'iza pi. >*[>*- jawcViz* prize, re- 
ward, premium | v-'ja './W - (^*V5**yo) 
stipend, scholarship 

Jljf m«?dz licensed; licentiate (as an 
academio title, = Fr. Itcencii; e.g., j JIj? 
pLJ! licencil U sciences) 

*□ j^j*. = --jj II to give in marriage 

Qjj£> (syr.; pronounced maStoez, < 
zjj* muzwaj) wind instrument with a 
double pipe, corresponding to the Egyp- 
tian zummara) 

MjjJ-.l al-javxa* Gemini (aatron.) 

l jj>- jam (coll.; n. un. «, pi. -at) walnut | 
c-JJI jj>- j. af-fib nutmeg; >J)1 jj*- j. al- 
qai' nux vomica; -Li I Jj>- ?. oZ-Atna*, j^»- 

j-u* (Atmft) coconut; jiJl jj»- j. alqazz 
cocoon, chrysalis of the silkworm 
»j^»- jjflza (ep.) narghile 

tSJyr i auzi nut (used attributively and 
in compounds); nut-brown, hazel 

6 jU- look up alphabetically 

Jj>r jVnuwJ pi- Jj'jr jaua&iP young pigeon 

(^>»-) ^U- josa w to peer around, pry 
around, look around (J^»- Artid&J in); 
to search, investigate, explore (a 
VIII to search, investigate, explore {* 

J-y»- jausaq pi. J-t_j»- jawaaiq 1 palace; man- 
or, villa 

iU_j*- gamfa pi. J«j j>»- gavxfip (ejj.) dowel, 

(£>>-) H»- 70*0 u to be hungry; to starve 
II to cause (• s.o.) to starve, starve out, 
famish (» s.o.) IV do. 

fjr ?**' hunger, starvation | U^»- oU 
to starve to death 

jIpj»- jau'&n 9 , f. ^>*- i au '&*> pl* £}»*- 
;ty<T hungry, starved, famished 

«-U> majS'a pi. -dt famine 
■jU- jdV pi. ^U- 7»yd*, £_>». juwwa' 
hungry, starved, famished 
»iy£ tajw? starving out 
ic-U-l ija'a starving out 
«jj*. II to make hollow, hollow out (* 

J»>»- jauf pi. <J»'.j»-' ajwaf hollow, cav- 
ity; depression; interior, inside, center, 
heart; belly, abdomen; north (magr.) | 
J»_j*- j inside, in the interior of, in the 
middle of; JJUi o>r J (j. il-lail) or J»^- 
JJJI (jaw/a) in the middle of the night 

jj*" ?<***/» inner, interior, inside; 
subterranean, underground, subsurface 
(of geological strata); northern (magr.) | 
*Jj*- »L» ground water 


•—•>*.' ajwaf 2 , f. »Uj»- jaufd**, pi. *J>>*- 
;'«/ hollow; empty; Tain, futile, inane, 
pointless, senseless 

t-juyf tajunf pi. <Jxj jlf taj&wif* hollow, 

tj>f mujawwaf hollowed out, hollow 

j_j»- jauq pi. j|_j»-I ajwdg and 5jj»- 7'auga 
pi. -a* troop, group; theatrical troupe, 
operatic company ; choir (www.) ; orchestra, 
band (also < r A-<>* ■*»_«-) ] Oji\\ j^ mu< 
atr ol-;. conductor, bandleader, choir 
leader; Jj^I **^»- j. aH-Saraf Legion of 

'(Jj*-) Jl>- jdfo u {jaul, *J_j»- jaida, <JI_>£ to?* 
uwJ, 0y^>- jaivaldn) to roam, rove, wander 
about; to move freely, be at home (j in 
a field of learning), occupy o.s. (j with); 
to be circulated, go the rounds; to pass 
(j, <-» through the mind) | <J\j JL- 
to preoccupy b.o., engross s.o.'s attention; 
(»J*&-) »Jff\j. j Jj<: U what he is pre- 
occupied with, what is on his mind; 
4JLc J moJI JU- (dam', 'atnmAt) his 
eyes swam in tears; j e-b cJU- (yaduAu) 
he laid his hands on, he committed de- 
falcations of IV to circulate, pass a- 
round (a | <j J\j\ JU-I (ra'ya) 
to weigh thoroughly, ponder; 
JaJ\ JU-I (nazara) to let one's eyes wander 
about; to look around V to roam, rove, 
wander about, move around; to patrol, 
go the rounds; to cruise; to tour, travel 
from place to place, travel about 

3J_j*- jauJapl. -at circuit, round; patrol; 
excursion, outing ; tour ; (round) trip ; 
voyage, run (of a steamer); (round-trip) 
flight (of an airplane) ; round (in sports) 

(Ji_j>- jawwdl wandering, migrant, itiner- 
ant, roving; cruising; traveling; ambu- 
lant; traveler, tourist; see also alpha- 
betically I Jl_^ *lj rdmin jawiodl pi. «Uj 
Ul^j- rumah jawivdla rifleman (mil. ; 

SJIj*- jawtoala one given to roaming 
or traveling; wanderer, wayfarer; O mo- 
torcycle; cruiser 

Jljjf tajwal migration, wandering, rov- 
ing, traveling; nomadic life, nomadism 

oV_>»- jaivaldn migration, wandering, 
roving, traveling; nomadic life, nomadism) 
**=" ^Y>r ?• <d-yad embezzlement, defal- 

JLf majdl pi. -at room, space (J for; field, domain, sphere; scope, ex- 
tent ; reach; range; elbowroom, free scope; 
play, clearance; field (magn.) j ^\jt i}J L. 
diiJl (Sakk) to admit of no doubt; V 
4-i <j*UJ Jlsf (majdla, fa'n) (it is) in- 
contestable ; jUii 1 oa j in this con- 
nection; Uw-j 4-UI JUI fij (amdmoAu) 
to give s.o. a free hand, wide scope of 
action; iSj^- JIj? (hayaw) lebensraum; 
J**Jt JU m. al- r amal field of activity; 
^.tk'j;,* Jl£ (magnaflai) magnetic field; 
JUM *xZ Siddatat-m. field intensity (magn.) 

dj4 tajawwul roaming, roving, wan- 
dering, migration ; going out, moving 
about; patrol, round; (round) trip, tour; 
traveling J J»=JI *^> man* at-t. curfew 

JJ.U- *jL SoTjo'tZpLujiJU- «Ij peddler, 

Jj^i* mutajawwil wandering, migrant, 
roaming, roving, itinerant; ambulant; 
traveling; traveler | J^i* JsO traveling 
salesman; Jj*£* f L; (bay yd*) peddler, 
hawker; J>«i. ^-j-S (gwafr) itinerant 

3 Jlj>- look up alphabetically 

<-^jr golf golf (eg.) 

I»l»- look up alphabetically 

'-Ljr 7^ w P* '-'Ijr' ay'uxzn gulf, inlet, bay 

*k>»-, ^^>r> *Mj*- (I^* gonneUa) goneUa pi. -of 
(woman's) skirt (ejj.) 


»U- look up alphabetically 

jAj*. II tajaukara to become substance 

_>*>r j&uh&r pi- j*'j»- jawahir 2 intrinsic, 
essential nature, essence; content, sub- 
stance (as opposed to form; philos.); 
matter, substance; atom; jewel, gem; 
pi. jewelry | y>j^\j .JujJI (zaif) the spuri- 
ous and the genuine 

tj*j»- jauhara jewel, gem 

iSj*j»- jaukari substantial; intrinsic, 
essential, inherent; fundamental, main, 
chief, principal; material; jeweler 

,jrj*yr jauharji jeweler 
Cs\jMjt mngatiharSt (eg.) jewelry, trin- 
> gems 

1 iSj>r jawiya a [jaivan) to be passionately 
stirred by love or grief 

tfy- jawan ardent love, passion 

2 ^jU- look up alphabetically 

jWjt — j^jW 1°°^ U P alphabetically 

(\yr) '^ W a \y£ yoji'w (»,j* maji') to come 
(», * to); to get (a to), reach (* a place); 
to arrive; to bring (<->; t_> • to b.o.; to bring forth, produce (^>; 
to set forth (*_*; to do, perform; 
to commit, perpetrate (*; to occur, 
be mentioned, be said (J in an article, 
document or book) ; (with foil, imperf.) 
to be about or set out to do | j »U- 
jl f L>*Vl »*ij»- the newspaper "AlAhram" 
reports that ...; jl ,^-ijlj ^ »U- a report 
from Paris says that ...; *f& o»U- 
J UjIL. (mufabiqatan) its results coincided 
with ... 

*1^>- ji'a, jai'a coming, arrival | lL»- 
L-<Uij (dakab) coming and going, <_j»i 
L>L*jj iL»- to pace the floor, walk up and 

*^ maji' coming, arrival, advent 
iLJU-l al-ja'iydt the things to come 

1 V=T jaib pi. vjrt* fayiib breast, bosom, 
heart; sine {math.); hole, hollow, cavity, 
excavation; pocket; purse } ^UM :_ „J ^ 
(k&s?) the privy purse; *^S\ aLc* tamdm 
al-j., fl^il ^^ cosine (math.); u-J-l i*U 
pocket watch ; <_~i I lJj_-a» pocket money ; 
i^l/1 v^?4-' (anflya) the nasal sinuses 
(a7wrf.); i.jUil k-jj^r ?■ al-muqawama pock- 
ets of resistance (mil.) 

^-jf joiW pocket (adj.) 

*V=^ ?*P» *-r?r ?*& an( * "—s*- »->W - sayyarat 
j. jeep 

ii->- (ir.) Sit a colorful cotton fabric, chintz 

I -L»- jid pi. iL*-l ajydd, aj^ juyud neck 

"0-*- jayyid see .>_>»- 

8 jL»-, iL>-l see •>!_»*- jawdd 

1 j»- jairi surely, truly, verily 

t J v T i ir ^ me 

tSj*r jirt calcareous, lime (adj.) 
jL»- jayyar unslaked lime 
•jL>- jayyar a limekiln 

V*- H to endorse (fin.) 

jjwj- (It. giro) endorsement (fin.) 

**jv?, ji_^>- see jj*- 

I jv- glza Giza (city in N Egypt); a brand of 
Egyptian cotton 

((jJ-*-) ^iU- jdSa i (ol±-»- jaya&ari) to be ex- 
cited, be agitated; to rage, storm; to 
boil, simmer II to levy troops, mobilize 
an army X to raise, mobilize (* an army, 
also, e.g., tjLaii an^aran followers) 

(jSjjj- jaii pi. (j-j-j-- juyuS army, troops, 
armed forces | J-^b^VI ^rsr occupation 
forces; ,jUL^-l jL*. army reserve; ^Ju*- 
J»j 1^ ( murdbif ) territorial army ; (ji-*- 
iUjVl$ Salvation Army; Jiu» 
•LII al-masa* dusk, evening twilight 

,jiL»- jayydS agitated, impassioned; ex- 
cited, boiling up; ebullient; pleasurably 
excited, happily stimulated 

ulii*- jayasan excitement, agitation; 

i-»-) ijU jdfa i, II and V to be putrid, stink 
(decaying cadaver) 

jiyaf, uLj;-! ajyaf 

<L>- jifa pi. i_ 
corpse, cadaver 

J^*- 5iki Czech 

Js*- jll pi. JUfl aj'yaJ people, nation, tribe; 
generation; century; epoch, era 

iJ"^-»- (It. gelati) jeldtl ice cream 

£*- jim name of the letter r- 

,>*• (Fr. jotne) corselet, sheath corset (eg.) 

LiL^Ljs*- jiyografiya geography | Lil^-i-i 

*ij±j)\ {baSariya) anthropogeography 

L>i_j->- jiyoflziyd geophysics 

(jli>»j->- Uyofiziyai geophysical | i-JI 
i-JLj/Jj-i-l (aana) the geophysical year 

JdJ^Lw- jiyoflzlqx geophysical 

\rrjj^r pyolfijiya geology 

^rJj^r jiyoloji geologic(al) 

*U ha' name of the letter »- 

j-UU h&k&m rabbi j jf^\ *U-U-l the chief 

Jjjs- see Jj*- 

t/U- Aami Hamitic 

jl»- and <*U- see i>»- 

5JU- (pronounced hamba) pi. i_Jj>»- haw&nib 2 
(formerly 2Vn.) hamba, palace gendarme 
of the Bey of Tunis 

-»- /w66a t (&«&&) to love, like II to evoke 
(Jl in s.o.) love or a liking (<., a for 
or s.o.), make (Jl s.o.) love or like 
(», a or s.o.); to endear (Jl a 
to s.o.), make (a dear, lovable, 
attractive (Jl for s.o.), make (a 
palatable, acceptable (Jl to s.o.); to urge 
(Jl a on s.o.), suggest (Jl a 
to s.o.) IV (<_-»- hubb, Li mahabba) to love, 
like (a, • s.o.,; to wish, want, 
or like, to do (jl) | u! <_-*-! 

uhibbu an 1 should like to , . .; o\ *i t_^.l 
to like about s.o. that he . . . ; J jX I i_^ V 
(kaira) he doesn't want him to be hap- 
py, he grudges him everything V to 
show love, reveal one's affections (Jl 
to s.o. ); to endear o.s. ( Jl to s.o.), 
make o.s. popular, ingratiate o.s. (Jl 
with s.o.); to court, woo (Jl a woman) 
VI to love one another X to like (a; 
to deem (a desirable, recommend- 
able; to prefer (J* a to else) 

._-3- hubb love; affection, attachment | 
olJJl t-^- h. ad-dat self-love, amour-propre; 
£^U*l-VI ^_->- curiosity, inquisitiveness ; 
<jl»j]| <_-»- H. al-watan patriotism; J L*- 
(hvhban) out of love or affection for, out 
of friendship for ; j L*. in the desire to . . . 

(j*- hubbi friendly, amicable, loving; 
Lo- Hubblyan in an amicable manner, 
amicably; by fair means (jur.) 

._-*- hibb pi, 
dearest (one) 

L>-l ahbab darling, dear, 
La- habab aim, goal, end 


^>- habib pi. »L*J oJu&M*', v-l 
etA»6&a, v^* - ' afc&fiJ beloved, sweetheart, 
lover; darling; dear one, friend; dear 
(Jl to s.o.); popular; <-V^ the beloved 
ones, the dear ones 

ow^ habiba pi. i-JL»- hab&'ib* sweet- 
heart, darling, beloved woman 

i^*-l ahabb 2 dearer, more desirable, 
preferable (Jl to s.o.) 

IX*- habbadd (with foil, nominative) 
how nice, how lovely is . . .! how good, 
excellent, perfect is . . .! | J IX*- how 
nice it would be if . . .; J**_>J JLA-' IX*- 
h. 1-hOlu lau fa'ala it would be nice, or 
he would do well, if he did it; JU-1 IX*. L 
{hdlu) that's just wonderful! 

X* mahabba love; affection, attach, 
ment | ^J\ "<£■ m. al-wafan patriotism 

^^- tahabbub courtship, wooing 

^U: tdhabub mutual love, concord, 

«_j^ mahbub beloved; dear; lovable, 
desirable; popular; favorite; beloved one, 
lover; (pi. <_-gl£ mahabib 1 ) gold piece, 
sequin (in Ottoman times; eg.) 

iijJt- mahbuba Bweetheart, darling, 
beloved woman 

i_-n^ mvhabbab agreeable, pleasant, 
desirable, lovable, dear (Jl to s.o.); nice, 

u-^ mvhibb pi. -un loving; lover; 
fancier, amateur, fan; friend | ^U «_^ 
philanthropic (al), affable; JrjJl U-* our 
dear friend; jIj'S/I _#£■ friends of arche- 
ology; *liiJ w^ (li-datihi) egoist 

i_jUi. mii/aAai& loving one another, 

u.,,1-,-:..- mu*taAa5& (re)commendable, de- 
sirable (said of acts whose neglect is not 
punished by God, but whose performance 
is rewarded; Id. Law); well-liked, popular 

a ^-*- II to produce seed, go to seed (plant) ; to 
bear seed (grain); to granulate, become 
granulated; to granulate (* IV to 
produce seed 

..^ habb {coll.; n. un. I) grains; seed; 
— pi. <-L**- hubub grain, cereals, corn; 
seed(s); grains, kernels; granules; pellets; 
pills, pastilles; berries; acne, pustules, 
pimples | _>>)l «_-»- chufa (Cyperus es- 
culentus L.; bot.); -LLiJI *_-*• fy. al-faqad 
chaste tree (Vitex agnus castus L.; bot.); 
fJ^JLLI ._-*- croton seeds (seeds of Croton 
tiglium; bot.); (magr.) cherries; JI4JI <-*- 
h. al-Ml and (ot«-*-) 0L4JI ^-*- h. al-hdn 
cardamom (Amomum cardamomum L.; 
hot.); (LaJI <_-»- h. al-gam&m hail, hail- 

X*. habba (n. un.; see also <_j- habb) 
pi. -at grain, granule; seed; kernel; pill, 
pastille; berry; pustule, pimple; trivial- 
ity, trifle; a square measure {Eg.; = 
58.345 m*) ; pi. oL>- beads (of the rosary) | 
jwi X*. h. &a'lr a linear measure {Eg. ; = 
0.205 cm); «^L- X*- {huJwa) aniseed; X»- 
^j* ($aud&* 2 ) black caraway (Nigella 
sativaL.; bot.);M>J\ i>l* grains of sand; 
jwjl X*- A. al-'atn eyeball; pupil (of the 
eye); oiill X*- A. aZ-gaft dearest one, 
beloved, darling 

«_«*. Aa&a& blister 

!um*- Aitfiai&a pi. -3* little grain, small 
kernel; small pimple or pustule 

lSrr ^ hubaibi granular, granulated | 

lSS X\ x»J\ (ramad) trachoma (meet.) 

>_-*w- habhab (coll.) watermelon {hij.) 
w^-U- hubOhtb firefly, glowworm 

X*- II to approve, think well (* of, 
commend (*; to applaud, acclaim, 
cheer {• s.o., * 

JL* tahM4 approval; acclamation, ac- 
claim, applause, cheering 



^ habara u (habr) to gladden, make happy, 
delight {# s.o.) ; — habira a (jj**- hubur) 
to be glad, happy II to embellish, refine, 
make workmanlike (a; to compose 
{ a ) in elegant style ; to write, 
compose (a 

j* hxbr ink | j*i-l #1 umm al-h. squid, 
cuttlefish; 6jj J» jw- {waraq} mere ink 
on paper, of no effect (e.g., an agreement, 

a treaty) 

jw- habr, hibr pi. jU-l ahb&r a non- 
Muslim religious authority, learned man, 
scribe ; bishop ; rabbi J Ji*V I jU- 1 the Pope ; 
jU-V Jl* sifr al-a. Leviticus (Old Test.) 

tSJ*- hubri pontifical | (Sj* ^U 
(qudd&s) pontifical mass (Chr.) 

<M»- habriya office or dignity of a 
bishop, bishopric, pontificate 

*jv- habara, hibara pi. -di silken Bhawl 
or wrap (worn in public by ladies) 

jL» habdr, hib&r pi. -<U mark, trace 
(esp. of blows), welt, wale 

jjt*- hubur joy 

tfjL*- hub&rd pi. oUjLj- hubdrayOt 
bustard (zool.) 

jyS- yahbur bustard chick (zool.) 

*j\^- mihbara, mahbara pi. yL* nw- 
habir* inkwell 

^»- habasa » (haba) to obstruct, shut off, 
confine (a, • s.o.,, block, bar, hold 
back, check (a j* from; also tears, 
laughter, etc.); to withhold (a jc from 
b.o.; to hold in custody, detain 
(» s.o.); to apprehend, arrest, jail, 
imprison (» s.o.); to keep, keep back, 
put aside, put away (J* a for); to 
tie up, invest inalienably (a capital) | 
J* a-Ju ^»~ (nafaaku) to devote o.s. 
entirely to ... ; jc »Ju ( _ r **- (yadahu) to 
take ( out from under s.o.'s power; 
t-Liil 4~U ^r^*- (anf&sahu) to make s.o. 

catch his breath, take s.o.'s breath 
away ; JiiJI « ,j-**- A«6wa ;na'a S-iugl he 
was committed to prison under hard 
labor II to tie up inalienably (a funds, 
J* for, esp. for a pious purpose), make 
a religious bequest (a, for the benefit of 
J*) TII to be held back, be held up, 
atop, be interrupted, intermit ; to restrain 
o.s., hold back VIII to block, obstruct, 
bar, confine (a, • s.o.,; to detain, 
hold in custody (a, * s.o.,; to hold 
back, retain, suppress (a, * s.o.,; 
to be detained, held up; to be impeded, 
held back; to falter, break, fail (voice), 
stop (breath) 

( _ r x»- haba (act of) holding or keeping 
back, obstruction, check, repression; 
blocking off, barring, confinement; dam- 
ming up, staving off; safekeeping, custo- 
dy, retention; imprisonment, arrest, de- 
tention, jailing; (pi. j*?*- hubus) prison, 
jail | ^jUL^-l ^r**- (ihtiydfi) detention 
(pending investigation); &\jij\ ,_?**- (tn- 
firtidi) solitary confinement; -uxl ,_,-«- 
penal servitude 

( _ r **- hiba pi. ^L*-! ohb&a dam, weir, 

j-a*- hubs, hubus pi. (jJ**-! ahb&a (Tun. t 
Alg. t Mot. = waqf) inalienable property 
the yield of which is devoted to pious 
purposes, religious bequest, (Fr. jut.) 
"habous" | pU ,j-**- ('(Xmm) publio haboua, 
^U- a ^- (kdsa) private habous; La*- olT 
J» (= J* Lilj uB") to be entirely depend- 
ent on . . . 

*-a*- hubsa speech defect, impediment 
of speech 

^ri-"- habia blocked-off, shut-off, barred, 
confined, locked-up ; Becluded ; bated 
(breath); choking (voice); (pi. »L-**- hif 
baad**) hermit 

,j-*rf- mahbaa, mahbia pi. ^Lrf. ma» 
habia* place where is confined or 
locked up; jail, prison; (prison) cell 



^^ mihbaa device for shutting off or 
blocking off 

i-w£ mohbaaa hermitage 

^L^l inkib&s seclusion, confinement; 
stoppage, interruption; cessation 

t _ r *Ls*-l ihtibds retention, restraint; inhi- 
bition, impediment, obstruction, stop- 
page | JjJI ^Li p-\ ihtibda al-baul sup- 
pression of urine, ischuria 

tfjf- mahbus shut-off (from the out- 
side world), isolated, secluded, confined, 
locked-up; imprisoned, captive; tied-up 
(funds); (pi. ^-"^ maftdbis 2 ) prisoner, 
prison inmate, convict 

l _ r J ! £- muhabbis donor of a habous (see 
j***- hubs) 

4_L iJ -*£\ al-muhabbas 'alaihi bene- 
ficiary of a habous (see ^-x*- hubs) 

ur w^_. munhabis secluded, shut-off 

jjixi- 1 al-habaS Abyssinia, Ethiopia ; (pi. 
^iU^-V' al-akb&S) the Abyssinians, Ethio- 

<JUi-l al-haba&a (and *JLJ-I j^j) Abys- 
sinia, Ethiopia 

( jljf- kabaH pi. ^l-*-' akbdi Abyssin- 
ian, Ethiopian 

Jaj*- habata % (iy^a- Aw6u£) and habifa a to 
come to nothing, fail, miscarry, go wrong; 
to be futile, be of no avail, be lost IV to 
frustrate, thwart, foil, defeat (a, 
J* a in s.o. ; negotiations, efforts, 
an attempt, etc.) 

J*-*- habat scar of a wound, wale, welt 

iy->- hubut futility, failure 

^L»-l ihbdf frustration, thwarting, foil- 

^~ habaq basil (bot.); (eg.) a variety of 
speedwell (Veronica anagallis aquatica L.) 

dL»- kabaka i u [habk) to weave well and tight 
(a; to braid, plait (a; to 

twist, twine, tighten (a; to knit 
(a; to devise, contrive (a a plan, 
a plot) II to twist, twine, tighten (a ; 
to fasten (a 

<Sw- habka fabric, tissue ; texture, 

iL»- hitbuk: fj>^\ dL*- h. an-nujum 
the orbits of the celestial bodies 

*5~L*- kibdlca weaver's trade, weaving 

Jj^ mahbuk tightly woven ; tight, 
taut; sturdy, strong, robust, husky 

tlLzt muhiabik interwoven, intersecting 

1 J-»- VIII to ensnare, catch in a snare (a, • 
s. o., 

J-»- habl pi. JL»- hibdl, Jo- 1 ahbul, 
J^»- hubul, JL*-1 ahbal rope, cable, 
hawser; cord, string, thread; (pi. JL»- 
hibdl) beam, ray (e.g., of the sun, of 
light), jet (e.g., of water); vein; sinew, 
tendon j JjjJI J-»- jugular vein; jy-JI J^l 
(aurri) umbilical cord; j^JJl J-A-l (iauH) 
spine; <LJ>~<» JL»- (sautiya) vocal cords; 
j.fLJLI Jo- ivy {hot.); .Ill JU- jets of 

water; vJ Wi J* J?^ 1 <i>W) J" ai 9 d 
(a£fciga) l-habla 'aid l-g&rib to let things 
go, slacken the reins, give a free hand, 
impose no restraint; JJ-I *\£j\ slackening 
of the reins, yielding; relenting; Vj^' 
*L»- idtaraba habluhu to get into a state 
of disorder, of disorganization, of disinte- 
gration, get out of control; ,>Li I J* <_-*! 
(la'iba, hablain) to play a double game, 
work both sides of the street 

*Jj-*-l uhbula pi. J-jU-I a7t<!5iZ 2 snare, 
net; rope with a noose; pi. J~>U-I tricks, 
wiles, artifices, stratagems (in order to 

UL*. AiidZa pi. JJL»- AaM'*7* snare, net 

Jj> M&iZ: JjUL JiUI -kk>-l (t'fctolufa) 
everything became confused, got into 
a state of utter confusion; *+L0» *+IjU- 
all together, all in a medley 


■Jj.- habila a (habal) to be or become preg- 
nant, conceive II and IV to make preg- 
nant (U a woman) 

Jj»- habal conception; pregnancy 

J-*- hubld pi. JU- habtUd and ii-^L*- 
Aa&ftlna pregnant 

,>*- Aafcan dropsy 

jLp»- (OL4JI ^_-*- Aa66 aJ-Adn) cardamom (Amo- 
mum cardamomum L.; 6o(.) 

G^-) l?»- Aa6d u (Aa&w) to crawl, creep; to 
present (a • s.o. with, give, award 
(a • to s.o. Ill to be obliging (# to 
s.o.), show one's good will (» toward s.o.) ; 
to favor (• s.o.); to side (» with s.o.), 
be partial (• to s.o.) ; to show respect, def- 
erence (• to s.o.) VIII to sit with one's legs 
drawn up and wrapped in one'B garment 

*^>- hibwa, hvbwa, habwa gift, present 

»L»- AtM* gift, present 

»LL£ muhdbGh obligingness, complai- 
sance, courtesy; favor(ing), favoritism, 

C-*. hatta u (hatt) to rub off, scrape off, scratch 
off {* 

c*. hitta pi. £^~ kitat (eg.) piece, bit, 

Jp- Hattd (prep.) until, till, up to, as far 
as; (conj.; with perf.) until, so that; {with 
subj.) until, that, so that, in order that ; — 
(particle) even, eventually even; and 
even; j} J»- even if; (with preceding 
negation) not even, and be it only . . . 

olx»- hut&t scraps; morsels, crumbs 

ol*^ tahdtt corrosion 
Js»- hatida a (hatad) to be of pure origin 

jz£- mahtid descent, origin, lineage 
»j^- hutra small piece, bit, trifle 

jU»- hilar pi. j^- hutur border, edge, 
fringe, surroundings, vicinity 

.Jo- hatf pi. Jy*- htttuf death | ^ i^o 
<iLLj <jz». ((Jl i y»«j) ya6Aa(u 'an (ya*'<J »J<J) 
hatfihi bi-zilfihi he brings about his own 
destruction, digs his own grave; <_i!»- ^L 
<il nwSta hatfa anfihi he died a natural 

J*- Aafanut * (Aa/m) to decree, make neces- 
sary, prescribe (J* a for s.o.), 
make (a a duty, a necessity (J* for 
s.o.); to impose, enjoin (J* a upon 
s.o.) ; to decide, determine definitely 
(ly II to decree, make necessary, 
prescribe (Jp a for s.o.), make 
(a a duty, a necessity (Jp for s.o.) 
V to be necessary; to be s.o.'s (J*) 
duty, be incumbent (J* upon s.o.) 

£*- hatm pi. *y*- hutum imposition, 
injunction; final decision, resolution, de- 
termination; £*- hatman decidedly, defi- 
nitely, necessarily, inevitably 

j j^»- hatmi decided, definite, final, 
conclusive, definitive, unalterable, irrev- 
ocable, inevitable 

4_*i»- hatmtya decidedness, definite- 
ness, definitiveness, determinateneas, un- 
alterableness ; necessity 

L*i*-V Id-haimiya indetenninism (phi- 

fj& mahtum imposed, enjoined, ob- 
ligatory; determined, definitive, deter- 
minate, unalterable, inevitable; destined, 
predestined, ordained (fate) 

l£- muhattam imposed, enjoined, oblig- 
atory ; determined, definitive, determi- 
nate, unalterable, inevitable; destined, 
predestined, ordained (fate) 

I^i* mtUahattim absolutely necessary; 
imperative (duty) 

1 ii-»- hatta u (hatt) to urge, incite, prompt, 
goad, spur on, egg on, prod, provoke, 


impel (• s.o., J* to do | •U«^- «!*• 
(Jput&hu) to quicken one's pace, hurry 
(Jl to a place); J;>JI d*- (fariqa) to 
hurry, hasten; < *i*- (godamatAi) to 
quicken one's pace, break into a run 
Vm and X = I 

£d>- hatit fast, rapid, quick 
O 5JU- h&tta hormone 
■J*- %*&> Hittite (n. and adj.) 

*i\l»- hvtflla dregs, lees, sediment; scum 
(fig.); offal, discard, scraps | j_jl-\ ULi*- 
silk combings 

(ji^) lip- haffl u (Aofw) to strew, scatter, 
spread, disperse (* 

m*- hajja « to overcome, defeat (• s.o., 
with arguments, with evidence), confute 
(• s.o.); to convince (« s.o.); — (hajj) to 
make the pilgrimage (to Mecca), perform 
the hadj m to dispute, debate, argue, 
reason (• with s.o.) YI to argue against 
each other, carry on a dispute, to debate; 
to take counsel VHI to advance (v 
as- an argument, plea, excuse, or pretext; 
to allege in Bupport or vindication, 
plead (w; to vindicate, justify (J ; to protest, remonstrate {J* against), 
object, raise objections (J* to) 

_»- hajj and lit hijja pi. •&, g? 
kijaj pilgrimage; hadj, the official Muslim 
pilgrimage to Mecca | InJ-I ji {2u Uhijja 
Zu'lhijjah, the last month of the Islamic 

~4je hujja pi. £? Au^o; argument; 
pretense, pretext, plea; proof, evidence; 
document, writ, deed, record; authorita- 
tive source, competent authority | **»» 
tl)l under the pretense that .... on the 
plea . . . , on the pretext of . . . 

-■lit hajaj pi. iti ahijja circumorbital 
ring (anat.) 

p£ mahajj destination (of a journey) 

oo£ mahajja pi. pi* mahdjj* destination 
of a pilgrimage, object of pilgrimage, 
Bhrine; destination (of a journey); goal; 
road ; way ; procedure, method | **«* 
i^l^JI m. a?-?aux36 the Right Way, the 
Straight Path ; jj-d- 1 **^. railroad 

rl* - A»j'd? argument, dispute, debate 

ru^ tahajjvj argumentation, plead- 
ing, offering of a pretext, pretense, ex- 

^Ui*-1 ihtij&j pi. -dl argumentation; 
pretext, excuse, plea, pretense; protest, 
remonstrance (J* against), objection, 
exception (J* to) 

pU hajj pi. pit hujj&j, gje hajij 
pilgrim; hadji, Mecca pilgrim, honorific 
title of one who has performed the pil- 
grimage to Mecca 

je hajaba u (hajb) to veil, cover, screen, 
shelter, seclude (J»» from); to hide, 
obscure (j* * from else, e.g., 
from sight); to eclipse, outshine, over- 
shadow (• s.o.); to make imperceptible, 
invisible (jp * to); to conceal (^ a from s.o.); to make or form a sepa- 
ration (i>jj — Cr-i between — and) 
n to veil, hide, conceal; to hide from 
sight, keep in seclusion (U a woman); 
to disguise, mask (>~> * with) T to 
conceal o.s., hide (jp from), flee from 
sight, veil o.s. VII to veil o.s., conceal 
o.s. ; to be covered up, become hidden, 
be obsoured Vm to vanish, become 
invisible, disappear from sight; to veil 
o.s., conceal oj., hide; to become bidden, 
be concealed (^ from); to withdraw; 
to elude perception; to cease or interrupt 
publication (newspaper, periodical) 

<_Jt hajb seclusion ; screening off; keep- 
ing away, keeping off 

«_.L* hij&b pi. ._J* hujvb, i-^1 ah* 
jiba cover, wrap, drape; curtain; wom- 
an's veil ; screen , partition , folding 


screen; barrier, bar; diaphragm (also 
J»-U-l L-»UiA-i; anat.); amulet 

SjLt hij&ba office of gatekeeper 

^Ul^I ihiijab concealment, hidden- 
ness, seclusion; veiledness, veiling, pur- 

l t -*-U- ha jib concealing, screening, 
protecting; (pi. >->[»**■ hujj&b, X^^-hajaba) 
doorman, gatekeeper; chamberlain; order- 
ly (Syr., mil.); (pi. <-*■-]>*- haw&jib 2 ) eye- 
brow | »\ji\ i_-»-U. A. al-hatod' airtight, 

>-?>_)»*£■ rnahjub concealed, hidden, 

j? hajara u (hajr, hijr, hujr, jlyp Aiyrfln, 
hujr&n) to deny access (Jp to s.o.); to 
stop, detain, hinder (J* or • s.o.); to 
forbid, interdict ( J» * to s.o.), pro- 
hibit (J*, s.o.) from doing {*); to 
place (Je s.o.) under guardianship, declare 
(J* s,o.) legally incompetent 

J? hajr restriction, curb(ing), check(ing), 
obstruction, impeding, limitation, cur- 
tailing (J* of; barring, closing, 
debarment, preclusion; detention; block 
ing, confinement, containment, suppres 
sion (as a protective measure); interdic 
tion, prohibition, ban; revocation, or 
limitation, of s.o.'s ( J*) legal competence | 
^ j? (9*kbi) quarantine 

j? kijr forbidden, interdicted, pro- 
hibited; lap; (pi. jl^l ahj&r, jjl? hujur, 
hjr~ hujura) mare 

"*Jr hujra pi. hujar&t, J* hujar room; 
cell; (railroad) compartment; chamber | 
jliiiJVl *Jr waiting room; *_y}\ l/e h. 
an-naum bedroom; i-^-'iUJI S^J-1 (falld* 
hiya) chamber of agriculture 

j»£- mahjar pi. j*\£. mah&jir* military 
hospital, infirmary; prison, jail, dungeon | 
ij* jj+£ (vihhi) quarantine, quaran- 
tine station 

j*£- mahjir, mihjar, mahjar pi. j*-\£- 
mahdjir* (— >JI _/»•* m. al-'ain) eye 
socket; see also below 

_^*rf tahjir interdiction, prohibition, 
ban; see also below 

jj»>£-' mahjur pi. j«--l* mah&jlr* (and 
4-U jj»^) one placed under guardian- 
ship; minor; ward, charge 

*j& II to petrify, turn into stone (*; 
to make hard as stone (a V to turn 
to stone, petrify, become petrified 

je hajar pi. j\&\ ahj&r, »J\je hijara, ji* 
hijdr stone ; weight (placed as an equipoise 
on the scale of a balance) | ^L-VI >»J-1 
(aa&si) the foundation stone, cornerstone, 
^-UVl^^-l fmij (toa^,*) laying of the cor- 
nerstone; J*^JI J? A. al-balap flagstone, 
paving stone; 1^- J? h. jahatmam lunar 
caustic, silver nitrate ; jJ-l J? h. al-jir lime- 
stone; JljJI j»^-\ or j|<Jl J? (*umm&q\) 
porphyry; ^-1N _*J-I (aswad) the Black 
Stone (of the Kaaba); iijliJt ^ hema- 
tite ( min. ) ; ijuJl ^at h. al -'atra stum- 
bling block; li-^l yt- philosopher's 
stone; O j+& Jr b- ol-qamar selenite; 
f.£ J? a 11 ^ Cfi £ Jr preciouB stone, gem ; 
j*J-l J* *y* (tab'} lithograph ;^?J- 1 i*LL 

tSjr hajarl stony, stone (adj.) | 
(Sj*>^\ ^-«*II ('afr) the Stone Age; j^\ 
iioJi-1 <Sj>*1-\ the Neolithic period; y***!! 
< Jill t«!j»J- 1 the Paleolithic period 

Jr hajir stony, petrified 

jl* - hajj&r Btone mason, stone cutter 

_ / >«rf. mahjir pi. ^>-l^ maAfljir 1 (stone) 

^u^ to/ijir petrification; stone quar 

^>»^ tahajjur petrification 

S**£m mutahajjir petrified 

j***z—a mustahjir petrified 


'j: hajaza u i (hajz) to hold back, restrain, 
hinder, prevent ( j* * from); to 
keep away (jc- * from); to block 
(off), close, bar; to isolate, insulate, con- 
fine, seclude; to make inaccessible; to 
set apart; to separate (jo two things); 
to arrest, detain; to seize, sequester, 
impound (J* or *, e.g., s.o.'s 
property, salary); to confiscate, safe- 
guard (*; to reserve (a; to 
make a reservation (* for a theater seat, 
a steamer cabin, a ticket, etc.) VIII to 
retain for o.s., reserve to o.s. (* 

^ hajz curbing, prevention, re- 
straint; seclusion, confinement, con- 
tainment, isolation, insulation, separa- 
tion; arrest, detention, seizure, confisca- 
tion, sequestration (J* of; reser- 
vation (of seats) | hJ-\ J~ h. al-hurriya 
deprivation of liberty, unlawful detention, 
duress {jut.); Jp ^^J-l JJl {alqa) to confis- 

jL>JJ al-hijaz Hejaz, region in W 
Arabia, on the Red Sea coast 

<jjU* hijazi of or pertaining to Hejaz; 
(pi. -un) an inhabitant of Hejaz 

j»-U- hajiz and »J*-U pi- jr]y- hawa* 
jiz 2 obstacle, hindrance, impediment, 
obstruction; partition, screen, dividing 
wall; block, blockade, road block; fence, 
gate, railing, balustrade; hurdle; bar, 
barrier; barricade | J»-U-l ^Ui-I dia- 
phragm (anat.); Q ^V J»-U break- 
water; (^J-l) Uj-ill >-!>*•' (qumruqiya, 
gumrukiya) customs barriers; O •Jr^*" 
Jtlj-Jl lightning rod 

O >rU- J&y muwazzaf hajiz approx.: 

1 <i>-Ut muhajafa singlestick fencing 
' J>U*l ihjaf = ol^J 

J*r hajala u i {hajl, u^ hajalan) to hop, 
leap; to skip, gambol 

Jit hajl, hijl pi. 6j3r hujul, Jlfrl ah* 
jdl anklet 

Jjt hajal (coll.; n. un. '*) pi. o^P 
hijldn, J* hijla partridge; mountain 
partridge, mountain quail 

iLt hajala pi. Jl#" hij&l curtained 
canopy, or alcove, for the bride | obj 
JU»i-l rar-bat al-h. the ladies 

IUJ-1 i-*J la'bat al-hajla hopscotch 

J*ȣ muhajjal wearing anklets(woman); 
white-footed (horse); bright, brilliant, 
radiant ; unique, singular, esp. in the 
phrase J^-y-' (agar* 2 ) 

Jt hajama u {hajm) to cup (• s.o.; mtd.) 
IV to recoil, shrink, flinch (j* from); 
to desist, abstain, refrain (jp from), 
forbear {jc- ; to withdraw, retreat 

{J* hajm pi. fj& hujum, fLfl ahjam 
bulk, size, volume; caliber (of a cannon) | 
j^J-l jS bulky, sizable, massive 

j»Ut ha j jam cupper 

i.Ut hijama cupping, scarification, art 
of cupping 

p**£. mihjam, i**^ mihjama pi. *r^ 
mahdjim 2 cupping glass 

a\&\ ihjam desistance, abstention; re- 
straint, aloofness, reserve 

■jz hajana i (hajn) to bend, curve, crook 
(a VIII to snatch up, grab (*, 
take hold (* of 

jjtl ahjan 2 curved, crooked, bent 
j>j£ mihjan pi. j*-U niahajin 2 staff or 
stick with a crooked end, crosier; hook 

(j&) \jj- *j \JP hajd. bihi kairan to think 
well of s.o. , have a good opinion of s.o. 
Ill to propose a riddle (• to s.o.); to 
speak in riddles, be enigmatic 

Ue, Jt hijan pi. »Ucl ahjd* intellect, 
brains, understanding, discernment, acu- 
men, sagacity, wit, intelligence 


3? hajiy appropriate, suitable, proper 
(v for ) 

^1 ahja more appropriate, more 
suitable, more proper; more correct, 


Lip I uhjiya pi. jr^ a b&jiy> ^^-' 
ahajin riddle, puzzle, enigma 

*{'& hakdm 

U-U- (look up alphabeti- 

■ Jiadda u (hadd) to sharpen, hone (a a 
knife); to delimit, delineate, demarcate, 
mark off, stake off (a land, j* from); to 
set bounds (a to, limit, restrict, 
confine (a ; to impede, hinder, 
curb, check (<>. or a; — t (S-u- 
hitlda) to become furious, angry {J* at): — 
t u (ilo»- hidad) to wear mourning, 
mourn (J* the deceased) II to sharpen, 
hone (a a knife); to forge (a; syr.); 
to delimit, demarcate (a; to 
set bounds (a to, circumscribe, 
mark off, delineate sharply; to limit, 
restrict, confine (j* or a; to deter- 
mine, appoint, assign, schedule, lay down, 
set down, establish (a; to fix (a 
e.g., prices); to define (a | j-U- 
b^-aj (bagarahu) to dart sharp glances; 
to scrutinize (j, look sharply (j at Ill to oppose (a, * s.o.,, 
act contrary (a, » to s.o., to ), 
contravene, counteract, violate (a 
IV to Bharpen, make sharp (a j 
Jl _,kJI J*-\ (nazar) to look sharply 
at, stare at ; •_ r ju -U- 1 ( basarahu ) to 
dart sharp glances; to scrutinize (j, look sharply (j at; -i>-l 
»_ r aJi_ ^ [basarihi) to glance sharply; — to 
put on garments of mourning V to be 
delimited, be delineated, be bounded, be 
circumscribed; to be determined, be 
established, be set down, be scheduled, 
be fixed ; to be defined, be definable 
VIII to be or become angry; to become 
infuriated, be furious (J* at), be ex- 

asperated (J* with); to be agitated, be 
upset, be in a state of commotion 

j*. hadd pi. jjJj- hudud (cutting) edge 
(of a knife, of a sword); edge, border, 
brink, brim, verge; border (of a country), 
boundary, borderline; limit (fig.), the 
utmost, extremity, termination, end, 
terminal point, terminus ; a (certain) 
measure, extent, or degree (attained); 
{math.) member (of an equation), term 
(of a fraction, of a proportion); divine 
ordinance, divine statute; legal punish- 
ment (Isl. Law) | JJ- li-haddi or -U- Jl 
until, till, up to, to the extent of, J*- Jl 
jS'I jj-, jS'1 li-h. l-ana up to now, so far; 
L. -b~ Jl (haddin) to a certain degree, 
to a certain extent; j^S -i>- Jl, -L*j J*- Jl 
to a considerable extent or degree, 
considerably, extensively ; i>- ^1 Jl 
{ayyi haddin) how far, to what degree or 
extent; *J -i*- V (hadda) boundless, infinite, 
unbounded, unlimited; J*. ^ bi-lahaddin, 
o>- ji- Ji ila gairi haddin boundless, un- 
limited, without limits; *\y j*- J* 'ala 
haddin snwain, ^y* -U- Jt 'aid h. siwan 
in the same manner; equally, likewise; 
J*- J* (haddi) according to, commensurate 
with; 4jIS -b- j jl haddi datifii and <o1i -b£ 
in itself, as such; JpV -U-l (aid), il\ 
t^-iVI («7-?<5) the maximum; ji^l -iJ-l 
(adna) the minimum; ^j* - 1 *- (*umri) age 
limit; j-a*- ji du haddain two-edged; 
jjO*. J (hududi) within, within the frame- 
work of; «ij-U- ^^Jl iJL (aq§a hududihi) 
to attain its highest degree; nil jj-U- 
the bounds or restrictions that God has 
i man's freedom of action 

»jl»- hidda sharpness, keenness; pitch 
(of a tone); distinctiveness, markedness; 
vehemence, violence, impetuosity; fury, 
rage, wrath, ire, anger; excitability, 

irascibility, passionateness 

•Jl*. hida see a»-j 
jo*, hadad forbidden 


jl-U- hiddd (act of) mourning {J* over) | 
a I oi- 1 tj^J ta«i a J- A. garments of mourning ; 
1>:>LJI jU»- A. al-baldf court mourning 

-b.b- Aad&i iron; pi. olio*- Aaid'wP 
iron parte (of a structure) ; forgings, hard- 
ware, ironware | f U- -u.u- crude iron, pig 
iron, iron ore; O PjU" ■*£•*•- (mu^Iwi') 
wrought iron; Jap -U-u- (0u/J) unprocessed 
iron, pig iron; JjoJ-I _^ii ?aAr aZ-A., -bJU- 
_p(iill cast iron; OjoJ.1 JSL- atfc&at ai-A. 
railroad; a;L .00*- j w-^ see «_>_,*; 

Oj.U- Atuttd pi. ilo*. AuJdrf, »lo»-l ahid* 
da* 2 , So*- 1 aAit&a sharp (knife, eye, 
tongue, etc.). keen (mind) 

-U-l dfyadd* sharper, keener ; more 
vehement, more violent 

;jjO*- hadida pi. oJlo*. had&id* piece of 
iron; object or tool made of iron j 
i^j-l J-b-b- A. aZ-Aart plowshare; »0jJi- 1 J» 
(ep.) in financial straits, pinched for money 

jOj-u. Aadidi iron (adj.) | ijJUJj- *£- 
(nitjfco) railroad 

Sjuoi-1 al-hudaida Hodeida (seaport in 
W Yemen) 

aI-u- haddOd ironsmith, blacksmith 
oli»- Awftiia smithcraft, art of smithing 

4j.bC tahdid pi. -3< limitation, delimi- 
tation; delineation, demarcation; re- 
striction, curb, confinement; determina- 
tion, fixation, appointment; definition | 
■b-udl J* and .b-udl a^j J* (twijA* 
M.) to be exact . . . , Btrictly speaking . . . 

jU. h&dd sharp (also, fig., of a glance), 
keen (mind); high-pitched (tone); vehe- 
ment, fiery, impetuous; fierce; vivid; 
acute (illness) | ^Ijll aL- A. al-miz&j, 
•JJI iU A. a(-fo6* hot-blooded, hot- 
headed, hot-tempered, irascible; JjU- ojij 
(zdwtya) acute angle; aU-1 C-* subacute 

3j0* maAtfrid bounded, bordered (y 
by); circumscribed, confined; limited 
(= small, e.g., number, knowledge, etc.); 

delimited, determinate, fixed, definite, 
definitive | ^aII sj±£. m. al-ma r n& un- 
ambiguous ; u^AJl jj-b£ wt. a^-^famdn 
of limited liability; (SJyL-i.1) ojOrf. IT^S 
(jtr£a) limited company, corporation 

jUjft muhaddad sharpened, sharp ; deter- 
mined, fixed, appointed, destined (J for); 
strictly delimited, clearly defined 

Jte* muhtadd angry, furious, exasper- 

ilo*- Aufa, pi. to*- Awfa', »Iju- Atdd*, oTu»- 
Aufan kite {tool.) 

iti*- hada'a pi. Jo*- Aula* double-bladed 

i_>4»- Aadtia a (Aadai) to be convex, dome- 
shaped, cambered, bent outward; to be 
hunchbacked; to be nice, kind, friendly 
(J* or u to s.o.), be solicitous (J* 
or <~> about s.o.), care (J* or o* for 
s.o-), take care (J* or <~> of b.o.) II to 
make convex, emboss, camber, vault, 
curve, crook, bend (* V and XII 
i_*ij-U.I ihdaudaba to be crooked, vaulted, 
cambered, embossed, convex 

i_».u- hadab affection, fondness, love; 
kindliness; solicitude, care; (pi. i^l4»- 
hiddb, v-»l-U-l ahd&b) elevation of the 
ground | u^oj <-*b- Ja ^» (wa-^avhin) or 
V*»-j vj-* J£" Cf* k° m *^ sides, from all 
directions, from everywhere; vj~* J^ J 
^j*-j everywhere, in every quarter, on all 

yV Aadft curved, cambered, vaulted, 
convex; hunchbacked; kindly, friendly 

o.u- Aada&a hunchback, hump; camber, 
vaulting, curvature 

V-u-1 oAdaft 9 , f.#ba»- Aadta' 1 , pl-v- 1 *- 
lyudb hunchbacked, humped; — (elative) 
kindlier, friendlier 

lj*4* muhaetdab embossed; cambered, 



^■U- kadafrt u (ij-u- hudiit) to happen, occur, 
take place, come to pass; — haduta u 
(5JI.U. hadtita) to be new, recent; to be 
young II to tell, relate, report (* to s.o., 
Ljor i, j, ^ about); to speak, 
talk (• to b.o., j* or j about, of) | 
<uii <j0*- haddatahu qatituku and c?-U- 
<-jij haddatathu nafsukil his heart, 
his innermost feeling told him (l-j; v <•**> *t»-u- (nafsahu) to talk 
o.s. into (, try to believe or 
see (as factual); to resolve, make up 
one's mind to do; jl <— ij io*. 
he said to himself, told himself that . . . 
HI to speak, talk (j* or j * to s.o. 
about; to discuss (^jc or j • with 
s.o., converse (^ or j • with s.o. 
about); to negotiate, confer (« with s.o.); 
to address, accost (• s.o.); to call up {# 
s.o., by telephone) IV to bring forth, 
produce, create, originate (*; to 
found, establish (a; to bring about, 
cause , occasion , provoke , effect (a ; to drop excrement | U-u- w.u-1 
(hadatan) to bring about ; to cauie 
or do, esp., evil, do mis- 
chief V to speak, talk (Jl to s.o., jc, <~> 
or j about or of, converse, chat 
( Jl or £* with s.o., j,t, v or J about 
VI to talk with one another, converse, 
have a conversation X to renew {*; 
to buy new (a; to introduce, start, 
invent, originate, create (a ; to 
find or deem (• s.o.) to be young 

^.u- hadat pi. il^-l ahd&t a new, un- 
precedented thing, a novelty, innovation ; 
event, incident, occurrence, happening; 
phenomenon ; evil symptom ; misdeed ; 
misfortune; ritual impurity {hi. Law); 
excrement, feces; (pi. i.l.u-1, jUju- hudtdn) 
young man, youth; ilju-i juveniles 

<io-u- fyadii pi. ^Ij*- hid&t, »tf-u- h%* 
data' 1 new, novel, recent, late; modern; 
liu»- haditan recently, lately | *LJl iij.U- 
h. al-bintf new-built, recently built; 

^Jl ii-;.U- h. aa-sinn young; O^Jl iio-b- h. 
al-'ahd of recent date, recent, new, young; 
i~> JL4JI ijJ*-, <-» A4* £j.w (A. 'aAdtn) 
having adopted or acquired ( recent- 
ly; not long accustomed to (, inex- 
perienced at (, new at (, newly, 
e.g., oVjJb u^aII £j.u- (hi-l-wildda) new- 
born, ^Ij^b -i^*)! £jA»- (6t-z-«au*Sj) newly 
wed; IjjjIj ^4*)l £^-U- jlT he had not 
known Europe until recently 

.io-U- /wdl| pi. £jjU-1 ahddit 2 , jUo»- fcii* 
yirv speech; chat, chitchat, small talk; 
conversation, talk, discussion; interview; 
prattle, gossip; report, account, tale, nar- 
rative ; Prophetic tradition, Hadith, narra- 
tive relating deeds and utterances of the 
Prophet and his Companions | £j.u- 
*i\j*- h. fyur&fa fabulous story, silly talk; 
^■ii £jJ*- {qudsi) Muslim tradition in 
which God Himself speaks, as opposed to 
tSjJ ^A*- (nabaivi) an ordinary Prophetic 
tradition; (J Jd\ io-U- h. an-nafs one 
talks o.s. into; premonition 

iiy.u- hudiit setting in (of a state or 
condition), occurrence, incidence (of a 
phenomenon); occurrence, incident, hap- 

ttla*- hadata newness, recency, novelty; 
youth, youthfulness 

^jA»-I ahdaf newer, more recent 

j*j}\ utf-U- hidtdn (or hadaUln) ad-dahr 
misfortune, adversities, reverses 

iyO»-l uhduta pi. jIjjU-I ahadit 3 speech; 
discussion, talk, conversation; chatter; 
fabling, fibbing; topic, subject of a con- 
versation ; gossip, rumor (about a person) | 
Uj-u-Vi (>-»- hum, al-u. praise (of s.o.); 
iy-u-'iM *p* $u* al-u. slander, defamation 

1j jLrf. muhSdata pi. -0t discourse, con- 
versation, discussion, talk, parley 

£>l.u-l ihddt production, creation, in- 
vention, origination; causation, effectu- 


oLJI.U-1 ihdOtly&t (pi.) co-ordinates 
(math.) | Ai_iyF- oLJIa^l ('amudiya) ordi- 
nates; S-iil oLll-i*-l (ujqiya) abscissas 

£.I.wlJ iatihdCU invention, creation, 
production, origination 

ioU h&dit occurring, happening, taking 
place; new, recent; fresh; — (pi. £>*]}*- 
hawQdit 2 , also -dt) occurrence, incident, 
event, happening; episode; case (jur.); 
accident, mishap | jj'J *iol*- a cose of 
forgery; £oU-l o&* mak&n al-h. Bite of 
action, scene of the crime, locus delicti 

SJiL- hadita pi. io|>>- hauOdit 1 occur- 
rence, event, happening; plot (of a 
play) ; incident, episode ; accident, mishap [ 
jjJS oil*- h. al-murur traffic accident 

iJi* mvhaddit pi. -un speaker, talker; 
spokesman; conversation partner, inter- 
locutor ; relator, narrator ; a transmitter of 
Prophetic traditions, traditionary, repre- 
sentative of the science or study of Hadith 
(see above); O phonograph, gramophone 

iu* muhdat new, novel, recent, late; 

modern; upstart, nouveau riche; u^-wH 

the Moderns 

£>juju mutahaddit spokesman, speaker 
,*,.. ^t .„- muaiahdat new, novel; — (pi. 

-St) novelty, innovation ; recent invention , 

modern product; neologism 

«-.u- hadaja i and II to stare, look sharply 
(a, * at s.o., at, often with • J ~*~i 
bi-baearihi or »J& bi-nazarihi) 

£.1*- htdj pi. ^j^- hwlHj, ^1-wt ahd&j 
load, burden, encumbrance 

£.b- y\ abu hudaij stork 

^.)4p- hid&ja pi. £\a* hada'if camel 

jj»- hadara, hadura u (hadr, Ijl-u- had&ra) 
to be thick; — hadara u i (hadr, jjO*- 
hudur) to bring down, lower (a; 

to cause (a to descend; to drop 
(a; to shed (a tears); [)■**- j**- 
(hadran) to rattle off, express quickly 
(an utterance, a. thought); — (hadr) 
to come down, step down, descend; to 
glide down, swoop II to drop (a; 
to lower, incline, dip (a V to 
descend gradually; to glide down; to 
come down, descend ; to flow down 
(tears); to derive, stem, originate (j* 
from) VII to come or go down, de- 
scend; to glide down, sink down; to be 
in decline, be on the downgrade, to 
decline, wane; to flow down (tears); to 
slope down, slant down, be inclined (ter- 
rain) ; to come (Jl to a place), arrive ( Jl at) 

j0»- hadr rapid recitation of the Koran 
(a terminus technicus of tajwid) 

jjO*- hadur slope, downgrade, declivity, 
declivitous terrain 

j^J- tahaddur descent, slant, slope, 
inclination, incline, declivity 

j\i£.\ inhid&r slant, dip, pitch, inclina- 
tion, descent, slope; declivity; fall (of a 
river); decline, waning; ruin, decay, de- 

jiU- hddir thick 

j.Wu mutahaddir descending, slanting, 
Bloping downward 

j-Uw munhadir descending; lowered, 
dipped; slanting, sloping, declivitous 
(terrain); declining, waning, being on 
the downgrade, in a state of decadence or 
decline; run-down, seedy, down-at-the- 
heela, down-and-out 

jjui. munhadar pi. -8t depression ; slope, 
talus, incline, descent, declivity ; fall 
(of a river) 

^.b- hadarn i u (hada) to surmise, guess, 
conjecture (a 

^J*- hada surmise, guess, conjecture; 
O intuition 



□ JiIju- hadd&f (< J»IJU), ii^TLil Jil-U- («yr.) 
shuttle (weaving) 

D «#l.u- »jlU (drahadddfa (syr.) flywheel 

1 JJU- ^a(2aga t (Aad?) to surround, encircle, 
encompass (ij s.o., ; (with 4_k> 
&t"-'a»ntAi) to look, glance (• at s.o.) II to 
look, glance, gaze, stare (Jl or j at, 
also i~<) | J jkJl jJj- (nasara) to fix 
one's glance on ... IV to surround, 
encircle, encompass, enclose . (^ s.o.,; to look, glance (J, Jl or l-> at) | 
j JiJl J-u-1 (nazaro) to fix one'B glance 
on . . . 

i#J*- hadaqa pi. -<K, Jo*, hadaq, jl-U- 
hiddq, JIju-I a/wtaf pupil (of the eye); 
pi. jl-U-l glances 

ii-u- Aadiga had&'iq* garden | 
oUI^_i.l iij-U- A. al-hayaw&n&t zoological 
garden, zoo 

jl.u-1 tfcftty encirclement, encompass- 
ment (^ of) 

Jurf _,Li katar muhdiq imminent danger 

a D J-b- II (= j-u-) to make acid, sour, tart, 
or sharp (a 

D jiU- h&diq (= Jiu-) sour, tart, acid, 
sharp (taste) 

J.U- hadala i to flatten, level, even, roll 
(a; (Aad/, JjO»- hudul) to treat 
unjustly (J* s.o.) 

*}Ji£ mihdala pi. JjUt mahddil* roller, 

f-u- VIII to burn, glow, blaze; to burn up, 
be consumed by fire; to flare up, break 
out (fight) ; to be furious, burn with 
wrath (J* at, over), also lii-i 

l-lai>-! ihtiddm paroxysm 

f-i^£ muhtadim furious, infuriated, 

•a*- AuZa see -u-j 


1 D y-i»- hidwa horseshoe 

'(jA»- and ^o^) l.u- had&u(hadw, »l-u- £wta', 
Wdfl') to urge forward by singing (a 
camels) ; to urge, spur on, egg on, prompt, 
instigate, induce, move («_^ or * s.o., 
Jl to, to do; i_j la*- to insti- 
gate; to sway, rock, roll (rider, 
camel); to Bwing along, rock along (in 
riding) J Jl .i-jij. I ^ la*- their conversation 
led them to . . .; ,_JK^Jl -Jl ^jj. ^j^i. 
{garadun tuhdd) a goal much sought 
after or worth striving for V to compete, 
vie (• with s.o.); to challenge, pro- 
voke (a, • B.o.,; to defy, oppose, 
resist, withstand (a, • s.o.,, stand 
up (a, » against s.o., against; 
to incite, stimulate, arouse, animate, 
sharpen (a; <»lTi dak&'ahu b.o.'b 
intellect); to intend (a, to do, 
be bent (a on doing 

• Ia»- hud&' animating singsong, chanting 
of the caravan leader 

»I-U- hadda' camel driver, cameleer 

•j-U-l vhduwa, <jJ*-1 uhdlya song of the 
camel drivers 

jji tahaddin pi. wLo* iahaddiy&t 
challenge, provocation 

jU- h&din pi. »\i*~ hud&k caravan leader 
(who urges the camels forward by 
singing); camel driver, cameleer; leader 

x*^* mutahaddin challenger, provoker 

^-U- hadiya a to remain, stay (i_» at a place), 
stick (u to a place) 

3 D <jI-U- hid&ya, hidd&ya 


jJU- hadira a (hidr, kadar) to be cautious, 
wary, to beware (j* or a, • of s.o., of, be on one's guard (j_. or *, • 
against) II to warn, caution ( j* » 
s.o. of or about), put (• s.o.) on his 
guard (^ against) III to watch out, be 



careful; bo be on one's guard (» against), 
be wary (» of s.o.) V to beware, be wary 
(> of) VIII = I 

ji*- hidr and hadar caution, watch- 
fulness, alertness, wariness, circumspec- 
tion; precaution | #ji»- -Ul (hadarahu) to 
be on one's guard; ji*- J» 'aid hadarin 
cautiously, warily; on one's guard (j* 

ji»- Aadfr cautious, wary 

jli*- haddri beware (ul of doing . . ., 
j* of! watch, out {^. for)! be 
careful (j* of)! 

j-_-i^ tahdir warning, cautioning (j* of, 

»>jl£ muh&dara caution, precaution, 
precautionary measure 

jjJl£ mahdur that of which one should 
beware, against which one should guard ; 
object of caution; — (pi. -dt) danger, peril ; 
trouble, difficulty, misfortune 

.u- hadaja i (hadf) to shorten, clip, curtail 
(a or ^a; to take away, 
cut off, clip off { j* from, reduce (^*, strike or cross {j* off; to cancel, strike out, 
delete, drop, leave out, omit, suppress 
(a ; (gram.) to elide, apocopate, 
drop by aphaeresis; to deduct, subtract 
(a; to throw (i_j • at s.o., 
pelt («_» « s.o. with; to cast away, 
throw away, discard (<-» II to clip, 
trim (a; to give (a shape, 
to trim, clip, or cut (a into proper 

*Jt±*- hadf shortening , curtailing , 
cutting off, trimming, etc. ; canceling, 
cancellation, striking off, crossing off, 
deletion; omission, dropping, suppres- 
sion; (gram.) elision, ellipsis, apocopation 

j*ili»- kadafir't #^ili* *JUI he took all of it, 
he took it lock, stock and barrel 

ji- hadiqa a, hadaqa i (hidq, iilJU- had&qa) 
to be skilled, skillful, well- versed, proficient 
(a or j in, master (a; — hadaqa 
u (*3j-*»- huduq) to turn sour (milk) 
V to feign skillfulness, proficiency, clever- 
ness or smartness 

jX»- hidq and i»li»- hadaqa skill, dexter- 
ity, proficiency ; smartness, cleverness, in- 
telligence ; perspicacity, sagacity, acumen 

jiU- h&diq pi. J1-U- hudd&g skillful, 
skilled, proficient; well- versed, clever, 
smart, intelligent; sour 

jJJU II tahadlaqa to pretend to be clever 
or skillfull, feign skill or knowledge; to be 

tU-U- hadlaqa skillfulness, dexterity 

(j-U-) \W- hadd u: »jX»- IJu- (hadwahu) to 
imitate s.o., take after s.o., follow 
s.o.'s example III to be opposite 
(a), face, parallel (a, run 
parallel (a to) VI to be opposite each 
other, be parallel VIII to imitate, copy 
(l-» or J* s.o.,, also a, take 
or follow (l-» or J* s.o.,, also a as an example or model; to be 
shod; to wear (a as footgear 

jJU- hadwa (prep.) opposite, face to 
face with |J*JIj J«JI iij-i*- hadwalca n-na'la 
bi-n-na'l in a completely identical manner, 
to a T, like two peas in a pod 

•I-U- hidd' pi. «ji*-l ahdiya shoe; 
sandal | ajJUVI ajL* shoemaker 

»IJU- hid&'a (prep.) and AX*- bi- 
hidd'i opposite, face to face with 

•I-U- haddd' shoemaker, cobbler 

S'SU (j) Ja 'old (/{) muh&d&ti along, 
alongside of, parallel to 

»lib*-l iktidd' imitation, copying 

il£ muhddin opposite, facing 

j*- harra u i (harr, *j\j*- hardra) to be hot 
II to liberate (• s.o.); to free, set free, 


release (* s.o.); to emancipate (• s.o.); 
to consecrate (» s.o.) to the service of 
God; to clarify, clear up, make clear 
(a; to formulate precisely, phrase 
accurately, define exactly, pinpoint (a ; to revise (a a book) ; to edit, redact 
(a a book, a periodical); to write, pen, 
indite, compose, compile (a V to 
become free; to be freed, be liberated 
(,>. from); to be emancipated Till to be 
kindled, be heated, flare up 

_,»- harr heat, warmth 

j»- kurr pi. m. jl^-l ahr&r, pi. f. }\^- 
hara'ir 2 noble, free-born; genuine (jewels, 
etc.), pure, unadulterated; free; living 
in freedom; freeman; independent; free, 
unrestrained; liberal (pol.; jl^Vl the 
Liberals); frank, candid, open (Jp toward 
s.o.); free, available, uninvested (money) | 
^J-l ^L^-^l (ihtiy&fi) free reserves, un- 
encumbered reserves ; *l\*f ,y min hurri 
malihl with his own cash, with funds at 
his disposal 

Ij*' harra pi. -8X stony area; volcanic 
country, lava field 

\j*- hurriya pi. -Qi freedom, liberty; 
independence, unrestraint, license (e.g., 
poetic) | SiLJI *ij>- h. al-'ibdda freedom 
of worship; _^CiJI *j^»- freedom 
of thought; |»^JI i_p- h.cU-kaldm freedom 
of speech; (*i\»^ai\ or) ^JijJl 4j_p- h. an- 
naSr (a§-$ihafa) liberty of the press 

jj»- harir silk; pi. J\_p- hard'ir 2 ( j\j»~) 
silken wares, silks | &J*? j j»- (fafcri) 
asbestos; ^L-* j j*- rayon 

tSj^j»- hariri silken, silky, of silk 

isJ[f hara'iri silken, silk- (in com- 
pounds), of silk; silk weaver 

jl^- harrar Bilk weaver 

•jl^*- har&ra heat; warmth; fever heat, 
fever; temperature; ardor, fervor (of 
emotion), passion; eagerness, enthusiasm, 

zeal; vehemence, violence, intensity; 
burning (of the skin) 

*jj>- huraira pi. -Si calorie 

tsJj*- har&ri thermal, thermic, thermo-, 
heat (used attributively); caloric | *j*-j 
*ij\j»- (wahda) calorie 

O <lj\j*- har&riya pi. -at calorie 

jjj*- harur f., pi. J\j*- hara'ir 2 hot-wind 

u|^- harr&n 2 , f. ^j*. harrd, pi. Jj*. 
hirar, isJj>- har&rH thirsty; passionate, 
fervent, hot (fig.) | ^j*- Ijj (zafra) a 
fervent sigh; ,jj*- 9y* hot tears 

j>-\ aharr 2 hotter, warmer | j»-\ J» 
j*4-' Cr* () amr ) on - pins and needles, on 
tenterhooks, in greatest suspense or 

O j£- miharr heating system, heating 

j j£- tahrir liberation; release; emanci- 
pation; record(ing), writing; editing, re- 
daction; editorship (of a newspaper, a 
periodical); (pi. -Ot, jj\£ tahartt*) piece 
of writing, record, brief, document | 
j j>d\ iJ ~jjj editor-in-chief; j j**A\ !jUl 
board of editors, editorial staff 

ijj.j* tahriri liberational; emancipa- 
tional ; liberal ; recorded in writing, 
written, in writing 

jU- h&rr hot; warm; ardent, glowing, 
fervent, passionate 

jjjfi- mafyrHr hot-tempered, hot-headed, 
fiery, passionate, furious 

jj£- muharrir pi. -tin liberator, eman- 
cipator; writer, clerk; editor (of a news* 
paper, of a periodical) 

jj£- muharrar consecrated to God; set 
down in writing, recorded in writing, 
written; booked; pi. £>\jj£- bookings, 

jj»*za mutaharrir emancipated; an 
advocate of emancipation 


^j*. hariba a (harab) to be furious, enraged, 
angry III to fight, combat (• s.o.), 
battle, wage war (» against s.o.) VI to 
fight (one another), be engaged in war 

^S- harb f., pi. >->jj*- hurub war, 
warfare; fight, combat, battle; enemy, 
enemies (J* or J of a.o.) | S-UI ^>j>- 
(ahliya) civil war; <-il»* >_y- (sihdfiya) 
pres3 feud; Lk.i-Jl vjj^' (?allbiya) the 
Crusades ; iJ ^»}\ >->J~\ (' uzmd) , U.LJl^J-1 
('alamiya), <*U!l ^jji-\ (amma) World 
War 1; L^U ^ ^i-l c-iiT kaSafat il- 
harbu 'an saqiha and jU J* '—'j^ <— **^ 
jamaf t7-fe. f a/a sa^in war flared up, 
fierce fighting broke out 

ijj*- harbi warlike, bellicose, bellig- 
erent, martial, war (adj.), military; (pi. 
-un) warrior, soldier, military man | ^-J^Jl 
tJj±-\ (bults) military police 

lij»- harba pi. ^j»- hirtib lance, spear; 
spearhead; bayonet, sidearm 

*\jj»- hirba pi. jly- feariiiiy chameleon 

*\jj*- \j iod harabah! (exclamation of 
lament) alas! goodness no! oh my! 

^jlyt mihrab pi. ^jU mahdrib 2 a re- 
cess in a mosque indicating the direction 
of prayer, prayer niche, mihrab 

hj\£ muharaba struggle, combat, fight, 
battle; warfare 

tjlj^-l ihtirab mutual struggle 
^jUt muharib warring, belligerent; 
warrior, combatant, fighter; corporal 
(Eg. 1939) 

j^jU^il al-mutaharibun the belliger- 
ents, the warring parties 

~<Zy,j*- harbuia pi. ^>- harabiS 2 (tun.) 
pastille, pill 

■tij>- harata i u (hart) to plow (a the soil); 
to cultivate, till (a the ground) 

ij*- hart plowing, tilling, tillage, 
cultivation of the soil; arable land, tilth; 
plantation, culture 

HJ^- harp. (n. un.) arable land, tilth 

4?1j»- hirata cultivation of the soil, 
farming, agriculture 
£>\j*- harr&t plowman 
£>l^. mihrat pi. £j jl* mah&rit 2 plow 

iyU- fcanJ pi. ^j- hurrat plowman | 
^jU-1 y\ abii l-h. lion 

^^ harija a (haraj) to be close, tight, 
narrow; to be straitened, be confined, 
get into a strait, be cornered, be hard 
pressed; to be oppressed, be anguished 
(heart); to be forbidden (J* to s.o.) 
II to narrow, tighten, straiten (a; 
to complicate (a, make (a 
difficult; to forbid (J* a to s.o.); 
to persist (j in IV to narrow, 
straiten, confine, cramp, hamper, im- 
pede, restrict (a; to complicate, 
make difficult, aggravate, jeopardize (a 
a situation, s.o.'s position) ; to embarrass 
(• s.o.); to coerce, constrain, press 
(Ji » s.o. to); to forbid (J* a to 
s.o.) V to refrain from sin or evildoing; 
to abstain, refrain (j* from), avoid 
(j*; to be cornered, be forced to 
the wall; to become or be oppressed, 
anguished, distressed; to become critical, 
become complicated or difficult, be 
aggravated (situation), be jeopardized 
(s.o.'s position) | (o>) a* •- ,x "* Tl^ 
(qadruhu) to feel depressed by, feel 
annoyed at; U ,-UJI *> -^J- this made 
things difficult for people 

rj*- haraj closeness, tightness, narrow- 
ness; confinement, straitness, constric- 
tion, crampedness; restriction, impedi- 
ment; oppression, distress, anguish; 
difficulty; critical situation; prohibition, 
interdiction; forbidden, inter- 
dicted, sin J ^j>- 1/ {banjo) there is no 



objection; tiU* rj- V nothing stands in 
your way, you are at liberty 

-j*. haraj (coll.; n. un. S) pi. -fit, ^l^p- 
hirdj, ^l^l ahrdj thicket; dense forest; 
woodland, timberland 

rj*- harij narrow, close, tight, confined, 
straitened ; oppressed, hard pressed, 
harassed; critical (situation, position) 

rj*-\ ahraj 3 narrower, closer, tighter, 
more straitened; more critical 

^l^f- harOg {eg.) auction 

^[p- har&ja seriousness, gravity, diffi- 
culty, complicatedneBS (of a situation) 

£j£ tafyrij forestation, afforestation 

rj£ taharruj restraint, reserve, aloof- 
ness; timidity, diffidence, faint-hearted- 
ness; critical complication, gravity, diffi- 
culty (of a situation) 

oU^ muharrij&t: die 111 oL*-^ m. at- 
aim&n binding, committing, or solemn, 

rj£- muhrij disconcerting, embarrass- 

r ./>-=* mutaharrij: j-UoJl rj*^* ™-&9 m 
sadr annoyed, vexed, anguished, op- 

}j>- harida a (harad) to be annoyed, dis- 
gruntled, angry, furious (J* at, with) 

ijU- h&rid, *,*■ harid and jl^>- har* 
d&n annoyed, disgruntled, angry, furious 

jji^- hirdaun pi. {ji[f harOdin 2 lizard 

jj>- haraza u (harz) to keep, guard, protect, 
preserve (a, take care (a of); — 
haruza u (*j\j*- har&za) to be strong 
be strongly fortified, be impregnable 
IV to keep, preserve, guard (a; to 
obtain, attain, achieve, win (* | 
(ijLa^l) \_ r mj jj*-\ (naaran) to win a 
victory; Jj-Jl ._**# j^*-i (qasaba 8-sabq) 
to come through with flying colors, carry 

the day, score a great success V to be 
wary {,y of), be on one's guard (j* 
against) VIII to be wary (j* of), guard, 
be on one's guard (j* against), be careful, 
take heed, take precautions 

jj*- kirz pi. jl^*-l ahr&z fortified place; 
refuge, sanctuary, retreat; custody; (pi. 
J !/*■'» jjj*- huruz) amulet 

j j*- hariz strongly fortified, guarded; 

inaccessible, impregnable 

jl^»-l ihrdz acquisition, acquirement, 
jbtainment, attainment, achievement, 
winning, gaining 

jljw-1 ihtir&z pi. -At caution, wariness, 
prudence, circumspection ; reservation, 
reserve | jlJU-VI J*^ with all reservation 

O Ijjl*- h&riza fuse (d.) 

jj£- mvhriz obtainer, acquirer, winner, 
gainer; possessor, holder (J* of 

^j>- harasa u (hara, i*\j*- hir&sa) to guard, 
watch, control (», a, s.o.); to 
oversee, supervise, superintend (», *, 
s.o.) ; to secure, protect, safeguard, pre- 
serve, keep (», a, s.o.); to watch 
(J* over) V and VIII to beware, be wary 
| {j* of), guard, be on one's guard (&> 

^S- haras watch; guard, escort; body- 
guard | jL-JI u">*"' ( 8a yy& r ) militia, 
"garde mobile" (Syr.) \ Js^tft ,j*j*- h. 
ai-Saraf honor guard; JJll ,j-^-l (malaki) 
the royal guard (formerly Ir., Eg.); ,j*J»\ 
(5>Lil (mvlaH) (formerly) bodyguard of 
the Bey {Tun.); Jl^ll ^JA (wafani) the 
National Guard 

i*ilj»- hir&sa guarding, watching, con- 
trol; watch, guard, guard duty; super- 
vision, superintendence ; guardianship, tu- 
telage, oustody , care, protection ; safe 
conduct, escort; administration; admin- 
istration of an estate (jur.) ; sequester | 
J»-i>Jl *-[>»- coast guard 



^lj^-1 ihtirSs caution, wariness, pru- 
dence; (pi. -dt) precaution, precautionary 
measure j j. UljU-l for protection from 
or against 

(j-jU- h&ris pi. L-^- harasa, ^[f— 
hurrds vigilant, watchful ; watchman ; 
sentry, sentinel, guard; overseer, super- 
visor, superintendent ; administrator ; 
guardian, custodian, keeper, protector, 
tutelary (in compounds) | 55"j*)l ^-jU- 
h,. at-tirka administrator of an estate; 
f*!*J-' ^jU- keeper of the seal; j-jil ^j-jU- 
h. al-marmd goal keeper; jli* ^jU- (qa* 
$&'t) sequestrator, receiver (in bankrupt- 
cy, inequity); ,j-.jL*- ii'iU (mal'ak) guard- 
ian angel (Chr.) ; JJJl ^L- h. al-lail night 

j-jj* mahrus guarded, safeguarded, 
secured; protected (by God; esp. used 
as an epithet after the names of cities) ; 
OyjjM the children, the family 

^J^ muhtaria cautious, wary, careful 

^jr- hara&a i (har&) to scratch (a, * s.o., II to instigate, prod, incite, 
provoke, incense (» s.o.); to set (jw 
people against each other), sow discord, 
dissension (jo among) V to pick a 
quarrel, start a brawl (o* with s.o.), 
provoke (*-» s.o.) 

jjj»- hire", huri pi. ^il^ 
hurui forest, wood(s) 

,J>j*- hariS and ^-j*-^ ahraP rough, 
coarse, Bcabrous 

^j^- harai, ii^- hurSa, *£\j*- harO&a 
roughness, coarseness, scabrousness 

J*j£- tahriS instigation, prodding, 
incitement, provocation, agitation, in- 

Jij£ taharrui provocation, importu- 
nity, obtrusion, meddling, uncalled-for 

I ahr&i, ,J>)j»- 

har&af pi. 

har&Hf* scales (of 


ijsj*- harasa i and hariqa a (hire) to desire, 
want, covet {J*; to be intent, 
be bent (J» on); to strive (J* for), 
aspire (J* to) 

,j*j*- frirs greed, avidity, cupidity, 
covetousness ; desire; aspiration, endeav- 
or, wish (J* for); avarice | J* L^*- in 
the desire for . . . , in the endeavor to ... ; 
r}jj^ ' J* L*p- danger ! (on warning 

ijiij*- harie pi. ^[f- hirds, »U^- 
hurasd** covetous, greedy, avid, eager 
(J* for); bent (J* on), desirous (Jp of) 

^je>j*-\ ahras 2 more covetous, greedier 

^j*- H to goad, prod, spur on, egg on, 
incite, rouse, provoke (J* * s.o. to 
or to do; to instigate, abet, stir 
up, agitate ( Jp • b.o. to or against) ; O to 
induce (el.) 

^raij*- iahri4 incitement, provocation; 
instigation, abetment, agitation (J* to); 
inflammatory propaganda (J» against 
s.o.); O induction (el.) J O J'J ^.j* 
self-induction (el.) 

tS *tj£ tahridi inciting, instigative, agi- 
tative, inflammatory; provocative 

^jU- h&ritf bad, wicked, evil 

ijij*- mvharr%4 pi. -ftn inciter, baiter; 
instigator, abettor ; demagogue, rabble 
rouser; agitator, provocator; O inductor 


**Za mutaharritf, Q induced (el.) 

f II to slant, incline, make oblique (a ; to bend off, up, down or back, turn 
up, down or back, deflect (a ; 
to distort, corrupt, twist, pervert, mis- 
construe, falsify (a | -u-i^. j* «i^- 
fan maudi'ihi) to distort the Bense of 


dj»-, rob of its true meaning V to 
turn off, branch off, take a turning; 
to deviate, depart, digress ( jp from) ; 
to avoid (j*; to be or become 
bent off, distorted, corrupted, perverted 
VII to turn off, branch off, take a turning; 
to deviate, depart, digress, turn away 
(^ from); to slope down, slant, be in- 
clined (terrain); to turn (Jl to, toward); 
to be twisted, be distorted; to be oblique, 
slanting; to be cocked, rakish (headgear); 
with <_>: to make appear oblique, 
slanted, or distorted; to be corrupted, 
perverted | ^ *i «j^l to dissuade s.o. 
from; <*-[> *J»^I (mizdjuhu) to be indis- 
posed, be ill VIII to do (a profes- 
sionally, practice (a as a profession; 
to strive for success 

i_jj*- liarf pi. ijj^- hiraf (cutting) 
edge (of a knife, of a sword) ; sharp edge ; 
border, edge, rim, brink, verge; — 
(pi. <-Jjj>- huruf, i_!»_^-l akruf) letter; 
consonant; particle (gram.); type (typ.) | 
(Jij*- J* irresolute, wavering, on the fence ; 
l^ij ^ *UUJI alf&zuhu bi-hurufili& his words 
literally; ij^b or *>-\J\ J»j*.Ij literally, 
verbatim, to the letter; J>j4 \sj>- harfan 
bi-fyzrfm literally, word for word; *jj 
Jj^I <-J/»-VIj (waqqa'a, uld) to initial (e.g., 
•0*U. mu'&hadatan a treaty) ; <S>jjL I 
*i-i*^l (abjadiya) the alphabetic letters, 
the alphabet; **>** *-Jjj>- matter (typ.); 
*~— — M <J»j^A-l (Samsiya) the sun letters 
(i.e., sibilants, dentals, r, I, n to which the 
I of the article assimilates), i>j*JJl >-Jj_A' 
(qamariya) the moon letters (to which the 
I of the article does not assimilate); 
jL\ i_j^- h. al-jarr preposition (gram.); 
(j^ii-'l J*,*- h. al-kafd, do.; Ou^l ^jp- 
article (gram.)', ,J»L*Jl <-J^- h. al-'atf co- 
ordinating conjunction (gram.) ; i-J^- 
* l+ii-^ I interrogative particle (gram.) ; 
*— ill J*j*- h. al-qasam particle introducing 
oaths (gram.) 

J,*- harfi Uteral 

Cij— hurf common garden pepper cress 
(Lepidium sativum L.; bot.) 

dtj»- hirfa pi. Jij*- hiraf profession, - 

occupation, vocation, business, craft, 1 


i_ju_^- harif pi. »li^- htirafd' 2 customer, 
patron, client (tun.) 

t_ju j>- hirrif pungent, acrid (taste) ; 
Cj[Juj>- spicy food, delicacies i 

*i\j*- hard fa pungency, acridity (taste) 

Jmj£ tahrif pi. -&t alteration, change; 
distortion ; perversion, corruption, esp. 
phonetic corruption of a word 

J>\j*\ inhir&f pi. -di deviation, di- 
gression; obliqueness, obliquity, incli- 
nation, slant; declination (astron.); ail- 
ment, indisposition, also r|>M J»[^l 

J»lj^-I ihtir&f professional pursuit (of 
a trade, etc.) 

J*j& muharraf corrupted (word) 

i_j^» munharif oblique ; slanted, slant- 
ing, sloping, inclined; distorted, perverted, 
corrupted, twisted; deviating, divergent; 
trapezium (geom.) 

J>j& muhtarif one gainfully employed 
(<-> in), person doing (v) profession- 
ally ; professional, a pro (sports) ; profes- 
sional (adj.), e.g., J»jU jU«* (fihafi) pro- 
fessional journalist; climber, careerist 

O <J»j^ muhtaraf pi. -dt studio, atelier 

jj*- haraqa i (harq) to burn (a; to 
burn, hurt, sting, smart | *-ii jj*- 
(qalbahu), pi. p^J* cy- (qvlubahum) to 
ver, exasperate s.o.; — u (harq) to rub 
together (a II to burn (a; 
4>LJ J^- (asn&nahii) to gnash one's 
teeth IV to burn (a; to destroy by 
fire (a; to singe, scorch, parch 
(a; to scald (a; to kindle, 
ignite, set on fire (a | j -JLJ *«j. J^-l 
{fahmata lailihi) to spend the night doing 


(, burn the midnight oil over . . . 
V to bum, be aflame, burn up, take fire, 
be consumed by fire, be burned; to be 
consumed (by an emotion), pine away 
(a with), be pained (a by), eat one'B 
heart out j li^S 3j£ (Sauqan) to be 
overcome with longing or nostalgia VIII to 
burn, be aflame, burn up, take fire, be 
consumed by fire, be burned 

j> harq burning, incineration, com- 
bustion; kindling, igniting, setting afire; 
arson, incendiarism ; pi. 3j j*- huruq 
burns (med.) 

&j*- lyaraq fire, conflagration 

*ij>- hurga, harqa burning, incineration, 
combustion; stinging, smarting, burning 
(as a physical sensation); torture, tor- 
ment, agony, pain, ordeal 

jl»- hurdq, hurrOq tinder 

jlj*. harrQq burning, aflame, afire; hot 

jj j>- hariq and **ij»- pi. Js[r har&'iq* 
fire; conflagration 

O «[/*- harrdqa torpedo 

Jlij*- haraq&n burning, stinging, smart- 
ing (aa a painful sensation; e.g., of the 


O 3jf- mahraq pi. j jlrf- mahariq* focuB 

jijl* tah&riq* (Eg.) season of the 
Nile's lowest water level, hottest season 
of the year 

£\j*.\ ihrSq burning, incineration, com- 

3j£ taharruq burning, combustion ; burn- 
ing desire (Jl for) 

jlj«-l ihtir&q burning, combustion; fire, 
conflagration | O tSL^-NI *»> ? wr / a( a '"*- 
combustion chamber (techn.); jlj^-V JjU 
qSbil al-i. combustible 

JjU- h&riq arsonist, incendiary 

3jj£- mahrQq burned, charred, scorched, 
parched ; reddish, bronze-colored ; pi. 
olij^ mahrUqOt fuel | 3jjA jli«t (fakkHr) 
fired clay 

Jj# muhriq: *»,* iLJ (qttnbitta) incen- 
diary bomb 

O 3j* muhraq crematory 

'iSjfi. muhraqa burnt sacrifice 

iJijp. harqada pi. ail^ har&qid* Adam's apple 

<£*- harqafa pi. .JJl^- hardqif 1 protruding 
part of the hipbone 

ij^- II to move, set in motion, drive, propel, 
operate (a; to march, move (• 
troops); to stir (a; to start, get 
started, get underway (a; to 
agitate, excite, stimulate (a; to 
incite, instigate, goad, prod, provoke, 
actuate, urge (J* • s.o. to do; to 
awaken, arouse, foment, stir up (a; 
to vowel, vowelize (gram., a a consonant) | 
•jpli* i\y (ma6a r irah&) to grip, excite, 
thrill s.o.; ^J^l^l 'Sj*- to affect the feel- 
ings, be touching, moving, pathetic; V 
bTU ii^ (s&kinan) he doesn't budge, 
he doesn't bend his little finger, he 
remains immobile, apathetic; «^*U i\j>- 
(a&ldnahu) to rouse s.o., put s.o. in 
a state of excitement, commotion or 
agitation T to move, be in motion, stir, 
budge; to start moving, get moving; 
to start out, get underway (traveler); 
to depart, leave (train); to put out, to 
sail (fleet); to be set in motion, be driven, 
be operated; to be agitated, be excited, 
be stimulated ; to be awakened, be roused, 
be fomented, be provoked, be caused 

ij^j- harik lively, active, brisk, agile, 

<Tp- haralca pi. -&t movement, motion ; 
commotion; physical exercise; stirring, 
impulse; proceeding, procedure, policy; 
action, undertaking, enterprise; military 




operation; continuation, progress; traf- 
fic (rail, shipping, street); movement (as 
a social phenomenon); vowel (gram.) | 
•JbS^y 4JK^»- j (sakan&tihl) in all his 
doings; in every situation; jj^il 55"^- 
(through) traffic; v^LA' «0" dipping 
traffic; mLmJI l£»- exchange of goods; 
JJf-Vl ~*Sj*- turnover (com.); *jj-il\ i53*-l 
(nistviya) feminist movement; *Sji-\ <J»,_i.~- 
nimble, lithe, light, quick, agile, adroit; 
"*£jl- 1 JJu slow in motion, heavy-handed, 
clumsy, sluggish, lumbering, inert, indo- 

O Sj*- haraki kinetio (phys.) 

t]\j»- har&k movement, motion 

£j£- mahrak path, trajectory (of a 

i\\j£- mihr&k poker, fire iron 

t £j J *: tahriki dynamic 

l lj£ tahamtk pi. -<K movement, motion; 
forward motion ; start ; departure ; sailing 
(of a fleet) 

lijU- taWJfc withers 

iJjrf- mWwm'fc mover, stirrer; rouser, 
inciter, fomenter, awakener, agent; insti- 
gator; — (pi. -tit) motive, springs, incen- 
tive, Bpur, motivating circumstance, cau- 
sative factor; motor, engine (techn.) 

i\j*^* mutaharrik moving, movable, 
mobile; pronounced with following vowel, 
voweled, vowelized (consonant; gram.) | 
ST^o* j j-» (fuwar) movies, motion, pic- 

?j»- harkafa (and ^^- harkaia) to stir up, 
agitate, excite, thrill 

haruma u, harima a to be forbidden, 
prohibited, interdicted, unlawful, un- 
permitted (J* to s.o. ); — harama i (hirm, 
jUj>- hirm&n) to deprive, bereave, dis- 
possess, divest (* • or j> • s.o. of, 
take away, withdraw, withhold (a * or 

a ^» or j* • from b.o., deny, refuse 
(a • or a ja or ,y • to s.o.; to 
exclude, debar, preclude, cut off (* • or 
{;* • s.o. from; to excommunicate 
(• s.o.; Chr.) II to declare (a 
sacred, sacrosanct, inviolable, or taboo, 
to taboo (a; to declare (a 
unlawful, not permissible, forbid, inter- 
dict, proscribe (a, Jo to s.o.); to 
render (• s.o.) immune or proof (j* 
against), immunize (j* • s.o. against) | 
4_jLi J* i+j*- to deny o.b., abstain, 
refrain from IV to excommunicate 
(• b.o.; Chr.); to enter into the state 
of ritual consecration (esp., of a Mecca 
pilgrim; see >'j»-l ikr&m) V to be for- 
bidden, interdicted, prohibited ; to be 
holy, sacred, sacrosanct, inviolable VIII to 
honor, revere, venerate, esteem, respect 
(a, • s.o., | 4-ii ?j*-\ to be self- 
respecting X to deem (a Baoro- 
sanct, sacred, holy, inviolable; to deem 
(a unlawful or unpermiBsible 

»j»- hirm excommunication (Chr.) 

*j»- haram pi. |»|^-l ahr&m forbidden, 
prohibited, interdicted ; taboo ; holy, 
Bacred, sacrosanct; sacred, sacred 
object; sacred possession; wife; sanctum, 
sanctuary, sacred precinct; oL^i-l the 
two Holy Places, Mecca and Medina | 
Jw/A-i vtJli tBlit al-haramain the third 
Holy Place, i.e., Jerusalem 

*y- hurma pi. -&t, hurumCU, huramOt 
holiness, sacredness, sanctity, aacro- 
Banctity, inviolability ; reverence, venera- 
tion, esteem, deference, respect; that 
which is holy, sacred, sacrosanct, invio- 
lable, or taboo; — (pi. *j*- huram) woman, 
lady; wife 

Aj>- hardm pi. *j*- hurum forbidden, 
interdicted, prohibited, unlawful; 
forbidden, offense, sin; inviolable, taboo; 
sacred, sacrosanct; cursed, accursed | j.1 
*\j»- ibn lh. illegitimate son, bastard; 


Aj-\ ^iljVI no man's land; neutral 
territory; pl^J-i o-Jl {bait) the Kaaba; 
(l>l j^tJI (iahr) the Holy Month 
Muharram; j»|^i-l a^J.1 (ma»j«i) the Holy 
Mosque in Mecca; ^LU |»j^- you mustn't 
do (say) that I * I^L illicitly, illegally, un- 

f Lf*- ^rdm pi. hW, i*^- 1 a /trtma a 
woolen blanket (worn as a garment 
around head and body) 

fj*- harim pi. *p- Aurum a sacred, 
inviolable place, sanctum, sanctuary, 
sacred precinct; harem; female members 
of the family, women ; wife 

^ j*- harimi women's (in compounds), 
for women 

rjj>- hurum pi. -tit excommunication 

ij\j*- har&mi pi. -iya thief, robber, 

ol>j*- hirm&n deprivation, bereave- 
ment, dispossession (of s.o., ,> of ; 
debarment, exclusion, preclusion (^* 
from); excommunication (CAr.); priva- 
tion | iylM ul*^- £. al-»ri exclusion 
from inheritance, disinheritance (7*1. Zau>) 

*j* mahram pi. *jl* fna^rtm' 
forbidden, inviolable, taboo, sacrosanct, 
holy, or sacred; unmarriageable, being 
in a degree of consanguinity precluding 
marriage (Ial. Law) 

**^ mahrama pi. *>lrf moAdrim' 

r_/ toAritn forbiddance, interdiction, 
prohibition, ban 

a|^-I iAnlm state of ritual consecration 
of the Mecca pilgrim (during which the 
pilgrim, wearing two seamless woolen or 
linen sheets, usually white, neither combs 
nor shares, and observes sexual con- 
tinence) ; garments of the Mecca pilgrim 

flji-l ihtir&m pi. -<K deference, respect, 
regard, esteem, reverence ; honoring (e.g., 
of a privilege); pi. honors, respeots, 

ajj£- mahrum deprived, bereaved, bereft 
(,>. of); excluded, precluded, debarred 
(ja from); suffering privation (as opposed 
**> t3jj_r»); excommunicated (Ckr.) 

*j£- muharram forbidden, interdicted; 
Muharram, name of the first Islamic 

month; fj^i-l *j£- m. al-hardm honorific 
name of this month 

*j£- muhrim Mecca pilgrim who has 
entered the state of ritual consecration 
(see ^1^*-! ihram) 

I*./* muhtaram honored, revered, vener- 
ated, esteemed, respected; (in the salu- 
tation of letters:) my dear ; venerable, 

reverend; notable, remarkable, consider- 

^aj+- harmal African rue (Feganum harmala 
L.; hot.) 

*hj*- harmala pi. J*l^»- har&miP a 
loose wrap worn over the shoulders 
(garment of the dervishes) 

0j~- harana, harund u (ol^- hirdn, hur&n) 
to be obstinate, stubborn, headstrong 

Ojj*- hariin pi. j^- hurun obstinate, 
stubborn, refractory, reluctant, resistant 

jjjU- hariin brazier 

ljj»- harwa burning; wrath, rage; acridity, 
pungency (of taste); pungent, disagree- 
able odor 

t£j»- T to seek, pursue (a, strive (* 
for), aspire (* to) ; to examine, investigate 
(a; to inquire (je or a into), make 
inquiries (j» or * about); to be intent 
(a on, take care (a of, 
attend (a to, also j), look (a after, also j); to see to it (ul that) 



tfji-L bi-l-harA hardly, barely 

jy- harly pi. pIj~\ ahriy&'* adequate, 
appropriate, suitable (^ for), worthy 
(v of | Jfjj\j tfj*. {4%kr) worth 
mentioning, considerable; Jj-uJU j^»- 
credible, believable; ^jJ-Ij jl or to be 
exact, or rather 

^Sy-I ahrU more adequate, more proper, 
more appropriate | <£^-VIj jl or to tell 
the truth, or more explicitly, or put more 
exactly, or rather 

j£ taharrin pi. £>\ij£ taharriyOt 
inquiry; investigation | j_^ill iU^i iurfat 
at-t. or i$j»+d\ UU ma§lahat at-t. secret 

- hazza u (hazz) to notch, nick, incise, indent 
(j, make an incision, cut (j into II and VIII = I 

j~ hazz pi. jjj*- huzUz incision, notch, 
nick; the right time, the nick of time 

»>- hazza incision, notch, nick; time; 
the right time, the nick of time; predica- 
ment, plight 

j \j»- haz&z head scurf, ringworm ; tetter, 
eruption (med.) 

•J!>- hazdza rancor, hatred, hate 
j£- mahazz notch, nick | _^l ^U^l to 
find the right solution, hit the nail on 
the head, hit the mark, strike home 

j>- fyazaba u (hazb) to befall (• s.o.)» happen, 
occur (. to b.o.) | _/^l ^_>- the matter 
became Berious il to rally (» s.o.); to 
form or found a party 111 to side, take 
sides (« with), be an adherent (• of s.o.) 
V to take sides; to form a party, make 
common cause, join forces 

<-*j~- hizb pi. i-jI^-I ahztib group, troop, 
band, gang; party {pol.)i the 60th part of 
the Koran | ^l^-l j* ^a he belongs to 
his clique, he is of the same breed 

tJ>- hizbi party (adj.), factional 

Vj*- hizbiya party activities; partisan- 
ship, partiality; factionalism 

Ojt'/*- haizabun old hag 
Vj^ tahazzub factiousness; factionalism 
t-jjU- hOzib: <yjU- **}*■ hazabahu h. he 
met with a mishap 

v-j>^* mittahazzib partial, biased; par- 

b>- hazara i u (hazr, *jj£ mahzara) to esti- 
mate, assess, appraise (a; to make 
a rough estimate (a of, guess (a 

jj»- hazr estimation, assessment, ap- 
praisal; conjecture, guess, surmise 

hjj*~ hazzura riddle, puzzle 

Ijjrf- mahzara estimation, assessment, 
.appraisal; conjecture, guess, surmise 

2 jly^- haziran* June (Syr., Leb. t Ir. p Jord.) 

jU>- huzuqq&ni choleric 

*hj*- hazuqa, «jjU- hazuqa hiccups 

f j»- hazama i (hazm) to tie up, bundle, wrap 
up, pack, do up in a package or bundle 
(a; to girth (a an animal); to 
make fast, fasten, tie (a | (j J *j»- 
(amrahu) to take matters firmly in hand; 
— hazuma u (hazm, <Jj»- hazama, iyj*. 
huz&ma) to be resolute, firm, stouthearted, 
intrepid II to gird (• s.o.) V and VIII 
to be girded; to* gird o.s., put on a belt 

p>- hazm packing, packaging, wrap- 
ping; determination, resoluteness, firm- 
ness, energy; judiciousness, discretion, 

'**}*- huzma pi. *j*. huzam wrapped 
up or tied up; bundle, fagot, fascine; 
beam of rays, radiation beam (phyt.)', 
bunch (of herbs, etc.); Bheaf; package, 

*\j>- hiz&m pi. -d*, <aj>-\ ahzima, *y- 
huzum belt, girth; girdle; cummerbund, 


waistband (worn over the caftan to 
fasten it); sword belt | ^."ili f\y- £. 
al-amn Bafety belt 

*y\ ahzam* more resolute; more judi- 

[•jU- h&zim pi. i*j»- hazama and £j»- 
Jwzim pi. »Lj»- Au*am<J* a resolute, energet- 
ic; judicious, discreet, prudent 

by hazana u to make sad, sadden, grieve 
(• s.o.)» — $oztna a (huzn, hazan) to be 
Bad, grieved (J or J» at or because 
of); to grieve, mourn (J* over) II and IT 
to make sad, sadden, grieve (• s. o.) 

by hvzn pi. jt^-l ahz&n sadness, 
grief, sorrow, affliction 

by^ hazn pi. bjy Aurun rough, rugged, 
hard ground 

by- hazin sad, mournful, grieved 

^y hazin pi. »Uj*. huzanS,'*, b\y 
hiz&n, (Jlj*. haz&nd sad; mourning (for a 
deceased person); sorrowing, mournful, 
grieved | ojJ-l i*J-J O'vm'a) Good Friday 

b\\y hazndn* very sad, very grieved, 
worried; in mourning 

sad, mournful, melancholic; mourning- 
fin compounds), mortuary, funereal | 
Ji[>- ,jili (qumaUt) cloth for mourning 

by tahazzun Badness; behavior of a 

bjy- mahzUn grieved, grief-stricken, 
pained, sad, saddened 

by mvhzin grievous, saddening; sad; 
melancholic ; tragic ; ctiy- muhzinOt griev- 
ous things | **y 5-Li £ *~*i {qissa tamtUiya) 
and Zy *i\jj (Hv&ya) tragedy (theat.) 

,j-»- haesa (1st pen. perf. hasastu) u (hass) 
to curry, currycomb (* an animal) ; to feel, 

sense (*; — ftassa (1st pers. perf. 
hasastu) », (1st pers. perf. hasten) a to 
feel sorry, feel sympathy or compassion 
(J for), sympathize (J with). II to grope, 
feel IV to perceive, sense, experience (a 
or l-»; to feel (a or »->; 
to notice (a or <->; to hear (a a 
sound, a noise, etc.); to take notice 
(• of s.o.) T to grope, probe (a for, 
finger, handle, touch (a, run the 
hand (a over; to grope about, 
feel around; to seek information, make 
inquiries (^ about) ; to sense, experience, 
perceive (a, l->; to feel («_»; 
to be affected, be deeply touched (<-» by 

^r*- hass sensation, perception, feeling, 

ur »> hiss sensory perception, sensation ; 
feeling, sentiment; sense; voice; sound; 

lS ^- hissi Bensory; Bensuous; percep- 
tible; palpable | O <5-J»l .-juII (madhab) 
sensationaliBm, sensualism 

oL«- hissiyiU sensations 

£r *-*- hasis faint noise 

^L*- hassds sensitive; sensible; readily 
affected, susceptible; sensual (pleasure) 

L-L»- hass&sa sensory organ 

^-1— ». hassOsi allergic | 4^1—*- ,y^ 
allergic diseases, allergies (nwrf.) 

L-L*- haaa&siya sensitivity (alsofec&n.) ; 
sensibility; faculty of sensory perception; 
susceptibility; sensuality | wU-l ^ij* 
mara4 al-h. allergy (med.) 

*-* mihassa currycomb 

^L*.! ihsOs pi. -Ot t j-i-Ul ah&sis* feel* 
feeling; sensation, sense (^ of; 
perception (»-> of; sensitivity; pi. 
oUL*-t feelings, sentiments | O ^L-*-l 
j>JU sensitivity to light; O ^L^-l/l JjJ-i 

highly sensitive; iljit* ^-Lp-I (muttarak) 
feeling of harmony, concord, unanimity; 
^L^-Vl «i» giUat al-i. insensitivity, dull- 
ness, obtuseness 

O v-L^-VI UJUJI af-fd'ifa al-ihs&riya 
the impressionists 

i-U- hSssa pi. ^Jy /tawOu* sensation ; 
sense | ^^-i-'l ^rj^l the five senses 

\j*y-£- mahsus felt; sensed; perceptible, 
noticeable, palpable, tangible; appreci- 
able, considerable (e.g., loss); -j-^ that 
which is perceptible through the senses; 
appearance, evidence; tliUj^l things 
perceptible through the senses 

_*- haaaba u (hasb, i^-L*- hisOb, uL— *■ Am- 
£<Sn, Au*Mn) to compute, reckon, calcu- 
late; to count; to charge, debit (J* a 
to S.O., to s.o.'s account); to credit (J * to b.o., to s.o.'s account) | *jI_»- ^— »- 
{higOhaha) to take or b.o. into 
account or into consideration, reckon 
with or s.o., count on or s.o.; 
J LU*- !_— *- (hisdban) do.; to attach 
importance to s.o. or; i_Vll L -,. ,i»- 
J wl— *- (alfa) to have a thousand appre- 
hensions about . . , ; — haaiba a % (dL^- Aw- 
6dn, i-_* mahaaba, mahsiba) to regard (* * 
s.o. as), consider, deem (•* s.o. to be. . .); 
to think, believe, suppose, assume; to 
consider, regard {j* * s.o. as belonging 
to), count {ja • s.o. among); to see 
(a J in s.o.; — hasvba u (hasab, 
oL->- Ac*5ia) to be of noble origin, be 
highborn; to be highly esteemed, be 
valued III to settle an account, get even 
(• with s.o.); to call (* s.o.) to account, 
ask (• s.o.) for an accounting; to hold 
(• s. o.) responsible, make (• s.o.) an- 
swerable | *-iJ J* <-— U- to be oareful, 
be on one's guard V to be careful, be 
on one's guard; to take precautions; to 
seek to know, try to find out (a 
VI to settle a mutual account VIII to 
debit or credit; to take into account, 

take into consideration (<_* or a; 
to reckon (<~> or a with); {to anticipate 
a reward in the hereafter by adding a 
pious deed to one's account with God — 
such as resigning in God's will at the 
death of a relative; hence:) \jjj ,_ 1 M ^I 
(waladan) to give a son, be bereaved of 
a son; .^tJi 41I x* w—^-1 to sacrifice in anticipation of God's reward in 
the hereafter; to charge (J* * fot); 
to think, believe, suppose; to take (• * 
s.o. for or to be . . .) ; to be content, 
content o.s. (^ with) ; to disapprove 
(J* a of in s.o.), take exception 
(J* m to in s.o.), reject (J* a 
in B.o.); to call (J* s.o.) to account, 
ask (J* s.o.) for an accounting 

i_~->- hasb reckoning, computing, cal- 
culation; thinking, opinion, view; suffi- 
ciency I j»ajj (ill.irf- or) dl, w htubuka (M- 
hasbika) dirhamun one dirham is enough 
for you; jl dL-»- it suffices to say that ... ; 
you know enough when you hear that . . . ; 
you need only . . . ; 1 l*-i* ,i I, <■ {muqni'an ) 
it will be enough to convince you if ... ; 
l^i *JS* lo^j ,*JL-».j (bi-h&4& kullihiiarran) 
but enough of all these negative aspects! 
l-— J- fa-hash and that's all, and no more, 
only (interchangeable with luu) 

^-*. hasbi: j^ iJ Mt (majlis) pi. ^Lf 
*■;—*- guardianship court, probate court 

,_— *- hatab pi. «_jI—»-1 ahsSb measure, 
extent, degree, quantity, amount; value; 
esteem, high regard enjoyed by s.o.; 
noble descent; hasaba (prep.), o— ^ &•'- 
hasabi and u«»- Je 'ali hatabi according 
to, in accordance with, commensurate 
with, depending on 

^-»- hatabamA (oonj.) according to 
what — , as, depending on how . . . | 
jiJl ^— - *> (ttafaqa) as chance will 
have it 

i— *- hisba arithmetical problem, sum 


fc.,1,, ,- fuisib pi. •L-*- fyusaba** respected, 
esteemed; noble, of noble birth, highborn 

L'l,..,r- TtiuMn calculation, reckoning, 
accounting; computation | OL-A-I J 05" 
to be taken into account, be taken into 
consideration; to be expected, be antic- 
ipated; jl (Jl—J-I J jS* it was expected 
that . . . ; jl JL— *- I expect that — 

._jL*- hiaOb arithmetic, reckoning, cal- 
culus; computation; calculation, estima- 
tion, appraisal; accounting, settlement; 
consideration, considerateness ; caution ; — 
(pi. -&t) bill, invoice; statement of oosta; 
(bank) account; pi. oUI— »- bookkeeping | 
JJLI «-iL*- h, al-jummal (al-jumal) use of 
the alphabetic letters according to their 
numerical value; t-»l— J-1 1* 'tfm al-h. 
arithmetic; J^UJl v*— *" fr* o'-'o/a^ui 
differential calculus; J.&JI .->L*- /». a<- 
(ajbdmiJ integral calculus; *»L-»- j OK' 
he reckoned with it, he expected it, he 
was prepared for it; J LI-*- J^ to take 
s.o. or into consideration; to reckon 
with s.o. or ; i/bi-'l ^LX\ (kitami) and 
Jl^ ^Urf- (ntAd'i) final statement of 
account, final accounting; <-»LJ.I Jl »Lo 
(da'dAu) he called him to account; *jj 
i^.LJ-1 j/aum aZ-Ji. the Day of Reckoning, 
Judgment Day; J LU»- j»lil to render 
aooount to s.o.; ^1— »- "£* without limit 
or bounds, to excess, to an unlimited ex- 
tent; i^L*- j*» ^ blindly, without fore- 
thought, at random; u^i t^LJ- tos.o.'s 
credit, to s.o. 'a advantage; j^ «-»l— »- J* 
to 8.o. *b debit, at s.o.'s expense, to s.o.'s 
disadvantage; wLJ-l *j*j} laqiyasu'a {-£. 
he got a raw deal, he was in for it; ^L*- 
jl>- (j&rin) current account; oL»l_»- 
jjji'l OjOU# A. sumfu? ai-f. savings-bank 
accounta; >->>•>• *_*!—»- blocked account; 
ojj £*UL- *- double-entry bookkeeping; 
J^JJI ^LJ.1 (Jarsi) the Julian calendar; 
j jiJl wLJ-l (£arW) the Gregorian calendar 

jU- Ai«JM arithmetical, mathematical, 

L-l* muhOsaba pi. -Of accounting; 
clearing (com.); bookkeeping; request for 
accounting; examination of conscience 
(theol.) | v-IpM *-J gwm al-m. accounting 
department, comptroller's office ; clearing 

i. A ,„"-\ ihtiaOb computation; calcula- 
tion, consideration, reflection; debiting; 
crediting; valuation; contentedness, sat- 

,_~.U- hteib counter, reckoner, arith- 
metician, calculator, computer 

^->j~* mahtQb pi. -fin, »--i-l* mahOsib* 
protege^ pet, favorite; obedient, sub- 
servient (J* to s.o.) 

Lj y*£ mahsubiya esteem enjoyed by 
s.o., position of distinction; patronage, 
favored position, favoritism 

^AA muh&sib, j^-.U. muh&sibgi (eg.) 
accountant, bookkeeper; comptroller, au- 

i_~Jl£ muhtasab that for which one 
can expect reward in the hereafter (e.g., 
suffering, loss, etc.) 

.*- hasada u (haaad) to envy, grudge (• s.o., 
J* or *, be envious (• of s.o., J* 
or a because of VI to envy each 

ju»- Jyuad envy 

}j~*- heuQd pi. i_»- huaud envious 

x-Ui tah&md mutual envy 

i^U- hd«td pi. jL-p- Au»&2, !-i-*- 
hasada envious; envier, grudger 

*>-£ mahsud envied; smitten by the 
evil eye 

-»- hamra « » (few) to pull away or off, 
remove (j* *, a cover, a veil, from) ; 
to uncover, lay bare, unveil (jf s>th.); 
— ( j y*. husur) to become dim (sight) ; — 
haaira a {fyaaar, • r _»- hasra) to regret 
(J*, be grieved, be pained (J* by; to sigh (Jp over; — haaara i, 
hasira a (kasar) to become tired, fatigued 
II to fatigue, tire, weaken, sap (» s.o.); 
to grieve, sadden (• s.o.), cause pain or 
grief {• to s.o.); to remove (* a cover, 
&. from), lay bare, unveil (jp} V to 
be distressed, be pained, be grieved (Jp 
by); to sigh (J* over) VII to be pulled 
away or off, be removed (jp from); to 
be rolled up, be turned back (sleeve, jp 
from the arm); to disappear suddenly 
(jp from) 

j~>- haaar fatigue, debility, weakness | 
y-«JI j-— h. al-baaar nearsightedness, 

y-— hasir grieved, sad; fatigued, lan- 
guid, weary, tired 

«,-■- haara pi. hasarOt grief, sorrow, 
pain, distress, affliction; sigh | ;_ r *J L> 
yd la-l-haarati alasl unfortunately! J^-*- L 
y&hasratl and •Ij j -»- \j w& haarat&h what 
a pity! too bad! 

jk-»*- haair pi. gj**- haar& tired, weary, 
fatigued, exhausted; dim, dull (eye), 
nearsighted | ^^Jl _£_*- A. al-baaar near- 
"ighted, myopic 

jj-»- huaiir nearsightedness, myopia 

0|j— ^- haar&n regretful, sorry, sad, 
distressed, grieved 

j-4- tahaaaur sighing; regret 

^U h&air pi. j~.)y haw&air* bared, 
denuded | y-«Jl y-l*- A. al-baaar near- 
sighted, myopic ; ^IjJI j-U h, ar-ra's bare- 
headed, hatless 

L-— hasak (coll.; n. un. •) thorns, spines; 
spikes, pricks; fishbones; awns, beard 
(bot.); name of several prickly herbs, esp. 
of the genus Tribulus 

5*-*- hasaH thorny, prickly, spiny 

j- hamma i (haam) to cut, sever, out off 
(a; to finish, complete, terminate 

(a; to decide (a a question); to 
settle (a an argument); to deduct, dis- 
count (a an amount from a sum of money) 
VII to be severed, be cut off; to be finished , 
be completed, be terminated; to be 
settled (argument) 

(r -«- haam finishing, completion, termi- 
nation; decision; settling, settlement (of 
an argument) ; discontinuance, shutdown, 
closing down; deduction, discounting 
(of an amount) 

l»U*- hua&m sword, sword edge 

f>«-»- huaum fatal, trying, grueling (pi.; 
days, nights, also years) 

~.L- h&sim decisive ; final, peremp- 
tory, conclusive, definite, definitive 

j-»- haauna u {husn) to be handsome, 
beautiful, lovely, nice, fine, good; to be 
expedient, advisablo, suitable, proper, 
fitting; to be in a proper state, be in a 
desirable condition | ,*JLaJ j-»- jl in h. 
ladaiha if you like it, if it seems all right 
to you; jl jL j-*: it is to your advantage 
that you . . . ; you ought to ... ; j_*- 
J he was all willing to . . . II to 
beautify, embellish (a; to adorn, 
decorate (a; to improve, put into 
better form, ameliorate, better (*; 
to make a better presentation (a of; to present in a favorable light, 
depict as nice or desirable (J * to 
s.o.); to sugar-coat, make more palatable 
(a unpleasant, disadvanta- 
geous) III to treat (» s.o.) with kindliness 

IV to do right, act well; to do (a 
well, expertly, nicely; to know (a how to 
do, be able (a to do; to 
master (a, have command (a of, be proficient (a in; a lan- 
guage, an art, a handicraft, etc.), be 
conversant (a with; to do good, be 
charitable; to do favors, do good (Jl or 

V to b.o.), do (Jl or C s.o.) a good turn, 
be nice, friendly (Jl or ^ to s.o.); to give 

alms, give charity (Jl to s.o.) | c-»-l U 
m& ahsanahu how good he is E how hand- 
some he is! wJu^-l ahsanta well done! 
bravo! iJliV' ,>-*-l (alm&niya) to master 
the German language, know German well ; 
■b-UiJI !>-*-! to aim well or accurately; 
4ljjJL. j,-*-l (ma&uratahu) to give good 
advice; ^j jiiJI j_»-l(zanna)tohaveagood 
opinion of . .., judge favorably; 
*iLU» ^^-^-l (mii'dmoZo/ofcfi) to treat s.o. 
well V to become nicer, more handsome, 
more beautiful; to improve, ameliorate, 
get better X to deem (* nice, etc., 
or good; to regard (a as right, ad- 
visable or appropriate; to approve {* of, sanction, condone (*; to come 
to like, to appreciate (*, find pleas- 
ure (a in; also — IV: ^m*c*>\ 
«j>UiVl (ingiliziya) to know English well; 
pass, ustuhaina to be good, commendable, 

j_». huan beauty, handsomeness, pret- 
tiness, loveliness; excellence, superiority, 
perfection | iii-l ^-X li-h. il-hatz fortu- 
nately; ^LJI j—*- good manners, good 
behavior ; good conduct ; iJ>LJIj j-J\ j~~ 
(A. as-sair) an irreproachable life; j_»- 
tJy^JI h. at-tasarruf discretion, individual 
judgment; Jil\ j-»- fy. oj-?ann good 
opinion, favorable judgment; jwJI ^-»- 
euphemism; (*-JI) o~*iJl j-*- h. al-qasd 
(an-niya) good intention, good will, good 
faith; t_A-_*j ,j~»- h. yusuf beauty spot, 
patch; j-i-l c— «tf ai-£u*n a kind of 
bindweed (Convolvulus cairicus L. ; hot.); 
deadly nightshade, belladonna 

j_»- haaan pi. ol_*-> his&n beautiful, 
handsome, lovely; pretty, nice; good, 
agreeable; excellent, superior, exquisite; 
L_*- haaanan well, splendidly, excellently, 
beautifully; uLi-l the ladies; — high 

jjJL-A-l al-haaaniyun the Hasamdes, 
the descendants «of Hasan, son of 'All 
and F&tima 

j— »-l ahaan* pi. ,j--U-l ak&rin* better; 
nicer, lovelier, more beautiful ; more 
excellent, more splendid, more admirable | 
t±* Vt*- Jr-*"' _>» he is better off than 
they are; j-*-l j> JJl> (bi-Uati) in a 
friendly manner, amicably, with kindness 

»L-*- hasnG,'* pl.uL*. hisdn {of a wom- 
an) beautiful, a beauty, a belle 

J-JJ al-humd pi. -Si (f. of jr—VI 
aZ-oA»an) the best outcome, the happy end* 
ing; fair means, amicable manner | J-i-Li 
amicably, by fair means, in a friendly 
manner; ^-J»l -Ir-VI {aam&') the 99 at- 
tributes of God 

L#> fyaaana pi. -d( good deed, bene* 
faction; charity, alms; pi. oL_»- advan- 
tages, merits 

j^-*~ hassun pi. jwL*. Aoa&sfn* gold- 

c«* nw/wana nice, good; 
advantage; pi. j~\£- mah&rin* beauties, 
charms, attractions, merits, advantages, 
good qualities 

,jw*£ tahsin beautification, embellish- 
ment; improvement, amelioration, better- 
ment; processing, refining, finishing; (pi. 
<jwl^ tah&ain*) ornament, decoration | 
O J— ill jv-^" t. an-nasl eugenics 

*l*\£- muhdmna friendly treatment, 
kindliness, amicability 

jl_--l iho&n beneficence, charity, alms- 
giving, performance of good deeds 

j~£- tahassun improvement, amelio- 
ration | ,^-**Jl J on the way to recovery 

jL— >c-l iatiha&n approval, consent ; 
acclaim; discretion; application of dis- 
cretion in a legal decision {lal. Law) 

j, •*- muhassin embellisher, beautifier, 
improver; pl.ob— £ muhaaaintlt cosmetics 

^j—rf- muhsin beneficent, charitable 

jmi'n- muatahaan approved, commend- 
able; pleasant, agreeable 


(j-*-) L— hasd u {hasw), V and VIII to drink, 
sip (a 

j-»- hasw and *L»- Aa«J' soup, broth 

y~*- /ta«uxi pi. hoaowOt a sip 

•>-— huswa pi. htisuwSt, husawdt, <-**-! 
ahsiya a sip, small quantity of liquid; 
soup, broth; bouillon 

^i*- Aatf&z u (Jiastf) to mow, out (* II to 
smoke hashish 

JjJ*. haHi (coll.) pi. JiSlL*- haia'iP 
herbs, grasses; weeds; hay; hemp (Can- 
nabis sativa L.; hot.), hashish, cannabis; 
stillborn child | jLj-iJI ^/xt- h. ad-dinSr 

iixi*- Aarft&i (n. un.) herb 

JAZ*- haiSttf pi. -fin Bmoker or chewer 
of hashish, hashish addict 

^U*- Au&gj, iiLi*- huS&ia last breath, 
last Bpark of life 

^ijji*- AaiMi («£.) sap-green, reseda- 

^t* mihaSi, <i£ mihafia pi. ^U ww* 
faW^f* sickle, scythe; fire iron, poker 

<-!£ mihaJfSa pi. -# (ep.) tool for 
weeding, weeder 

^^JL* mahSai, iiU- ^^Irf m.-kdva hash- 
ish den 

hashish den 


til* mah&&i& 

!*. haSada i u {haid) to gather, concentrate, 
mass (> esp. troops), call up, mobilize 
(> an army); to pile up, store up, accu- 
mulate {*, Jl at a place) II to amass, 
accumulate (a, mass, concentrate (• 
esp. troops) V and VIII to rally, come to- 
gether, assemble, gather, crowd together, 
throng together; to be concentrated, be 
massed (troops); to fall into line (troops) 

•H*- ha&d pi. j^i*. huiud assembling, 
rallying ; gathering, assembly, crowd, 

throng; concentration, massing (esp. of 
troops); mobilization, calling up (of an 

Ai* tahaShtd pi. -at concentration (of 

alii-I ihtiSGd pi. -at gathering, crowd; 
concentration (of troops) 

A-U- hdMd numerous (of an assembly), 
crowded (of a public demonstration) 

O i-Lil*- htUbida battery {el.) 

t>- haSara i u {hah) to gather, assemble, 
rally {• people); to cram, crowd, pack, 
jam (together); to squeeze, press, force, 
stuff, tuck (.jo or J * into) 

«r^"' fJi yaum al-haSr the day of con- 
gregation (of the dead), the Day of R*«- 

•,£»- haSara pi. -til insect; pi. vermin, 
insect pests | oI/LU L 'Urn al-h. ento- 

tfyJ*- haiari inBectile, insectival, insect- 
tin compounds) ; entomologic(al) 

£>t*- ha&raja and II tahaSraja to rattle in 
the throat 

S^J*. haSraja rattling, rattle in the 

J*£*- V to be dressed shabbily, dress slovenly 
i_a!»- haSaf dates of inferior quality 
iil*- ha&afa glans (penis; anat.) 

ilia*- haSaka i (haik) to cram, jam, squeeze, 
stuff ( j a into) 

«*- haSama i (ha$m) to shame, put to shame 
(• s.o.) II and IV do. V and VIII to be 
ashamed to face s.o. (,y or jc); to be 
reticent, modest, shy, bashful, diffident 

«*- haSam servants, retinue, entourage, 

~<+L*- hiSma shame, bashfulness, timid- 
ity, diffidence; modesty; decency, de- 


*i*- haiim pi. .^ liitSama' 2 modest, 
timid, bashful, shy, diffident 

-51* mah&lim 1 pubes, genitals 
jj. tahaiSum and Ail*- 1 t'fa item 
shame, shyness, modesty, reticence, de- 
cency, decorum 

JS£ muhla&im shy, bashful; modest, 
reticent, decent, decorous 

(^*^) Li,. ha$a u (ha&w) to stufF, fill, dress 
(w a -with; eep. fowl, etc.); to fill 
in (a ; to load ( a a firearm ; a a with, e.g., a camera); to fill (a 
a tooth); to insert (a II to inter- 
polate (a; to insert (a; to 
provide (a with a margin; to hem 
(a a dress); to supply (a a book) with 
marginal notes or glosses III to except, 
exclude (j- » s.o. from) V to keep away, 
stand aloof, abstain (j- from), avoid, 
Bhun ($m, beware (,y of), be on 
one's guard {,y against) VI to keep away, 
abstain (jc or j* from), beware (a or 
jtor J* of), avoid, shun (a or &■ or j* 

ji*. haho that with which is 
Btuffed or filled; dressing, stuffing (of 
fowl, etc.); filling (of teeth); insertion; 
{gram.) parenthesis; interpolation 

ijl*- ha&wa pi. -<M filling, stuffing 
(cushion, cookery, etc.); load (of a 
cartridge), charge (of a mine); panel, 
inlay, inserted piece (in paneling, in a door) 

li>- haian pi. .Li*-I ajWa* bowels, 
intestines; interior, inside | »l£»-l j in 
the interior of, within, in 

^ Jytian = Li»- lyakm 

<JL>. haHya pi. -at, IU*- Jiaktyd 
cushion, pillow; mattress 

L5U, ^U- h&Sa (with genit., ace. or J) 
except, save | ^i ^-U-, <i LiU- God forbid! 
Ot dU L5U far be it from you that you . . . ; 
a ^U, <iiJ ^U- (Mia) = a L5U, <iD UU 

*JL* tah&iya insertion; interpolation 

^51* tah&Hn avoidance 

4-5U- h&Hya pi. ^Jj*- AatwS&'n border; 
seam, hem; edge; margin (of a book); 
marginal gloss ; marginal notes ; com- 
mentary on certain words and passages 
of a book, supercommentary ; footnote; 
postscript ; retinue, entourage, suite, 
servants; dependents; pi. ^l**- critical 
apparatus | *—iU-l jJj and t$S]>»-l J^j 
nice, polite, courteous, gracious, amiable, 
kindly, friendly; 4-5U-1 i*j riqqat al-h. 
niceness, amiability, graciousness 

jJL* mafr&Qw filled, dressed; stuffed; 
loaded (firearm); pi. ol^l* mahkuwdt 
filled, or stuffed, dishes 

^ majitty filled, stuffed (eep. food); filled or stuffed 

,j^»- fyawa u to fall as a share (• to s.o.) 
Ill to share (. a with s.o.) IV to 
allot s.o. (•) his share 

j**. 1yu$$ saffron 

^w hi$$a pi. ^j****- hi$a$ share, portion, 
allotment; share (fin.) ; contingent, quota; 
span of time; lesson, class period | *-*>■ 
f.J S b- /« r-rabfy dividend {fin.); Q '*-**■ 
( _ ri -ljl founders' share; O .j*-**-' fUi> 
quota system, apportionment; «.**- J 
Vj*?j in a short time 

iJ m~+£ tafaif quota system, apportion- 

L^lrf. mul&wa allotment; sharing (with 
s.o.), partaking, participation 

jUU**- see lS ** 

u— **- hofaba * i* to- cover or strew with 
pebbles or gravel (a ground); to macad- 
amize (a ground), metal (a a road); 
— hagiba a and pass, hv^iba to have the 
measles II to cover or strew with pebbles 
or gravel (* ground) ; to macadamize 
(a ground), metal (a a road) 


i~-m*- ha$ab road metal, crushed rock, 

•L*m- Jw/bOf* (coll.) pebbles; gravel 

<-**»- hafba measles (med.) 

wU- hdgiba storm, hurricane 

k«h-w faffya$a to be or become clear, plain, 
manifest; to come to light (truth) 

*v- ha§ada i u (ha$d t jL«- ha$dd, hifOd) to 
harvest, reap (a; to mow (a 
IV, VIII and X to be ripe 

x*»- fia§d and :Lo» A*$dtZ harvesting, 
reaping, harvest; jL**- harvest time 

-U**- Aa^wf, ;-U**- Aostda pi. aJU-*- Aa- 
f&'id 2 crop, harvest yield | -u-u-j ^U 
everything without exception 

:L»- hagq&d reaper; harvester 

.L** mifaad pi. -u*U mahfyid* sickle 

O oLu- Aa^^lda and O »-U^ m*A- 
?ada mowing machine, mower | O oUo*- 
i-ljj (darr&sa) combine 

-L*U- Ad^td reaper 

O »-U*U- h&$ida mowing machine, 

}j~*£ mah$ud harvested, reaped, mown 

x~o£. muhsid and J ,.«>■■•-. > mustahfid ripe 

-a*- hagara t w (Aapr) to surround, encircle, 
encompass, ring (* ; to enclose 
(a; to parenthesize (a a word); 
to blockade (a, a b.o.,; to besiege, 
beleaguer (a, « s.o.,; to detain, 
deter, restrain, contain, hold back (» s.o.); 
to limit, restrict ( j * or u to); to 
condense, reduce in scope (a; to 
narrow down, confine ( j a to, also 
a suspicion to s.o.); to bring together, 
compile, arrange (J a under a 
rubric); to enter (J a in a list); to 
put together, set up, list, enumerate 
(a; to comprise, contain, include, 

involve (a; — ha^ira a (ha^ar) to 
be in a fix, be in a dilemma 111 to en- 
circle, surround (a, » s.o.,; to 
shut off, seclude (a, * s.o.,; to 
block (a; to beleaguer, besiege 
(a, • s.o.,; to blockade (a, • s.o.,; to detain, deter, restrain (• s.o.) 
VII to be straitened, confined, narrowed 
in; to be or become restricted, limited 
(<-< or J to) ; to limit o.s. (»_* or j to) ; to be 
condensed (j to), be concentrated ( j in); 
to be or become united (e.g., <•£*» c~£ 
under s.o.'s rule); to be reducible (j to), 
be expressible (j in terms of), consist ( j 

j~*»- ha$r encirclement, encompass- 
ment, enclosure, corralling; parenthesiz 
ing; blocking, blockading, beleaguering, 
siege; detention, determent; restraint, 
retention, containment, check; limita- 
tion, restriction, confinement; narrowing 
gathering, collecting (of scattered), 
compilation; enumeration, listing, count 
ing, computing; centralization, concen 
tration ; (tobacco) monopoly | ^^A- L strict, 
ly speaking; j*J-\ j-j- J* exhaustively 
,>>*JI y-*»- A. at-tamwin rationing; *»iU 
_,-«*- 1 'aldmat aUh. parantheses, brackets 
(typ.); _ r *L-\ cJ- J^Ai V (yadkulu) or 
*i _r-«*- ^ (Aapra) boundless, infinite, im- 
measurable, innumerable; _^-\ <5>i; ya* 
fuqu l-hap-a do.; O j***-\ yM ij&zat 
al-h. patent on an invention; ^m»- ijtal 
iiLixilj gd\ iddrat A. at-tibg wa-t-tumb&k 
Government Tobacco Monopoly (Syr.) 

j**~ hu$r retention (of urine) ; consti- 

_,-**- hagar dyslogia, inability to express 
o.s. effectively 

_£-»*- ha$ir pi. j**. hu$ur mat 

«_r-**- ha$ira pi. JI&- Aaad't'r 8 mat 

jLa»- hi$&r block, blockage, barrier; 
blockade; siege 


\j*\£ mutoqara block, blockage, bar- 
rier; blockade; siege 

jL«^i inhif&r restrictedness, limitation, 
confinement; (tobacco) monopoly 

jy*£- mahfQx blocked, blockaded ; 
beleaguered, besieged ; limited, restricted, 
confined (j to); narrow 

fj*m»- hifrim (coll.; n. un. *) unripe and sour 

grapes (*yr.) 
Jm~**- hafufa u (*iL«»- haq&fa) to have sound 

judgment, be judicious, discriminating 

Jc-*»- J}afif endowed with sound judg- 
ment, judicious, discriminating 

^ — ■ haptf endowed with sound 
judgment, judicious, discriminating 

oL**- hatfifa sound judgment, judi- 

J^w ha$a\a u {dj~*»- fcwsfil) to set in; to be 
there, be existent, extant; to arise, come 
about; to result, come out; to happen, 
occur, transpire, come to pass, take 
place; to happen, occur (J to s.o.), come 
(J upon s.o.). befall, overtake (u s.o.); to 
originate, emanate, derive, stem {,y from), 
be caused, be produced (j* by) ; to attain, 
obtain, get, receive, achieve (J*, 
win (J» s.o. or; to come into 
possession (J* of; to seek (J* a 
permit), apply (J» for a permit); to 
collect, recover (J* a debt), call in (J* 
funds); to receive, take in (Jp 
II to cause (*) to happen or set in; 
to attain, obtain (*; to acquire 
(*, also knowledge) ; to infer, deduce 
(*; to collect (* a fee, fare, etc.), 
levy (* taxes, fees, etc.), call in (* money) ; 
to summarize, sum up (* V to 
result ((>. from), come out (sum); to be 
obtained, be attained; to be raised, be 
levied, be required, be demanded; to be 
taken in, come in (fees, taxes, funds); 
to be collected (taxes); to procure for 
o.s., get (J*; to attain, receive, 

obtain (J*; to acquire (J*; 
to collect (J* fees) X to procure for o.s., 
get (J*; to attain, receive, obtain 
(J*; to acquire (J* 

J^*»~ hugul setting in, occurrence, in- 
cidence, happening (of an event or pro- 
cess); obtainment, attainment (J* of; achievement (J* of; acqui- 
sition (J* of 

"*L*»- JwaiZa pi. JJL«p- haf&'iP rest, re- 
mainder; amount collected, proceeds, 
returns; revenue, receipts, yield, income, 

J-^-, *L*j»- and iL*j_p- look up alpha- 

*JU**- Jia«sdJa collection box, alms box 

J««£ mahgal result, outcome, upshot, 

\~*£- tah?il pi. -GA attainment, obtain- 
ment, gain; acquisition (also of knowl 
edge) ; learning, studying, scientific stud 
ies; collection, raising, levy(ing), call- 
ing in (of funds, taxes) ; income, revenue 
receipts, returns, proceeds; resume, sum 
mary, gist (of a speech or opinion); j* 
JUL jl J~»U-I J-*«*: in summary, it may 
be said . . . 

jJr** tah^ilgi (eg.) = J-*# muka^U 

J^U hfyil pi. J~-!>*- JiawtytP setting in, 
occurring, taking place, happening; re- 
Bult, outoome, sum, total, product (also 
math.) ; revenues, receipts, proceeds, 
gain; income, returns; crop, harvest; 
warehouse, storehouse, granary, depot, 
magazine; main content, purport, gist, 
essence, substance (of a speech); J-^lA-l 
briefly, in short; pi. O^L»U- produot(s), 
yield, produce, production (econ.) 

k+A mahfitl pi. -at, j--*U£ mahOfiP 
result, outcome, issue ; yield, gain ; 
product, produce; crop, harvest; pro- 


J««rf muhawil oollectOF ; tax collector ; 
cashier; (bus, streetcar) conductor 

J-«*.i* mutaha$$il yield, revenue, pro- 
ceeds, receipts, returns {,y from) 

«*• hafuna u (<!U«- Aa^flTta) to be inac- 
cessible, be well fortified; to be chaste 
(woman) II to make inaccessible (a; 
to strengthen (a ; to fortify, entrench 
(a; to immunize, make proof (j-J 
didda against) IV to make inaccessible 
(*; to fortify, entrench (a; 
to be chaste, pure (woman); to remain 
chaste, be of unblemished reputation 
(woman) V to strengthen one's position, 
protect o.b.; to be fortified; to be secure, 
be protected 

j^u- fyifn pi. by**- hu^un fortress, fort, 
castle, citadel, stronghold; fortification, 
entrenchment; protection | JW* ,ym»- Fly- 
ing Fortress 

oLa-hitfin pi. {r*>- hupun, *u**J ah$ina 
horse; stallion | j»J\ uU>- h. al-bahr 
hippopotamus; ^jl*^. JL**- (bukdri) iron 
horse; OL**- ij» guwat h. f or oL*»- alone, 
horse power 

1 ^-«»- ha$in inaccessible, strong, forti- 
fied, firm, secure(d), protected; immune, 
proof, invulnerable (.Li didda against) | 
>-aJ-l jr^i-l (fyifn) stronghold (fig.; e.g., 
of radicalism) 

,jv*J- 1 ji I aba l-hu$ain fox 

«j Lu*- Aa^dTui strength, ruggedness, 
forbiddingness, impregnability, inaccessi- 
bility; Bhelteredness, chastity (of a 
woman) ; invulnerability, inviolability ; 
immunity (of deputies, diplomats; against 

j-***- tahfin pi. -&t fortification, en- 
trenchment ; strengthening, cementing, 
solidification; immunization 

jL*»-l tApfinblamelessness, unblemished 
reputation, integrity (Isl. Law) 

j«t* taha^un securing, safeguarding, 
protection, protectedness 

j-^ muhawan fortified; entrenched; 
immune, proof (-L* didda against) 

'<-*£■ muhoina, muh$ana sheltered, 
well- protected, chaste; of unblemished 
reputation (woman; Isl. Law) 

■» IV to count, enumerate (a; to 
calculate, compute (a j- from); to 
debit, charge (J* * to s.o.'s ac- 
count), hold (a J* against s.o.) | V 
if**- (yuh$&) innumerable 

lS *»- ha$an (coll.) pebbles, Uttle stones 

iLm*- hatflh, 1^***- lyufwa pi. oLi»< 
hafay&t little stone; pebble; calculus, 
stone (med.) | IJjt SLv» (bauliya) cystic 
calculus; *jj\ji-+ *L*»- (fafrSwiya) gall- 
stone, biliary calculus 

oU t5 -w- Aasd luMn, jULm- rosemary 

tSj~*»- ha^atvi stony, pebbly, gravelly 
»L**-I ifcpfi* pi. -fli count, counting; 

enumeration ; calculation, computation ; 

statistics | utCJl »L*»-I *. as-sukkdn census 

jL-*-l t£ftf'i statistic(al); (pi. -fin) 

5-JU^-l tA^d'tya pi. -at statistics 

«- hadda u {fyadd) and II to spur on, incite 
(* s.0., J* to), goad, prod (• s.o., J* to 

^i— hadd incitement, inducement, 
prodding, prompting, instigation 

u-i«i*- lyidi4 pi. (jA^*- ^v4v4, «~i»-l 
ahidda foot of a mountain; lowland; 
perigee {aatron.); depth; state of decay | 
,>~iJ-l Jl J> to sink low (fig.); Jl *S"j 
^iu~ii- 1 (daAfcaAu) to ruin completely, 
run into the ground 

'u- fyadara u (jj**- Hudftr) to be present (a 
at), be in the presence (* of s.o.); to 


attend (a; to be present (a in s.o.'s 
mind), be readily recalled (• by s.o.); to 
take part, participate (L-Lf majliaan 
in a meeting); to come, get (Jl or a, « 
to 8.O., to a place), arrive (Jl or a at a 
place); to visit (a a place), attend (a a 
public event), go {* to a performance, 
etc.); to appear (»U before a judge, etc., 
Jl in, at), show up (Jl in, at); to betake 
o.s., go (Jl j- from... to); ( •> Li*- haolAra) 
to be settled, sedentary (in a civilized 
region, as opposed to nomadic existence) 
II to ready, make ready, prepare (a, also, e.g., a medicine = to com- 
pound), make, produce, manufacture 
(a; to study, prepare (a a lesson); 
to fetch, get, bring (» s.o., *, 
procure, supply (a; to settle (• 
s.o.), make s.o. (•) sedentary; to civilize 
(• s.o., a Ill to give a lecture, 
present in a lecture (• to s.o.); to 
lecture, give a course of lectures IV to 
fetch, get, bring (a, • s.o.,, procure, 
supply (a; to take (• s.o., a, 
Jl to a place) | **-* »j~*»-l to have 
with one, bring along V to prepare 
o.s., ready o.s., get ready (J for); to 
be ready, prepared; to become settled, 
be sedentary in a civilized region; to be 
civilized, be in a state of civilization ; to 
become urbanized, become a town 
dweller VIII to come (• to s.o.), be in the 
presence (• of s.o.); to live in a civilized 
region; pass. ufytudira to die X to have (a) brought, to call, send (a, • for 
s.o., for, have s.o. (») come; to 
summon ( * s.o.); to fetch, procure, 
Bupply, get, bring (a; to conjure, 
call up, evoke (a a spirit); to visualize, 
envision, call to mind (a; to carry 
with o.b., bring along (a; to pre- 
pare (*> e.g., a medicinal preparation) 

jJt*. hadar a civilized region with towns 
and villages and a settled population 
(as opposed to desert, steppe); settled 

population, town dwellers (as opposed to 

dls**- hadari settled, sedentary, res- 
ident, not nomadic, non-Bedouin, like 
urbanites; civilized; urban; town dweller 

is**- ha&a presence | ~*s+»- J in the 
presence of . . .; i-UI S^-i*- 1 {'aliya) His 
Highness (formerly, title of the Bey of 
Tunis); &,-•*- a respectful form of ad- 
dress, esp. in letters; jj^jJI if**- cf. 
Ft. Monsieur it docteur 

jj*m— hud&r presence; visit, partici- 
pation, attendance; (as one pi. of j**\*-) 
those present | »jj~i^ in his presence; 
iUA-t jj^m>- fy. al-hafla attendance of the 
celebration ; jaa!! jjJ*- h. ad-dihn presence 
of mind; jj*i>- «*j j xoaraqat fy. summons 

iSjj***' fyudwri-. *ijj~*»- pot^-l (dfyk&m) 
judgments delivered in the presence of 
the litigant parties after oral proceedings 
(jwr.); b jj*i»- hwfuriyan contradictorily 

IjL*>- haddra civilization; culture; set- 
tledness, sedentariness 

•>«■*- haiira pi. j?U»- Jyujtfir* a small 
group of 6 to 12 people (specif., the 
smallest unit of boy scouts = patrol); 
Bection, squad (mil.; Syr.) 

j±£- mahdar presence; attendance, com- 
ing, appearance (of s.o.); assembly, meet- 
ing, gathering, convention; (pi. jJte- ma* 
h&tfir*) minutes, official report, proces- 
verbal, record of the factual findings | 
*j}~\ jJkA m. al-jard inventory list;^^** 
4J> bi-mafydarin minhu in s.o.'s presence 

j**£ tahdir preparing, readying, making 
ready; (pi. -&t) preparation (J for; also 
e.g., for an examination); making, prepa- 
ration, cooking (of food, etc.), production, 

ijt/^^ tahd'iri preparatory, prepara- 
tive | ,jwLJl 4jj^Mi»*=JI ^jlall (mu'aUimln) 


preparatory institutes for teachers, teach- 
ers' colleges (Eg.) 

i^j[£- muhddara pi. -<M lecture 

jLi»-l ihddr procurement, supply, fetch- 
ing, bringing 

jJl^- tahad$ur civilized way of life 

_)Ut»-l ihtidar demise, death 

jUi*=-l iatihd&r making, production, 
manufacture; preparation; summoning | 
r'jj"^' jL*»«s-l iatihd&r at-arwdh evoca- 
tion of spirits, spiritism 

^-iU- hGdir pi. jJk*- huijdar, jj~**- 
hudur present ; attending ; ^J U- 1 the 
present (time); prepared (J for); ready; 
(pi. jLw- huddar, *j~k*~ hadara) settled, 
sedentary, resident, village or town 
dweller, not nomadio | ^U-l j or cJjJI J 
^U.1 at present, now; _^ill j**\*- h. 
al-fikr quick-witted, quick at repartee; 
^U Xu (naqd) cash, ready money 

5^*1*. hSdira pi. jJ>\y hatv&dir* capi- 
tal city, metropolis; city (as a center 
of civilization) 

j_^-i£ mahdur possessed, haunted or 
inhabited by a jinni; demoniac 

j**£- muha44*T maker, producer, manu- 
facturer; dissector (med.) 

j**\£- viufySdir lecturer, speaker 

jj*£- mufyf.iT court usher 

j***£j> mutahaddir civilized 

j^J- muhtadar dying, in the throes 
of death, on the brink of death ; a dying 
person; haunted or inhabited by a jinni; 

j^^c^a mustahdar pi. -&t preparation 
(chem., phann.) | jl^i j±*z~* (daw&'i) 
medicinal preparation 

*•,-«*- hadramaut 2 Hadhramaut 

\Ss**- ha^rami pi. fjLi*- ha4&rim* man 
from Hadhramaut; Hadhramautian (adj.) 

l >**- hadana u {hadn, <>Ui>- hid&na) to clasp 
in one's arms, embrace, hug {♦ s.o.); 
to nurse, bring up, raise (• a child); 
(hatfn, o 1 ^*- h*4&n, iJUi*- hidtinu, 
bjJ$»- fyvdUn) to hatch, brood, incubate 
(a an egg; of a bird) VI to embrace one 
another, cling to one another, nestle 
against each other VIII to clasp in one's 
arms, embrace, hug (a, • s.o.,; to 
harbor in one's bosom (* feeling); to 
hatch, concoct, contrive (a; to bring 
up, raise (• a child) 

j^*. hidn pi. uL^-l ahd&n breast, bosom 
(between the outstretched arms); armful, 
that which can be carried in one's arms | 
jJki- Li *U (qabilahu) he received him with 
open arms; jl.**-l jy and jLi»-l J amid, 
among; with, in the presence of (s.o.); 
»lj*wJl jLi*-l j (aahrd') in the heart 
(or folds) of the desert; l^JL^-l jo Jj-i»-l 
she took me in her arms 

*iUi»- hiddna r hatf&na raising, bringing 
up, nursing (of a child); hatching (of 
ftn e gg). incubation j IuLiJ-1 jlj children's 
home, day nursery, creche 

j*^»- hadin embraced, hugged, resting 
in s.o.'s arms 

{j**£- mahdan pi. j^l* mahatfin* 
children's home, day nursery, creche 

jLii*-l ihtidSn embrace, hug(ging), 

<U*l»- h&4\na pi. ,j~ij*- fyawtidin 2 nurse* 
maid, dry nurse 

jpisrf- muhtaftn embracing, hugging; 
tender, affectionate 

lu- hafta u (haft) to put, place, put down, 
set down (a; to take down (a a 
load, burden); to lower, decrease, di- 
minish, reduce (a or j*; to de- 
preciate (•j-i» j* min qadriki or *i*J j» min 
qimatihi the value of | JL^II Jo*- 
(rih&la) to halt, make a stop, dismount, 
encamp (while traveling on horseback, 

camelback, etc.); — u (hatf, iylw- hvt&t) 
to sink, descend, go down; to alight 
(bird); to land (airplane); to drop (price) 
II to put down, set down, take off, un- 
load (a a load) VII to sink, descend, go 
down; to decrease, diminish; to decline, 
decay, wane VIII to put down, set down, 
take down (a 

m*. /wr#(act of) putting or setting down; 
depreciation, belittling, derogation, dis- 
paragement ((>» of ; reduction, 
diminution, decrease (<y of 

<L»- hifta alleviation, relief, mitigation; 
abasement, debasement, demotion, deg- 
radation (in rank, dignity, prestige); 
humiliation, insult, indignity 

Jwl afyotfi lower 

iL-L- fyafifa price reduction 

Jo* tnahatt place at which ia 
put down or deposited; stopping place, 
stop; pause, fermata, hold, concluding 
strain, cadence (vvus.) | JU^/I k£ object 
of hope, that on which one's hopes are 
pinned; jlfciVI J** <JK* to attract the 
glances, draw attention to o.s. ; * *^&1 i*£- 
m. al-kaldm sense, or meaning, of one's 

<L£ mahaffa pi. -at stopping place, 
stop (also of public conveyances) ; station, 
post; railroad station; broadcasting sta- 
tion, radio station | jUll Ji^ ^* 
m. tahvnl at-tayy&r transformer station; 
(SjSX-iUI) iftliV iirf m. al-id&a (al-la- 
Bilkxya) broadcasting station, radio sta- 
tion; transmitter (station); *~~x>j ***■* 
(ra'faiya) (railroad) main station; O «!■* 
oljli^l m. al-iidrdt signal post; O *^ 
Jt-jVl wt. al-iraal transmitter (station; 
radio); i^J-l sl+jtf 1U* (li-l-ar§dd al- 
jawmiya) meteorological station, weather 
station; Ji^-JI *!»# m. af-farf [Eg.) pump 
station (for drainage) ; power plant ; O «!■* 
JLi-Vl receiving station (radio); O il** 
rlt*VI !>-* <£i-V (ta-st/Hya getfira* al- 

armed)) short-wave transmitter station; 
»lj j£S\ jJj «!■* m. iaulxd al-kahraba' and 
S-IUj^S* *U* power plant 

J»IL*M inAtfa/ decline, fall, decay, de- 
cadence; inferiority | .UlL^Vl ^U*-! 
ihsda al-inh, sense of inferiority 

Jrlia*:! tn<btfdfi postclassical writer 

lu^L. munhatf low, base, low -level, low- 
grade; fallen, degraded (woman); mean, 
vile, vulgar; inferior 

iv- hafaba t to gather firewood | ._J*»- 
*L*- j (/I JwoWAl) to support s.o., stand 
by s.o., back s.o. up VIII to gather 

,_*]•>■ hafab pi. »->Uw-l ahfdb firewood 

i^>li«»- haft&b wood gatherer ; wood- 
cutter, lumberjack; vendor of firewood 

tahtib singlestick fencing (a 
popular game, esp. in rural areas; eg.) 

^J*L- hdtib wood gatherer; woodcutter, 
lumberjack; vendor of firewood ( eJfli- 
JJ ka-hdtibi lailin lit.: like one who 
gathers wood at night, i.e., blindly, at 
random, heedlessly (said of s.o. who does 
not realize, or think about, what he is 

Jm. hafama % (hafm) to break, shatter, 
smash, wreck, demolish (a II = I; 
V to break, go to pieces; to be broken, 
be smashed, be shattered; to crash (e.g., 
airplane, structure, etc.); to be wrecked 
(ship) VII = V 

<J»- fyifma pi. ^ bifam particle, 
Bmall piece, shred, bit, morsel; 

flU- hupdm debris, rubble; fragments, 
shards, broken pieces; wreckage, wreck 
(of a ship) | LJaJI fllw- h. ad-dunyd the 
ephemeral things of this world, the 
vanities of the world 

J«- hafim smashed, shattered, wrecked 

^L* lahfim smashing, shattering, 
wreoking, breaking, demolition, destruc- 
tion, disruption | O A-U-.l Jrf "•• .• - 
icebreaker (naut.) 

|Jtf= iaAa#um crumbling, disintegra- 
tion; crash (of an airplane); collapse, 

U.L. Aafima: O -Uil ««iU icebreaker 

|Jrf nwAoffim crashing, thundering, 
roaring (of an explosion, etc.) — muhaf. 
(am broken (language) 

Kite, muhattima: L>Jj' ~<X*- (udjiya) 
icebreaker (navt.) 

Jip- Aazza a (hazz) to be lucky, fortunate 
IV = I 

Ji» Aofz pi. J»,Ji— Auzuz part, portion, 
share, allotment; lot, fate, destiny; good 
luck, good fortune; affluence, wealth, 
fortune; prosperity; pleasure | j. iu. /> 
endowed with; Jill j_i- U-humi l-fr. 
and JiJ-l ^p- j, fortunately, luckily; 
JiJ-l >y tu' ai-A. bad luck, misfortune; 
JiJ-l .^ tayyf a/-A. unlucky, unfortu- 
nate; iii-l *yj unfortunately; ^*- ^ 
Ji~ luokily for me, fortunately; ^ jf" 
ul 4li». j_». he was lucky in that he . . .; 
"•■ W^ i>-*-' cr^ I 16 <» n0 better off than 
she is 

JUi»- AojC? lucky, fortunate 

JyL* mahzBz lucky, fortunate; con- 
tended), happy, glad 

Ji~ bazara u (fazr) to fence in, hedge in 
(»; to forbid (a J» to s.o., 
prohibit (a J* s.o. from doing 

_Ji»- Aajr forbiddance, interdiction, pro- 
hibition, ban; embargo 

jUl«- hiz&r, haz&r wall, partition, screen ; 
fence, palisade, railing 

•jJi*- fyaira pi. ./Uw- Aazd'ir 1 enclo- 
sure, railing, fence, palisade, hedge; 

compound, yard, pound, pinfold; oorral, 
pen, paddock, coop; hangar, shed; field, 
domain, realm (fig.) | yji.- j (with foil, 
genit.) inside of, within; 4j_rJi»- Jl <jj»- 
{jaiabahu) to bring s.o. under one's in- 
fluence; oly'lUI y'lli.- aircraft hangars; 
jj-XiJl lj]i»- A. al-qud* Paradise 

jjlm£ matizGr interdicted, prohibited, 
forbidden (J* to s.o.); embargoed; pi. 
<^[)j&£- forbidden things, restrictions 

(jli». and Ji»-) J^- haziya a (^i- huzwa, 
hizwa) to enjoy the favor or good graces 
of s.o. (-U*), be in s.o.'s (x*) favor or 
good graces; to acquire, obtain, attain, 
gain, win ( v 

•>!■*- Au?wa, Atzwa favored position, 
role of favorite; precedence; favor, grace; 
good will, benevolence; prestige, credit, 
standing, respect, esteem | x» ;_,t»- JU 
(^a)) to find favor with s.o. 

*-li»- Aoziya pi. LUi*. hazHyd paramour, 
mistress, conoubine 

Ui* mahziya pi. -<B paramour, mis- 
tress, concubine 

J^- haffa u (huff) to surround (^ >, . s.o., with, also <j and J>» s.o.,, 
enclose, encompass, border (v, a; 
to depilate (a a part of the body), unhair 
(» the skin); to trim, clip (a the beard); 
to chafe, rub off, abrade (a | 
°*A *! «-** he is the objeot of ad- 
miring glances, he is the center of atten- 
tion, all eyes are upon him; — i (J»j». 
Aa/i/) to rustle II and VIII to surround, 
(J*—, v» *» • a -°'», enclose, encom- 
pass, border (J^-, v , a 

J»U*. hif&f side 

tj-i*. Aa/t/ rustle, rustling 

ii* mihaffa (also mahaffa) pi. -at litter, 
stretcher; roller stretcher; sedan 

J>U- Aa/T: jl» >^. (iuiz) plain bread 
(without anything to go with it; eg.) 


i»U- haffa pi. -d( enclosure, edge, 
margin; brim of a vessel; border, brink, 
verge; fringe, hem | v 1 !^*' **^** J*" '°^ 
A. t'/-£ara£ on the brink of ruin 

-Li»- Aa/i<f pi. jU»-l ahfdd, !Ji»- hafada 
grandson; descendant, offspring, scion 

;xj>- Aa/i<fa granddaughter 

yi*- Aa/ara i (Aa/r) to dig (*; to drill 
(for oil); to excavate (archeol.); to carve 
(a; to engrave, etch (a metal) | 
jiU>- ji»- to dig trenches; Iji*. jA>- {huf* 
ratan) to prepare a pitfall, prepare an 
ambush VII pass, of I; VIII to dig 

jit*. hafr digging, earthwork, excava- 
tion (also archeol.); unearthing; drilling 
(for oil); carving, inscribing (e.g., of 
letters) ; engraving, etching ; graphic 
arts (etching, wood engraving); scurvy 
(syr.) | jii-\ Jl**- jahaz al-h. oil rig; oil 

iji»- hufra pi. ji^ hufar pit; hollow, 
cavity, excavation; hole 

5j ji»- hafriya digging, excavation ; 
O gravure; pi. C>\jji^ excavations 

jU»- haffar digger; engraver; driller; 
stone mason j jjJ}\ jU*- gravedigger 

jj~ hafir dug, dug out, excavated, 

\jj»- hafira pi. y'U- hafaVir 2 a-th. 
excavated or unearthed; pi. excavations 

jji»-\ uhf&r pi. jn»U-I ahafir* ex- 
cavated; fossil; pi. excavations {archeol.) 

J*, mihfar pi. jiU mahafir* spade 

jiU hafir pi. jSy haivafir 2 hoof | £»j 
yli-l J* jiU-l to coincide, happen to 
correspond exactly; yU-l J* on the 
spot, right away, at once 

jjyU- htiftrx ungular, ungulate 

ij»\>- hafira original condition, be- 
ginning | S^U-I x* on the spot, right 
away, at once; *iji\*- Jl ^-j to revert 
to itB original state or origin 

jyi*. mahfur dug ; inscribed, engraved : 

i*- hafaza i (haft) to pierce, stab (# s.o., »-» 
with the spear) ; to incite, instigate, urge, 
prompt, induce (J* or Jl * s.o. to 
V to prepare o.s., get ready, be ready, 
be about to do (J or Jl), set out to do (J or Jl); to get ready to jump, 
make a running start; to listen, pay 
attention VIII to be about to do, 
be ready (J for) 

}i£ tahaffuz preparedness, readiness; 
vim, dash, verve, sweep, 61an 

jiU- hafiz pi. y\y hawafiz 2 spur, drive 
(J* to do, incentive (J* to), initiative 

^i»i. mutahaffiz ready, prepared (J for) 

a*- hafiza a (hifz) to preserve (a ; to 
protect, guard, defend (• s.o.); to observe, 
bear in mind (*, comply (a with, be mindful, be heedful (a of; 
to keep up, maintain, sustain, retain, 
uphold (a; to hold, have in safe- 
keeping (a, take care (a of; 
to keep, put away, save, store (a ); 
to conserve, preserve (a; to retain 
in one's memory, remember, know by 
heart (a; to memorize, learn by 
heart, commit to memory (a, esp. 
the Koran); to reserve (a «l-aJ for 
o.s.; to stay, discontinue^ suspend 
(Jgi*dl a judicial investigation; jur.) \ 
«iil *ki#- may God protect him I JU^JL Jii^- 
to hold in care of general delivery 
(*; *L-^JI j Ji-w; (y«£/a?«) in 
care of general delivery, poste restante; 
(J'.lij!! iii»- (wafa*a) to be loyal to s.o., 
keep faith with s.o. II to have s.o. (•) 
memorize (a Ill to preserve, keep 
up, maintain, uphold, sustain (J*; 


to supervise, control (J*, watch 
(J* over; to watch out {J* for), 
take care, be heedful, be mindful ( J» of), 
look (J» after), attend, pay attention 
(J* to); to keep, follow, observe, bear in 
mind (J*, comply (J* with), 
conform (J* to); to protect, guard, 
defend (* and J*, also j* IV to 
vex, annoy, gall, irritate, hurt, offend 
(» s.o.) V to keep up, maintain, preserve 
(>_> ; to observe, keep in mind 
(t_j, be mindful, be heedful, take 
care (i_> of, be concerned (<-> with); 
to be cautious, be wary, be on one's 
guard; to be reserved, aloof; to have 
reservations VIII to maintain, uphold 
(i^t or *, e.g., *sj*£- one's rights); 
to keep up, maintain, retain (^ or *, e.g., a posture, a characteristic); 
to take care, take over custody (^ of j 
s.o.), protect, guard («_> s.o.); to defend 
(against encroachment), hold, maintain 
(i_> a possession); to preserve, sustain, 
continue, keep up (<_*; to hold, 
possess (.->; to put away, hold, 
have in safekeeping (^, take care 
(•~> of; to keep, retain (^; 
•ujU ji£>-l to keep for o.s., appro- 
priate, reserve for o.s. (<_i or *, 
take complete possession (a of) X to 
ask s.o. (•) to guard or protect (* or J*; to entrust (J* or * • to s.o., 
commit (J* or a) to the charge of 
s.o. (.) 

Jii*- hxfz preservation; maintenance, 
sustentation, conservation, upholding; 
protection, defense, guarding; custody, 
safekeeping, keeping, storage; retention; 
observance, compliance (with); memoriz- 
ing, memorization; memory; (jur.) dis- 
continuance, stay, suspension (of legal 
action, of a judicial investigation) | 
jU^I .Li.- preservation of ancient mon- 
uments (Eg.); **~*)\ iU» k. afpihha 
hygiene, sanitation; JiiJ-l JUj police 

Ji-i*- hifza anger, indignation, resent- 
ment, rancor 

Jilu- hifaz pi. -St dressing, Ligature, 
bandage | ^^-i-1 JiU»- ft. al-hau}, sanitary 

Ji-<t»- hafiz attentive, heedful, mind- 
ful; preserving, keeping, guarding (J* 

*U~i*- haflza pi. JuLi*- haf&'iz* grudge, 
resentment, rancor 

*lai£ mahfaza, mihfaza pi. -at, Jiil^ 
mahafiz* folder, bag, satchel, briefcase 
dispatch case, portfolio; wallet, pocket- 

ilLirf mihfaza capsule 

- &?**■ tahflz memorization drill, incul- 
cation (esp. of the Koran) 

Jili*- hifaz defense, protection, guard- 
ing (esp. of cherished, sacred things); 
preservation, maintenance (J* of inter- 
ests); keeping, upholding (of loyalty), 
adherence (to a commitment) 

•liil^ muhdfaza guarding; safeguard- 
ing; preservation; protection, defense; 
conservation, sustaining, upholding; 
retention, maintenance (J* of 
conservativism (pol.), conservative atti- 
tude; following, observance (J* of, 
compliance (J* with, adherence 
(J* to); guarding (^ against misfortune), 
saving (^ from misadventure); garrison 
(mil.); (pi. -at) governorate (one of five 
administrative divisions of Egypt, in 
addition to 1-1 mudirtyal) ; office of the 
muhdfiz (head of a governorate) ; prov- 
ince, any one of the larger administra- 
tive districts (Syr.) | ^-iJl J* iUUI 
self-preservation ; aLiL^I ljL mxylhab 
al-m. conservative movement, conserv- 
ativism, Toryism 

Jii* 1 tahaffuz caution, wariness, re- 
straint, reticence, reserve, aloofness; — 


(pi. -St) precaution, precautionary 
measure; reservation, limiting condition, 
conditional stipulation, proviso | Jii*JI £• 
with full reservation 

J*** iahaffvzx precautionary, pre- 
ventive | lia^*-l (ijra'at) pre- 
cautionary measures; J*** ^L* (*uZA) 
settlement before action, preventive 
settlement (jur.) 

iiLt^-l ihtifdz guarding, safeguarding; 
preservation ; retention, maintenance, 
continuation, conservation, defense, pro- 
tection, vindication, sustaining, up- 
holding; keeping, holding, safekeeping, 
custody {l-> of 

JiiU- A6/t? keeper, guarder, guardian, 
custodian, caretaker; (pt. JiU*- hujf&f, 
*Lu- hafaza) one who knows the Koran 
by heart (formerly an honorific epithet) 

iliiU hdfza memory; — (pi. Jitt>»- 
hato&fiz*) wallet, pocketbook: money 
order {Eg.) 

]iji£ mahfuz kept, held in s»f«- 
keeping, deposited, guarded, preserved; 
memorized, committed to memory, etc. ; 
conserved, preserved (food) ; reserved; 
ensured, Becured, safeguarded; — pi. 
olU^i* canned goods, conserves; archives; 
memorized materia), what a.o. knows 
by heart | ijy-«il otU^i^l jU the Egyp- 
tian Public Record Office; '&y£- oV^L 
conserves, canned goods; Sl^i* Jy»A-l ^ 
all rights reserved 

JiiL* mu/tajb supervisory, controlling; 
observing ( J», complying ( J» with), 
etc.; conservative (pol.), ojLi\£\ the 
Conservatives, the Tories ; keeper, guard- 
er, guardian, custodian, caretaker, super- 
visor, superintendent; mayor; governor 
(Eg. : title of the chief officer of a gov- 
ernorate ; Syr. : chief officer of a prov- 
ince) ; director general, president (= Brit. 

> mutahajfiz vigilant, alert, wary, 
cautious; reticent, reserved, aloof; staid, 

■ki»w-* mustahfaz pi. -St reserve (mil.) 

Ji»- hafala i (haft) to gather, assemble, 
congregate; to flow copiously; to be 
replete, teem, superabound (^> with); 
to pay attention, attend, give one's 
mind (u or J to, concern o.s. 
(•_> with), make much (i_> of), set great 
store («-* by) | *> Ji»- V (hafla) indifferent, 
of no consequence II to adorn, decorate, 
ornament (*** * with) VIII to gather, 
rally, throng together; to oelebrate (^, s.o.); to concern o.s. (o* or J 
with), attend, pay attention, give one's 
mind (^ or J to; to honor, wel- 
come, receive kindly («-» s.o.) 

~Ji»- hafl gathering, meeting, assem- 
bling; assembly, congregation, throng, 
crowd ; performance, show, public event ; 
celebration ; feast, festival 

<Lu- hafla pi. St assembly, gathering, 
meeting, congregation; party; (social or 
public) event; show, performance (the- 
ater, cinema); conoert; festivity, cere- 
mony, festival, festive event, celebra- 
tion | Juu)! Ui»- commemoration, com- 
memorative ceremony for a deceased 
person; iVl/l iUA-l (fiffl) premiere; 
iliU *JLta- numerous assembly; *j^*- *U»- 
(£atri^a) charity performance, charity 
event; jiJJI iLA*- £. ad-dafn funeral 
ceremony, obsequies; «_ui «!»*- (tftniya) 
religious ceremony, Divine Service; *li»- 
•^U and j*-- *U»- A. samar evening party, 
soiree; i-J^x- *U*- motion-picture show; 
ifljjl *Lu- tea party; ^j*)! Ui»- A. 
oZ-'urs wedding; JUt-l/l *lu- (public) 
reception; « = V'>* *^*** concert 

J-«»- Aa/tf eager, assiduous, diligent 

Ji£ maA/ii pi. Jil* mah&jffl assembly, 
congregation, meeting, gathering; party; 


body, collective whole; circle, quarter | 
J>-L J-irf. Masonic lodge; <~cj\ Jiljil 
{<-.LJI) (rasmiya, siydsiya) the official 
(political) circles or quarters 

Jlib-I ihtifdl pi. -at celebration, cere- 
mony, festival, festivities 

JiU hafil pi. Ji»- huffal, Jil^ Jtawajil 2 
full (^ of), filled, replete (^ with); 
abundant, copious, lavish; much fre- 
quented, well attended (by visitors, 
participants, etc), numerous (of attend- 
ance); solemn, ceremonial, festive 

•iiU hdfila pi. -at, Ji|^ hawdjil 2 
O autobus 

Jirf muhtafil: bjLiz£\ the participants 
in a festive event, the celebrators 

Jii£ muhtafal assembly place, gather- 
ing place; party; « Ji:< celebrated 

ji»- hafana u to scoop up with both hands 
{*; to give a little (J to s.o.) 
ici*- hafna pi. hafanat handful 

1 (j**- and J*-) J» hajiya a (SjU*- kafdiva) 
to receive kindly and hospitably, to 
welcome, receive with honors, honor (i_j 
s.o.) V to behave with affection, be 
affectionate ( v toward) VIII do.; to 
celebrate {^ an occasion, a festival) 

^*- hafiy welcoming, receiving kindly, 
greeting (*_> s.o., 

•jU>- hafdwa friendly reception, wel- 
coming, welcome, salutation (._< of s.o.) 

•Ur*J ihtijd' reception, welcome, sal- 
utation (l-> of s.o.); celebration, festivity 

z j>- btyfiya a (*li*- hajd*) to go barefoot; to 
have sore feet 

JiL- hafin pi. ili*- hufdh barefoot(ed) 

J»- haqqa i u to be true, turn out to be true, 
be confirmed; to be right, correct; (also 
pass, huqqa) to be necessary, obligatory, 
requisite, imperative (J* for s.o.), be 

incumbent (J* upon s.o.); to be ade- 
quate, suitable, fitting, appropriate (J* 
for s.o.); to be due (J s.o.); *J ^ he 
is entitled to it, he has a right to it; J^ 
4-U he deserved it (punishment) ; — u 
to ascertain (a, make sure, be sure 
(a of; to recognize, identify {. 
s.o.) II to make (a) come true; to 
realize (a, e.g., a hope), carry out 
(a e.g., a wish), carry into effect, fulfill, 
put into action, consummate, effect, 
actualize (a; to implement (a e.g., 
an agreement); to produce, bring on, 
yield (a results); to determine, ascertain, 
find out, pinpoint, identify (a; to 
prove (a) to be true, verify, establish, 
substantiate (a; to confirm, assert, 
aver, avouch, affirm (a; to be 
exact, painstaking, meticulous, careful 
(a in doing, e.g., ^kJt jl»- (nazara) 
to look closely; to Btudy, examine, 
investigate, explore {a, look, in- 
quire (a into; to verify, check (a 
or J; to investigate (j; 
police); to make an official inquiry (a 
into, institute an investigation (a 
of or into; court; jur.); to interrogate (»* 
b.o.), conduct a hearing (»* of s.o.; jur.) 

III to contend for a right {• with s.o.), 
contest or litigate a right (» against s.o.) 

IV to tell the truth; to be right (j in; to enforce (a, e.g., a legal 
claim) V to prove true, turn out to be 
true, be confirmed, prove to be correct; 
to materialize, become a fact ; to be 
realized, be effected, come into effect; to 
be examined, be explored; to ascertain 
(a, also ^), make sure, reassure 
o.s., gain proof, convince o.s., be convinc- 
ed, be sure, be certain (a of; to 
check, verify (a or j,; to be serious 
(v about X to be entitled, have a 
claim (a to; to claim (a, lay 
claim (* to); to deserve, merit (a, 
be worthy (a of); to require, demand, 

necessitate, make requisite (*; to 
fall due, become payable (sum of money), 
mature, become due (note) ; to be due (J 
s.o.) (jf-LII ji--...t {iibra) worth mention- 
ing, noteworthy; **J\ <S* J—- . ™* *!/ 
(rasmu) not subject to a fee, free of 

,j»- Aagj truth; correctness, rightness; 
rightful possession, property; one's due; 
duty; proper manner; true, authentic, 
real; right, fair and reasonable; correct, 
sound, valid; ,jJ-l an attribute of God; 
(pi. 3y*~ hitqUg) right, title, claim, legal 
claim (j to); <3>ii-l law, jurisprudence, 
legal science ; U*- haqqan really, in reality, 
in effect, actually, in fact, indeed, truly, 
in truth; justly, rightly, by rights j 
?J!S UUI is that (really) sot really? J* 
justly, rightly, by rights; j4-U truly, in 
reality, actually; properly, appropriately, 
in a suitable manner; J£ bi-haqqi and 
J*- J as to . . ., as for . . ., with respect to, 
concerning, regarding; J»- J* _>» he is 
in the right; iL*. ji-l you are right; ji-1 
*iJLl*. you are wrong; <1XSp J*- _>* it iB 
your duty; £i* J»- t-i* you owe this to 
me; 4-U l^U- UU^ ('irfanan) in re- 
cognition of what he owed her; *5»- j* 
he is entitled to it, it is his due; ,>. uK" 
jl <S»- he should have..., he ought to 
have...; J jA-1 J he is entitled to ...; 
JUj jJ.1, (ywgoi) one may say, it must be 
admitted, it's only fair to say, say what 
you will..., ...though (as a parentheti- 
cal phrase); o>ll >■ J»^ (£<*9?« 
hma'rifa) to know exactly, know for 
certain, know very well, also ^1 >- ^ 
(haqqa l-'ilm) ; ^l >- ^ fahima haqqa 
l-fahm to understand precisely, com- 
prehend thoroughly, be fully aware; 
iii-1 ;jUJI (aa'Sda) true happiness; 
3j±\ <-&" kulliyat al-h. law school, 
faculty of law 

j*. A«gj hollow, cavity; socket of a 
joint (anat.); also — U»- Augga 

m»- hnqqa pi. JJt»- Augag, JU*- hiqaq, 
jLito-l aAgagr small box, case, pot or jar; 
receptacle, container; — (pi. -3t, jJU- 
Au^o?) a weight (Syr., Pal.) = Si uqqa; 
V^JLu-l ii- « 1.280 kg (Ir.) 

^1 aAa£2 a worthier, more deserving 
(•_> of; more entitled (<-j to 

jJta- Aa?ty pi. »U»-I oAigga* 2 worthy, 
deserving (<-> of, fit, competent, 
qualified; entitled (>_* to) 

UJu- Aa?{ga pi. jJU*- Aa^a**}* truth, 
reality (also pAtios.); fact; the true state 
of affairs, the facts; true nature, essence; 
real meaning, true sense; haqlqatan 
really, in reality, in effect, actually, in 
fact, indeed, truly, in truth | o«Ju- J* o 1> 
I saw its true nature, as it really is; 
^\ *Jlj»- J in reality, really, actually; 
<SJto- <J ^ it does not really exist, it is 
not real 

JJi*- haqtqi real, true; actual; proper, 
intrinsic, essential; genuine; authentic; 

jji» huquqi juristic(al) ; (pi. -«n) 
jurist, jurisprudent, lawyer 

4jt*-t ahaqqiya legal claim, title, right 

Jli*- haqqdni correct, right, proper, 
sound, valid, legitimate, legal 

*JU*- haqqdniya justice, law | Jjtjj 
LJUi.1 Ministry of Justice (formerly Eg.) 

£jj. tahqiq realization, actualization, 
effeotuation, implementation; fulfillment 
(of a claim, of a wish, eto.) ; achievement, 
accomplishment, execution ; ascertain- 
ment, determination, identification, veri- 
fication ; substantiation ; assertion, af- 
firmation, confirmation; pinpointing, 
precise determination ; exactness, ac- 
curateness, precision; (= ji«Jl jJ* t. 
an-nt^q) precise pronunciation; — (pi. 
■&t) verification, check, checkup, in- 
vestigation; official or judicial inquiry, 


inquest | d\ jJLdl it is a matter of fact 
that ..., it is certain that ...; ,j-**cJI J* 
properly speaking, striotly speaking, 
actually; exactly, precisely; positively, 
definitely; J y***iJI -L* properly speaking, 
strictly speaking, actually; ^.iVJl jU* 
t. aJS'&ifoiya identification (of a person), 
proof of identity; 3, „«;, *,JI jJi*: ; a |^j 
Sahddat t. aS-Sakfiya identity card; 
V «i- * -]l J-2* 15 galam t. aS-S. bure&i of 
identification; X3\j&\ £jji t. ad-ddtiya 
identification; ,3*4*^)1 ^ii examining 
magistrate; ^IjjVI Jjl* realization of 
profits (stock market) 

«3Ui-l ihgSg: jJi tfUUl ihqdqan li-l- 
haqq (so) that truth may prevail 

Ji* tahaqquq ascertainment, making 
sure; conviction, certainty, certitude; 
verification, check, checkup 

JU*»^I istihq&q pi. .# worthiness, 
deservingness, merit; one'B due or desert; 
maturity, payability, falling due (of a 
sum of money) ; re-claiming or calling in 
of due, demand of a right; vindica- 
tion (/*/. Law), replevin, detinue | j» 
jli^L-l deservedly, justly, by rights; 
jli^i-l jju> undeservedly; jUUi-Vi jfejU 
date of maturity (e.g., of a bond); 
JLJI jLi-i-^l {lubndni) name of a 
Lebanese order 

&y£- mahgiiq worthy, deserving (cj, 
J of), fit, competent, qualifying (^, J 
for); wrong, at fault, on the wrong 

Ji£ muhaqqiq investigator; inquirer; 
examining magistrate 

i jA£- muhaqqaq sure, oertain, beyond 
doubt, unquestionable, indubitable; as- 
sured, established, accepted, recognized | 
ul ji^l ^ it is certain that ..., it is a 
fact that . . . 

^ mvhigg telling the truth, in the 
right, being right 

• mutahaggiq convinced, sure, cer- 
tain, positive 

J^u-« mustahiqq entitled; claiming; 
beneficiary (of a wakf); deserving, 
worthy | £»-iil j»c m. ad-daf due, 
payable (sum) 

i— i»- VIH to put into one's bag, to bag (* 

._-**- hvqb pi. v li-l alfqdb, l^Lu- hiqtib 
long stretch of time, long period 

i-i- hiqba pi. ,_Ju- hiqab long time, 
stretch of time ; period, age | <l)LjJI j* <Jt»~ 
hiqbatan min az-zamdn for quite a time, 
for some time 

V**- ^o^oft pi. v^**"' ahqtib a kind of 
ornamental belt 

k-jLo- hiqab pi. ^Jt*. huqvb a kind of 
ornamental belt 

i-I*- haqiba pi. wJUu- haqd'ib 1 valise, 
suitcase, traveling bag; leather bag | i—i*- 
*--li_jLi diplomatic pouch; j^LJI 4 ,, 3 r- 
portemonnaie, change purse; oJI <~Ju- fy. 
tU-yad ladies' purse, handbag 

«*- haqida a, haqada i (haqd, hiqd) to harbor 
feelings of hatred (J» against) IV to 
incite to hatred or resentment, embitter, 
envenom (. s.o.) V = I; VI to hate one 

■U*- hiqd pi. iU*-l ahqdd, a^i*- ftw^fid 
hatred, malice, spite, resentment, rancor 

SoJi*- Aagufo pi. jJUu- haqaid 2 hatred, 
malice, spite, resentment, rancor 

jji- haqvd full of hatred, spiteful, 
resentful, malicious, malevolent, rancor- 

4»U- Aogid full of hatred, spiteful, 
resentful, malicious, malevolent, rancor- 
ous; pi. ;oi*- haqada malevolent people 

i*- haqara i (haqr) to despise, scorn, disdain 
(• s.o., a; to look down (a, * on), 
have a low opinion (a, • of); — hagura u 

to be low, base, contemptible, despicable ; 
to be despised, degraded, humiliated 
II to disparage, decry, depreciate (• s.o.), 
detract, derogate (» from s.o.); to degrade, 
debase, humble, humiliate; to regard 
with contempt, despise, scorn, disdain 
(• s.o., * Till to despise, scorn, 
disdain (• s.o., *, look down (*, • 
on) X to regard as contemptible or 
despicable, disdain, despise (» s.o., *, look down {*, * on) 

jut*- haqlr pi. *\J*»- huqareC* low, baBe, 
mean, vulgar, vile; little, small, paltry, 
inconsiderable, poor, wretched, miserable; 
despised; despicable, contemptible 

jZ*~\ akqaf* lower, baser, more con- 

!jU»- haqara lowness, vulgarity, base- 
ness, vilcness, meanness; smallness, pal- 
triness, insignificance, poorness, wretched- 
ness, miserableness ; despicability, con- 
temptibleness; ignominy, infamy 

jj& tahqir contempt, disdain, acorn; 
degradation, humiliation, abasement 

jli^-i ihtigdr contempt, disdain, scorn | 
jU^-VI Jv*j *JI J£ (bi-'aini l-iht.) to 
regard s.o. with contempt, look down 
one's nose at s.o. 

jirf. muhtaqar despised; contemptible, 

Ji»- haql pi. t}ji*- kugiU field (also fig. = 
domain); column | Jj>Jl J>5»- oil fields; 
c^jJl Ji*. h. az-zait, .UJ1 Ji» h. an-naft 
oil field; oil area; -yjUill Jy*- experi- 
mental fields; Jb^T ji- (hakrabd'l) 
electric field 

Ji*- haqli field- {in compounds) 

ililrf. mukdqala sale of grain while still 
in growth, dealing in grain futures (UU 

ji»- haqana i u (haqn) to hold back, with- 
hold, keep back, detain, retain (*; 

to suppress, repress, restrain (*; to 
keep to o.s. {^Jl as-sirra the secret) ; to 
spare (*o damaku s.o.'s blood or life); to 
give (» b.o.) an injection (med.) VIII to 
become congested ' (esp. blood); to suffer 
from strangury; to take an enema, a 
clyster; to be injected | <^-j t >»i»-l (waj» 
huhu) bis face was flushed, his face turned 

ji»- haqn retention , withholding ; 
sparing ; injecting, injection (med.) | 
-^Uii Liu- kaqnan li~dima'ihim in order 
to Bpare their blood ; •bjjfl j <>**- 
intravenous injection (med.) 

lii*- huqna pi. ^i*- huqan injection 
(med.); hypodermic; clyster; enema 

«ii* mihqana pi. jilrf- mahaqin* 
syringe (med.) 

oli^-l ihtiqan congestion \ pjJt oifc*-\ 
iht. ad-dam vascular congestion 

J}c£. muhtaqan reddened by blood 
congestion, flushed, red (face) 

jk»- haqw pi. •Lto- hiqa', »U*-I akqd' loin, 
groin | vj**- >•>£ Saddada haqwaihi to 
gird one's loins 

J dU- halcka u (hakk) to rub, chafe; to scrape; 
to scratch; to rub off, scrape off, scratch 
off, abrade (a | .jju* j dl*- (fadrihi) 
it impressed him, affected him, touched inside him IV to itch V to rub o.s., 
scrape, chafe (<-> against); to pick a 
quarrel (i_> with s.o.) VI to rub or scrape 
against each other VIII to rub o.s., 
scrape, chafe (<-* against); to be in con- 
tact, in touch (<-* with) | *jX~* j <sh»-\ 
(fadrihi) it impressed him, affected him, 
touched inside him 

,iU- fyxhh rubbing, chafing; friction; 

*£»- hikka itching; scabies, itch (med.) 

iilS^- hakkak lapidary 



til^ mihakk touchstone; test | Jp c-aj 
Jici\ iil£ tabata T dUt m. in-nazar to 
stand a critical test 

&£ mifyakka currycomb 

iil^ tafoSH (reciprocal) friction 

iJIx^-l ihtikak pi. -Si (reciprocal) fric- 
tion; close touch or contact; friction 
(fig., = dissension, controversy) j ji. ^ 
i]&>-l min §airi ht. frictionless 

*iS^A muhakkak chafed, worn away 

*&»- hukka {tun., = huqqa) pi. S^ hukak 
small box, case, pot or jar 

_£*- VIII to buy up, hoard and withhold, 
corner (a a commodity); to monopolize 
(a a commercial article) ; to have exclusive 
possession {* of, hold a monopoly 
(a over 

j£*- Aikr, hukr and ^X 1 ~»j»- 1 ujrat al-k . 
ground rent, quitrent 

jfc*- hakar, hukar hoarded 

lj£*- hukra hoarding (of goods) ; mo- 

•jjSV fyakura small vegetable garden 

jt&*-l ifuikdr pi. -at cornering, buying 
up; monopoly; preferential position; 
supremacy, hegemony | ^v]l ijU: jSC=*-1 
iht. t. al-bunn coffee-trade monopoly ; 
jXJI jlxi»-l iht. as-eukkar sugar monopoly 

,£j5c»-l ihtikSri rapacious, grasping, 

^- hakama u (hukm) to pass judgment, 
express an opinion {Jp, j on, judge 
(J*, ■_> by, from); to decide, give a 
decision, pass a verdict, pass sentence 
(J* on); to sentence (Jp s.o., u to a 
penalty; said of the judge), impose, 
inflict (<_* a penalty) on s.o. (Jp); to 
pronounce a verdict or judgment, deliver 
judgment, rule (J in s.o.'s favor); to 
adjudicate, adjudge, award (w J to s.o.; to take (^ as a standard or 
norm ; to have judicial power, have 
jurisdiction, have authority (Jp and * 
over), govern, rule, dominate, control 
(J* or • s.o.); to order, command {<_»; to bridle, check, curb <», », s.o.) | J.UVL «-L f*. (hukima, 
i'dam) he was sentenced to death; C- 
<JliL> (bi-id&natihi) to convict s.o., find 
s.o. guilty (jur.) ; ^Ijy f*. (bi-bara'atihi) 
to acquit s.o. (jur.) II to appoint (. s.o.) 
as ruler; to choose (• s.o.) as arbitrator, 
make (• s.o.) the judge (j over or in, jo between) III to prosecute (• 
s.o.); to arraign, bring to trial, hale into 
court (• s.o.); to interrogate, hear (• s.o.) 
IV to make (a firm, strong, sturdy, 
solid; to fortify (a; to strengthen, 
consolidate (a; to do well, do 
expertly, master (a field, work), be 
proficient (a in) | .^1 CJ (amrahu) to 
do thoroughly, carefully, properly; 
vUl Jii ^J (qafla l-bab) to lock the 
door firmly; oJ ^*J (lugatan) to master 
a language V to have one's own way (j 
in), proceed (j with) at random, at will, 
handle (j arbitrarily; to pass 
arbitrary judgment (j on); to make o.s. 
the judge (J* of), pass judgment (Jp on); 
to decide (l-> on); to rule, reign, hold 
sw ay (j over); to dominate, control 
(j, be in control, be in command 
(j of) VI to bring one another before 
the judge (pJ-l Jl); to appeal (Jl to) 
for a legal decision; to be interrogated, 
be heard (in court) VIII to have one's 
own way (j in), proceed (j with, in at will, at random, handle ( j 
arbitrarily, judge arbitrarily ; to rule, 
reign, hold sway (Jp, j over); to be in 
control, be in possession (Jp of); to 
appeal (Jl to) for a legal decision, seek 
a decision (Jl from), have s.o. (Jl) decide 
X to be strong, sturdy, solid, firm; to 
become stronger, be strengthened, be 



consolidated; to take root, be or become 
deep-rooted, deep-seated, ingrained, in- 
veterate, marked, pronounced (feeling, 

Si. hukm pi. (5i-l ahkfim judgment, 
valuation, opinion; decision; (legal) 
judgment, verdict, sentence; condem- 
nation, conviction; administration of 
justice; jurisdiction; legal consequence 
of the facts of a oase (l»l. Law) ; regulation, 
rule, provision, order, ordinance, decree; 
judiciousness, wisdom; judgeship; com- 
mand, authority, control, dominion, 
power; government, regime; pi. fl$i-l 
statutes, by-laws, regulations, rules, 
provisions, stipulations, principles, pre- 
cepts; l&- hukman virtually; legally | 
<* bi-hukmi by virtue of, on the 
strength of, pursuant to; by force of; 
Si- j as good as, all but, e.g., Si- J j» 
»jjl (ft hitkmi l-'adam) it is as good as 
nothing, it is practically nonexistent; 
jjill Si- j rr- »' afbaha ft hukmi l-mw 
garrar it is all but decided; Si- j Olf 
•^1 also : to be subject to ; &*- J* J>" 
to give in, yield to s.o.; J»ljJI Si- h. •*■ 
barSa acquittal; jjj-l*- Si- (huiirt) 
judgment delivered in the presence of 
the litigant parties, after oral proceed- 
ings (jwr.)\ (1-ieVlj Si-I (fddm) death 
sentenoe; jUi Si- (S'yabt) judgment by 
default (;«r.); JlJUl fl\ (#BI) self- 
determination, autonomy (pot.); Si-I 
^j^J-1 (jumifir!) the republican form 
of government, the republican regime; 
jlUI Si-I (muflaq) the absolute, i.e., 
authoritarian, regime; jUH Si-I (myoM) 
the parliamentary regime, parliamen- 
tarianism; Si-I <J- tojtwrt oJ->. board of 
examiners, review board; *J>JI p5i-VI 
('ur/iyo) martial law; SJliil (ISi-l (in- 
tiqdXya) provisional regulations (jur.); 
< fBi-l (kiUmiya) final regulations 
(jur.); J-»U (Si-I ($**•>>) special reg- 
ulations; «&- ,>- J£J (»"») every age 

has its own set of rules, must be judged 
by its own standards; (Si-I Sjj^J (li-4- 
4arura) necessity has its (own) rules, 
(approx.: necessity knows no law) 

j£»- hukmi legal 

jl-Ji- (eg. ; pronounced hikimd&r) com 
mandant; ohief of police 

ojlAii- (eff.; pronounced hikimdariya) 
commandant's office 

Si- hakam pi. (Si- hulckam arbitrator, 
arbiter; umpire, referee 

i£»- Atibna pi. Si- hikam wisdom; 
sagacity; philosophy; maxim; rationale, 
underlying reason | "Si- (with foil, genit.) 
on account of, because of 

ii- hikmi gnomio, aphoristio, ex- 
pressing maxims | J&\ j»iJI (.Si'r) gnomio 

~&j- hakama pi. -» bit (of a horse's 

£*. hakim pi. .l£»- hukama.'' wise, 
judioious; wise man, sage; philosopher; 
physician, doctor 

^L^Si- hakfmbsa senior physician, 
chief surgeon 

LjSi- jwtttflia pi. -<U government 

jjSi- TmMmi of government, gov- 
ernmental; official; state-owned, state- 
oontroDed, of the state, state- (in com- 

Si-I ahlcam' wiser 

tSU mahkama pi. SV mahikim' 
court, tribunal | jUi.'ill *£< m. oZ- 
istt'nd/ court of appeal, appellate court; 
SJ»I «£* (aWtyo) indigenous oourt (£».; 
jurisdiction limited to Egyptian na- 
tionals); ylJil '&*■ (MidSlya) court of 
first instance; US' *_»ljk=>l *£* (kuttlya) 
oivil oourt with jurisdiction in cases of 
major importance, at the same time 
appellate instance of Vj»- J"l* (Eg.); 


V>r *£* (juz'iya) in Eg., lowest court 
of both 5-1*1 flrf. (approx.: district 
courts) and of \*j± fU canonical 
courts (with jurisdiction in marital and 
family matters); summary court; -X* 
oLUi-l m. al-jindydt criminal court; Tl*- 
4-M^-iJl Jlj*-Vl (iaksiya) courts dealing 
with vital statistics; SLkJft *£* (mu/y 
talifa) mixed court (with jurisdiction 
over residents of foreign nationality); 
l-p^ <K* (iar'iya) canonical court 
(administering justice on the basis of the 
Sharia), court dealing with family 
matters of Muslims; i$j£* '&£■ {mar* 
kazlya) county court, dealing with 
minor offenses, esp. misdemeanors (Eg.); 
tSjliV •LiUl «£*■ m. al-qadS al-iddri 
administrative court; (\j*i\j ^-iUI &£■ 
m. an-naq4 wa-hibr&m Court of Cas- 
sation, the highest court of appeal in 
Egypt; j3\ &*■ Court of Cassation 
{Syr.,Leb. = *lj.Vlj ^iJI l& in Eg.); 
jfUl ol*-U tribunals 

{£*' tahkim appointment of an ar- 
bitrator; arbitration; arbitral decision, 
award; pi. ol c C* fortifications | ( S^ 
JU-I starting from the present state of 
a court's findings (Ial. Law); £+d\ iL* 
hat at at-t. board of arbitration; jury, 
committee of judges, committee of 
umpires (in sports), committee of referees 
(in mil. maneuvers) ; LJ^ kX (lajna) do. 

~*S \£- muhdkama judicial proceeding ; 
trial, hearing (in court); legal prosecution 

flx»-l ihkam perfection; accuracy, 
exactness, exactitude, precision ; exact 
performance, precise execution | ft£*-% 
accurately, exactly, precisely ; j ij L 
l»K*-Vi of highest perfection 

£*■ tahakkum arbitrariness, arbitrary 
powers or action; despotism; domination, 
dominion, rule, sway, power; control (J 
of, over) 

i J^- tahakkumi arbitrary; despotic 


(•'5^-1 istihk&m intensification, in- 
crease, strengthening; consolidation, sta- 
bilization; fortification; pi. oU£»*i-l for- 

jfU hSkim ruling, governing; decisive; 
— (pi. -fin, p&j. hukkam) ruler, sovereign ; 
governor; judge | .^L, fL- (bi-amrihl) 
autocratic; autocrat, dictator; *l* TU- 
('(Swim) governor goneral; lljUl fU h. 
al-mubdrdh umpire, referee (athlet.) ; f L- 
jJ-Jl h. aaaulh (Syr.) justice of the peace; 
V-UI jfU- h. an-n&htya (Tun.) district 

V**- h&kimiya domination, dominion, 
rule, sovereignty; judgeship, judicature, 
jurisdiction (tV.) 

*J* rjS*£- mahkum 'alaihi sentenced (t-» 
to) | fUVL pj* p&LI (i'ddm) those 
sentenced to death; JiiJU «J* fj£* 
(faSal) doomed to fail 

ft- mvhakkam pi. -un arbitrator, ar- 
biter; umpire, referee (j in, over) 

^ muhkam strengthened, reinforced; 
firm, solid, sturdy; tight, taut; perfeot, 
masterly, masterful; well-aimed (blow, 
hit); accurate, precise, exact | juOdl £* 
well-planned, well- contrived 

^i-. mustahkam reinforced, fortified; 
strengthened, consolidated, strong; in- 
veterate, deep-seated, deep-rooted, in- 
grained (custom, trait, etc.); pi. olSCwi™. 
defenses, fortifications 

j!-iX»-, i^jl-iX*- see £•- 

^ haka i (iK- hilcdya) to tell, relate (*, report, give an account (* of); to 
speak, talk (ayr., left.); to imitate, copy 
(* ; to resemble (*, • s.o., Ill to 
imitate, copy (*, assimilate o.s. (* 
to); to be similar (* to), be like (*), 
resemble (*, be attuned, adjust- 
ed, adapted {* to), be in harmony 
(a with) 



S.K.- hilcaya pi. St story, tale, nar- 
rative, account; (gram.) literal quotation 
(of the words of others) 

JlTl* muhak&h imitation; similarity, 
resemblance; harmony 

£iU- hdkin narrator, storyteller; phono- 
graph; O loudspeaker, radio 

^ mahkiy imitated, imitation (adj.) 

^;L*-S^>- see >*- 

*y halla u (hall) to untie (» a knot), unbind, 
unfasten, unravel, undo (*; to 
solve (a a problem, a puzzle); to de- 
cipher, decode (» to dissolve in 
water (»; chem.); to resolve (» 
into its components), analyze (»; 
to melt (»; to decompose, dis- 
integrate (» ; to disband, break up, 
dissolve (* an organization or party, 
parliament); to open, unpack (» a 
package, and the like); to loosen, relax 
(»; to release, set free, let go (», • so.); to clear, exonerate, exculpate 
(j- • s.o. from), absolve (• 8.O., J* from 
his sins ; Chr.) ; pass. hvUa to be free ; to be 
relaxed; — » u (JjU hvlO.) to dismount, 
alight, stop, halt; to settle down, stay 
(^ at a place, also j and •; J» with 
s.o., at s.o.'s house), come (for a visit, J» 
to); to take up residence (» in a place 
or country); to descend, oome down; to 
descend (J* upon s.o.; wrath); to over- 
come, overwhelm (J* s.o.; sleep); to 
befall (^ and > s.o.; punishment, 
suffering), occur, happen (.j to s.o.); to 
become incarnate (j in s.o.; God); to 
set in, arrive, begin (time, season); — i 
to pass into solution, dissolve; to fade 
(color); — i (hiU) to be allowed, per- 
mitted, permissible, lawful; to be due, 
payable (debt) | ^-^ j y (manfib) to 
take over or hold an office; «A* J*- 
(mahaUahv.) to be in the right place; 
0* y y, .Ji\ y y (mahalla) to take 
the place of s.o. or, replace, super- 

sede s.o. or, substitute for s.o. or; ■** «JS j oL- (qalbihi) she held a 
place in his heart; *j*1 jUiiJI y y 
(mahalla t-laqdiri ladaihi) to enjoy s.o.'s 
high esteem; J* >I>«JI ^j* Cr J"- 
jU^i/^l (min nii/uw l-qurri'i mahalla 
l-utihsan) to appeal to the readers, meet 
with the readers' approval II to dissolve, 
resolve (into its component parts), break 
up, decompose, analyze (*; to 
make a chemical analysis (* of ; to 
be dissolvent, act as a solvent (* on; 
mod.); to discharge, absolve, clear, 
exonerate, exculpate (. s.o.); (SI* tahUla) 
to expiate an oath; to make permissible 
or lawful, legitimate, sanction, justify, 
warrant (*; to declare permissible 
or lawful, allow, permit (» IV to 
discharge, release, absolve, disengage ( ,> • 
s.o. from); to declare (* lawful, 
legally permissible, permit, allow (»; to cause to set in or occur, bring 
about, produce, cause to take root, 
establish, stabilize (*; to cause (» to take or occupy the place (» of), 
shift, move, translocate (* *, e.g., a 
tribe, to a place); to settle (Jo » a- 
mong) |*1* <U-I (mahaUahu) to cause s.o. 
or to take the place of s.o. or else, 
replace s.o. or by, substitute s.o. or for, take s.o. or as substitute 
for; SiUI y •tfifl J- 1 (mahalla l-'inaya) 
to pay attention to, make one's 
concern V to dissolve, melt, disintegrate ; 
to disengage O.S., disassociate o.s., 
extricate o.s., free o.s. (,>• from) Til to 
be untied (knot); to be solved, be un- 
raveled (problem); to be dissolved, be 
broken up, be disbanded (also, of an 
organization, a party, etc.); to dissolve, 
melt; to become slack, limp, weak, loose, 
relaxed; to disintegrate; to melt away 
YIII to settle down (» at a place); to 
occupy (mil., » a territory); to assume, 
take over, occupy, hold, have (* a place, 



a rank, an office) | JjVl jl£il Ji>-I {al- 
makdna l-annvala) to occupy the foremost 
place; aJL^I Jx>-I (a'malahu) to take over 
s.o.'s functions X to regard (* as 
permissible or lawful, think that one 
may do (*); to regard as fair game, 
as easy prey, seize unlawfully, mis- 
appropriate, usurp (a 

J*- hall pi, Jji*. hulul untying, un- 
fastening, undoing (of a knot); solution 
(of a problem, of a puzzle, etc.); un- 
riddling, unraveling, explanation; solu- 
tion (chem.); dissolution, disbandment, 
breaking up (of an organization, etc.), 
abolition, cancellation, annulment; re- 
lease, freeing, liberation; decontrol, re- 
lease, unblocking (e.g., of a blocked 
sum); discharge, clearing, exoneration, 
exculpation; absolution (Chr.) | JJJ Jjli 
soluble, solvable ; O JJJI JA- i (jaifi) 
spectral analysis; Xk»}\j JJ-I J* I dhl al~h. 
wa-l-'aqd or ^jJ\j JJ-I JaI {rabf) influential 
people, those in power; JU-j-j *U- j 
(tarhalihi) in all his doings, in everything 
he did 

J*- hill: fa) »> J»- j ulT (hillin) he 
was free to ..., he was at liberty to ...; 
he had free disposal of ... ; ^ J»- j c^ I 
you're free to . . ., you may readily . . . 

iU- halla pi. JU- hilal low copper 
vessel; cooking pot {eg.) 

*L- Ai7fa way station, stopping place, 
stop, stopover; encampment; absolution 
{Chr.); dispensation {Chr.) 

iU- AwWa pi. JI*- AwZaJ clothing, dress, 
garb ; vestments (ecclesiastic; Chr.) ; (com- 
plete) suit of clothes; (Western) suit j 
4_x*j «LL~ (rasmlya) uniform; \^J\ iU- h. 
as-sahra formal dress 

J^U- haldl that which is allowed, 
permitted or permissible; allowed, per- 
mitted, permissible, allowable, admis- 
sible, lawful, legal, licit, legitimate; 

lawful possession | J^ ^1 ibn h. legiti- 
mate son; respectable man, decent fellow 

JjU- hulul stopping, putting up, 
staying; descending, coming on, be- 
falling, overtaking; incarnation; setting 
in, advent, arrival (of a time, of a dead- 
line), beginning, dawn; substitution (for 

J~L- halil pi. »">Wl ahilld' 2 husband 

UJU- halila pi. Jj'^U hald'il 2 wife 

J~U- 1 ihlll outer opening of the 
urethra; urethra {anat.) 

Jst mahall pi. -at, Jbi mahdll 2 place, 
location, spot, site, locale, locality, 
center; (place of) residence; business; 
business house, firm, commercial house ; 
store, shop; object, cause (e.g., of dis- 
pute, admiration, etc.); gear (automo- 
bile) |*U J» and<d*t<UI see J*. I and IV; 
*U. {mahallahu) in his (its) place; <d*t J 
in his (its) place, in his (its) stead, 
instead of him; .dst j <jtf to be in the 
right place; to be appropriate, ex- 
pedient, advisable; to be justified, 
warranted; A&. ji. j improper, mis- 
placed, unsuitable, ill-Buited ; out of 
place; inappropriate, inexpedient, in- 
opportune; <JLst JsjL*> sadafa mahallahu 
to be convenient, be most opportune; 
J J* 1 "i? {mahalla) there is no room 
for . . . ; it is out of place, quite d6plac6 ; 
J**JI J^ m. al-'amal place of employ- 
ment; luliVl Jit m. al-iqdma (place of) 
residence, address; ^j\d Jrf. (tijdri) 
business house, commercial house ; 
*jjU«JIj *fy*JI o^l {'umumlya, ti* 
jarlya) public utilities and commercial 
houses; Js±l ~,l ism al-m. firm; 
&^j*j J* 1 w. ruhundt pawnshop; 0*>W- 
^-LJI m. as-siydha travel agencies ; 
oLUjj Jit m. murattibdt refreshment 
parlor; _^Jil J*t m. al-lahw and Jit 
(jft^l m. al-malahi (pi. jUt ) amuse- 
ment center; ^l_>' Jit m. n«<T object 



of controversy, controversial matter; 
v^j^J *$£■ ^jl V la ara m. li-'ajabin I 
don't see any reason for amazement, 
there is nothing to be astonished 
about; JiH J* m. nazar deserving 
attention, a striking, remarkable thing 

Jrf- mahalll local; native, indigenous; 
parochial; pi. oLk local news, local 
page (of a newspaper) 

Jrf. mahiU due date; date of delivery 

llrf. moAoWo pi. -a/ way station, 
stopping place, stop, stopover, en- 
campment; camp; section, part, quar- 
ter (of a city) | ^j^l iUl (kubrS) 
Mahalla el Kubra (city in N Egypt) 

J-Ui tahlil dissolution, resolution, 
breaking up, decomposition, specifica- 
tion, detailing, analyzation; (pi. JJl^ 
tahdlll 3 ) analysis (chem.); absolution 
(Chr.) | J-L^Jb in detail; J-U J^. 
ma'mal t. laboratory for chemical anal- 
yses; Jljj^S"* JJUi (fcaAra&d'f) electroly- 
sis; (JL-jUI) ^j-iJI JJLslI (na/si) psycho- 

JJ^ to/ittlt analytic(al) 

Ji^ toAaZZuZ dissolution, breakup ; sep- 
aration, disengagement, dis association 

J^l inhilal dissolution, breakup, 
decomposition; disintegration; decay, 
putrefaotion; slackening, exhaustion, 
prostration, weakness, impotence 

itab»-l ihlilal occupation (mil.) \^j^r 
cJ"^=*-Vl occupation forces 

J'st^-l iAfiZdZi occupying, occupation 
(uBed attributively) ; advocate of foreign 

J^L*. maMuZ solved ; dissolved , 
resolved, broken up; loose; untied, 
unfastened, unfettered, free, at large; 
weakened, prostrate, exhausted, lan- 
guid; solution (liquid; chem.) |j«JJIJjU 
m. ai-Wr with loose, disheveled hair 

Jl^ muhallil analyzer 

J»*u munhall solved; dissolved, re- 
solved, broken up; disbanded; lan- 
guid, prostrate, weak; permitted, al- 

*k* u^!" juyiiS muhtalla occupa- 
tion forces 

a «J>L»- see Jj»- 

1 t T JU- halaba % u (halb) to milk (a an 
animal) | »J*2>\ ^oJl tJU- AaZa&a d-daAra 
aSfurahu he has seen good and bad 
days V to run, drip, trickle, ooze, seep, 
leak; to water, drool (mouth, with 
appetite) | •IjilM *i i_-UiJ (afwdh) 
making the mouth water, appetizing; 
^ j wLJJI ij^ (al-lu'abu ft fami) my 
mouth was watering VIII to milk (a 
an animal) X do.; to squeeze juice (a 

*JL- halb milking 

i_-L- Aafa& milk 

iJL- AaU>a pi. halabat race track ; 
arena; danoe floor; race horses j <JL- 
^mij\ A. ar-raqp dance floor; ^-J *jl 
i-U-! *iJil j. he is not made for that, he 
doesn't belong there, it is not in his 
line; <~> *JL- ^-jli a master of, excelling 
or outstanding in 

*-L- hvXba fenugreek (Trigonella 
foenum-graecum ; bot.); tonic, prepared 
of yellowish grains, for women in 
childbed (eg., syr.) 

<_JL- hallb milk | <_JU ,jJ lo&an A. 
cow's milk (ep.) 

w^L- bo&ub lactiferous | «-jjI»- *yu 
(frogara) milk cow; ^^U-l *~-W (md> 
iiya) dairy cattle 

i-j*5U- halldb milker 

*^*- AaZI£ba milkmaid, dairymaid; 
dairywoman; milk eow 



«_-!* mahlab mahaleb (Prunus maha- 
leb; hot.) 

fcJU- hdlib ureter 

t_..ij^u-. mustahlab emulsion j i ^-.t... , 

j_^JJi m. al-lauz almond milk 

2 i_J#- kalab 2 Aleppo 

il^iU- hiltit, haltit aaafetida (Ferula assa- 
foetida; bot.) 

^U- halaja % u (halj, ~JL. hallj) to gin (a 

gU halj ginning (of cotton) 

gL- halij ginning {of cotton) ; 
ginned (cotton) 

S*-tA»- hilaja cotton ginner's work or 

^lU- halldj cotton ginner 

^U mihlaj, «*JLrf. mihlaja pi. Mrf 
mahdlij 2 cotton gin 

^l* mahlaj pi. £U. mah&lij 2 cotton 

JjU*- halkala to remove, drive away, shove 
away II tahalhala to stir from one's 
place; to move, stir, budge 

il>jji»- halazun snail; spiral 

iijjl*- kalazuna (n. uu.) snail; spiral 

Jijjl*- halazuni spiral, helical, volute, 

^r**- halisa a to remain, stay permanently 
(<-< at a place), stick (t_> to a place) 

^rl*. £tb pi. ^-sUl o£2£* (with foil, 
genit.) one addicted or given to, 
one adhering to | ^1 ^.^U-l a. 
al-lahw people given to pleasure and 
amusement, bons vivanta, playboys 

^J*- Kils ip\. u *'$*-\ ahUts, ^>L- ftwZus 
saddle blanket 

1 _ r L-l ahlas 3 , f. .LJL- £atea' a bay, 
chestnut (horse) 

(Jti»- halaja i {half, hilf) to swear (*3jLj by 
God) | b-c (JlU- (yamtnem) to take an 
oath II to make (• s.o.) swear; to put 
to oath, swear in (• s.o.); to adjure, 
entreat earnestly (* s.o.) Ill to enter 
into a confederation, into an alliance 
(o with s.o.), become an ally (» of s.o.) 
VI to commit one another by oath (J* 
to do, join in alliance; to ally, 
make an alliance (*. with) X to make 
(» s.o.) swear, exact an oath (• from 
s.o.); to adjure, entreat earnestly («s.o.) 

i_ii»- half, hilf swearing, oath | •jA*- 
0^1 taking the oath 

i_iU- hilf sworn alliance, confederacy, 
league; federation; (pi. «J»}Ul ahldf) 
ally | <jj$l~£- *_aU- ('askari) military 
alliance; J^lLlM J*JJ-I (aflanti) the 
Atlantic Pact 

iJuU- hallf pi. *UU- hulafd' 2 con- 
federate; ally; allied | »liU.1 the Allies 

*i~L»- kalifa pi. -at f. of t_J~U- 

JtjL- haUufpl. JaJ^ haldlif 2 (magr., 
eg.) wild boar; pig, swine 

.UL- halfd' und UU Aa//a (6o«.) alfa, 

iJlJ*: taAft/ swearing in | ._JuU»Jl ii- 
lajnat at-t. the jury (in court) 

<aJI^ muhdlafa alliance 

iJJL*: tahaluf state of alliance; al- 
liance, treaty of alliance 

iJtLtf- muhallaf sworn, bound by oath; 
(pi. -wn) juror (in court) 

.JJU.I* mutahalif interallied, allied 

ji»- halaqa i (halg) to shave (a the head, 
the face); to shave off (a the beard) 
II to circle in the air, hover; to fly, soar 
(bird; airplane; J* and 3y over or 
above; to round, make round, 
circular or ring-shaped (a; to 


ring, Burround, encircle (J* s.o.,; 
to clothe V to form a circle, sit in a 
circle; to gather in a circle (J* around 

jL- halq shaving, shave; (pi. 3J*~ 
kuluq, Jb\»-I ahlaq) throat, gullet, 

Jk- halqi guttural, pharyngeal 

ji>- kalaq rings, earrings 

iiU- kalqa, halaqa pi. jl*- feaZag, oLLL- 
Aaiagai ring (also earring, etc.); link 
(of a chain) ; circle (also of people) ; 
group of students studying under a 
professor, hence: lecture, course (e.g., 
at Al Azhar University); part of a 
sequence or series ; ringlet ; disk ; decade ; 
market | Sl^JI <aL- h. an-najdh life buoy, 
life preserver; JL*jNI <*i»- h. al-itti$al 
and J-«»j]l «!*- h. al-wa§l connecting 
link (jo between; fig.); !j»jiill **U-I the 
missing link, the intermediate form; 
*jf ja i-jUl iiU-l j ('umrihl) in the 
sixth decade of his life, in his fifties; 
iilr-^l UU- fish market; jWl UL- h. 
al-qutn cotton market 

Ji»- halaqi annular, ring-shaped, 

j^U halldq pi. -u» barber ( ^ <j}U 
(sikkl), isNK^JI j'iU. h, as-sihha barber- 
j_U- haliq shaved, shaven, shorn 
Sj^W hilaqa shaving, shave; barber's 
trade | *Wi>l jy.U* safcwn ai-A. shaving 
soap ; iitAA- ! Oji\~*> barbershop ; i*U 
«hU-l qa'at al-h. do.; O -u^- 1 " 4L f^ 
and O ii^U-i aJT safety razor 

jl£ mihlaq pi. jJl£ mahaliq 2 straight 

ji* taAZig flying, flight (of an air- 
craft ; J* and jiy over a country) ; 
take-off (of an airplane) 

jJU- ,y min haliq from above 

*jii»- hulqum pi. -W>- haldqim* throat, 
gullet | fjilA-1 «*-i> roAof al-h. a kind of 
sweet made of cornstarch, sugar, 
mastic and pistachios (eg.) 

ilU halika a (halah) to be pitch-black, 
deep-black XII dJIji*-! tAJauJafca do. 

iiJL- JiaZafc intense blackness 

i£l*- AuZfca intense blackness 

ilU- AaZifc pitch-black, deep-black; 
gloomy, murky 

iS^U- huluka gloominess, darkness; 

JJIU- /ta/ijfc pitch-black, deep-black; 
gloomy, murky 

k- halama u to dream (uj or j* of; jl j 
of being, becoming, doing, etc., in the 
future); to muse, reflect, meditate (<-» 
on; to attain puberty; — haluma 
u to be gentle, mild-tempered VIII to 
attain puberty 

1>- hulm pi. f$*-\ aklam dream; pi. 
irreality, utopia 

| JU- hulmi dream- (in compounds), 
of or pertaining to dreams 

U- hulum sexual maturity, puberty | 
U-l iL to attain puberty 

L. hilm pi. (*_^U- hulum, f$*~\ ahlam 
gentleness, clemency, mildness ; for- 
bearance, indulgence ; patience ; in- 
sight, discernment, understanding, in- 
telligence, reason | joU-Vt jU^» simple- 
minded people, simple souls 

U- halam (coll.; n. un. I) tick; mite; 
nipple, teat, mammilla (of the female 

^X*. kalaml parasitic; mammillary, 

JU- hallm pi. »lfU- hulama* 2 mild, 
mild-tempered, gentle; patient 


Aji*- halum, fjJU- AdJwm a kind of 
Egyptian cheese 

JL- hdlim pi. -fin dreamer 

i=£ muhtalim sexually mature, pu- 
bescent, marriageable 

(_j!U and J*-) halrnoa w, Aaft'ya a, ">U hald 
u (•/$>■ halawa, jljl»- hulwari) to be 
sweet; to be pleasant, agreeable (J to 
s.o.) | #,^1 J ^pU- he enjoyed the thing; 
jl *J "5U- it pleased him that..., he 
was delighted that . . . ; 4J J*- \ e ^»- 
(hasabamd) at his discretion, as he 
pleases; — J*- hald i to adorn, grace; 
— J»- haliya a to be adorned (t-> with) 
II to sweeten (a, e.g., a beverage 
with sugar); to adorn, bedeck, embel- 
lish, attire, furnish, provide (a, » s.o.,, ^ with) V to adorn o.s., be 
adorned, decked out, embellished, 
graced, endowed, furnished, provided 
(^ with) X to find sweet or pleasant, 
like (a, be delighted (a by) 

:A»- kalan sweetness, pleasantness 

ji»- hulw sweet ; pleasant, nice, 
charming, delightful, pretty | id-U-l jU- 
a gifted raconteur, amusing, entertain- 
ing; ij&-\ SJLiJI (gudda) pancreas {ariat.) 

J»- haly pi. J»- AuZty piece of jewelry, 

«-!*- Ai/yo pi. J»- AtVan, hulan dec- 
oration, embellishment, finery; orna- 

t£jij- halwd pi. ^j^- halawa candy, 
confection, confectionery, sweetmeats 

»lji»- halwd' 2 candy, confection, con- 
fectionery, sweetmeats 

Cj\jj[>- halwaydl (and eg. halawiydt) 
sweets (in general) ; sweet pastry; 
candies, confectionery, sweetmeats 

*j^*- halawa sweetness ; candies , 
confectionery, sweetmeats; grace, grace- 

fulness, charm, refinement, wittiness, 
wit; present of money; ransom | «/>U- 
L«u- (hummuplya) a sweet made of 
roasted chick-peas; i-Jk~^l» Sj^U- (fa* 
Ainiya) a sweet made of sesame-seed 
meal; *jj_jJ i_>iU- (lauziya) a sweet 
made of almonds 

d>jjl»- hulwdn present of money, 
gratuity, tip 

ijijl*- halwdni and Jljl»- AaJwd'i 
confectioner, candy dealer ; pastry 
cook, fancy baker 

J-*-l U md uhaild oh, how sweet 
is ..., *~^-\ U oh, how sweet he is! 

4-lrf tahliya decoration , embellish - 
ment, ornamentation 

J^ muhallan sweetened; decorated, 
embellished, adorned, ornamented (<_j 

x ^ ham pi. »l*-l aAwid" father-in-law; pi. 
relatives of the wife by marriage, in- 
laws of the wife 

*L»- hamdh pi. ol_j>- Aamau;d( mother- 
in-law; see also 1 ( y- and a ) v- 

*ir- huma see a ^»- 

s ^*- Aarama u (hamm) to heat, make hot 
(a; pass, humma to be feverish, 
have a fever | ^jjjj *J *- {humma) that 
was decreed to him, that is his lot, his 
destiny II to heat, make hot (a; 
to bathe, wash (a or » s.o. or IV to 
heat, make hot (a X to bathe, 
take a bath 

'*** hamma hot spring 

I*- humma blackness, swarthiness, 
dark coloration; fever 

j- humam (n. un. S) charcoal; any- 
thing charred or carbonized; ashes, 
cinder; lava 

^t~ humma f., pi, oL?- hummayat 
fever, fever heat [ ajj^LjJI -U-l and 



ILidl (J J-I (tifiya) typhoid fever, 
typhus fever; juli jf h. d-diqq hectic 
fever; *pJI ,y- A. r-r»6' quartan fever; 
i^ljl ^1 relapsing fever; »ljji~«ll ,^i-l 
or ijl^Ull ,^J-i {pafrd*, fafrdwlya) 
yellow fever; »-JJl ,y- A. l-0»&& tertian 
fever; *-**~»)l ,jJ-l (/oAwnya) anthrax; 
Sj^iJI iJ J-\ (qirmiziya) scarlet fever; 
^1 y h. 1-qaSi hayfever; S^jliJl ^J-l 
(gu&Ttya) foot-and-mouth disease ; ( _ f »i- 1 
5-^iJI SJAI (muJpkiya, SauJciya) cere- 
brospinal meningitis; Vj*^'. (j^*' 
(mufamawwi;a) undulant fever, Malta 
fever, brucellosis; S-'U-H ,jJ-l {nif&* 
aiya) puerperal fever, childbed fever; 
O ~*~J?\ ^-^ (namaUya) spotted fever 
jh hummi feverish, febrile, fever- 
fin compounds) 

f1j- hamSm (coll.; n. un. •) pi. -it, 
/&• ham&'im* dove, pigeon | J*-ljJI fl> 
carrier pigeon; f^-l jU bugloss, 
oxtongue (Anchusa officinalis; hot.) 

*U- himam (fate of) death 

(•U- hamm&m pi. -tf* bath; swim- 
ming pool; spa, watering place | pi*- 
^ A. fom* sunbath ; ^ jrf oUU- 
(baArfya) seaside resorts 

*.*■ hamim pi. Ar-1 oAtmmtS'* close 
friend; close, intimate; — hot water 

*l oAamm 8 , f. »l*- Aamm** 1 , pi. p 
humm black 

^ mtAamm hot-water kettle, cal- 
dron, boiler 

l»^*=--l wd'Amfim bathing, bath 

*j**- mahm&m feverish, having a 
fever; frantic, hectic 

1 t*- Kama' a a to clean out, dredge (a a well) 
U» Aama' , »t> Aam'a mud, mire, 

"*-»- Aamfa to be or beoome angry, 
furious, mad (J* at s.o.) 

pt- hamhama (*•*■*- hamhama) to neigh, 
whinny (horse) 

****** hamhama neigh(ing), whinny • 
ing, whinnies 

p*~ himhim oxtongue, bugloss (An- 
chusa officinalis; bot.) 

0j- Aamtda a (Aamd) to praise, commend, 
laud, extol (J» * s.o. for, a II to 
praise highly (» s.o.) 

a> Aamd commendation, praise, 
laudation | *i> -ul-1 al-hamdu lillah 
thank God! praise be to God! praised 
be the Lord! 

jl*- Aamt<2 praiseworthy, laudable, 
commendable ; benign, harmless (dis- 

jy hamud praiseworthy, laudable, 
commendable, praised 

jjh I ahmad* more laudable , more 

Suj-'VI **ij2& df-lfliTa al-ahmadlya 
Mohammedan Law 

Iju* maAmaia pi. A.U maAamtd* 
commendable aot; pi. J-U- praises, 

ij** maAmud praised ; commend- 
able, laudable, praiseworthy 

J*^- mukammad praised; commend- 
able, laudable 

&X**- muhammadi pertaining or 
attributable to Mohammed 

Jjj- hamdala to pronounce the formula 
4i juJ-I "Praise be to God!" 

tJaf hamdala the formula «i o.i-1 
(see above) 

jM- II to redden, color or dye red (a ; 
to roast (a; to fry (a}; to 
brown (a flour in preparing a roux) 
IX to turn red, take on a reddish color, 
redden, blush 


y- humar asphalt 

(jy humari asphaltic, asphalt, tar, 


Ijit- humra redness, red color(ation), 
red; rouge {coam.); brick dust, briok 
rubble; erysipelas, St. Anthony's fire 

j\j- him&r pi. j*. hamir, j*- humur, 
ljr-\ ahmira donkey, ass | ^Vjll jU- 
h. al-wahS and ^.j _,U- (umhii) wild 
ass, onager; j]^-\ -* samm al-h. oleander 
(Nerium oleander; bot.) 

JjU- himdra pi. j\+ hami'ir* she- 
ass, female donkey 

jy humur red, red color(ation), 

!ja- humairu redstart (zooj.) 

jlf hammir pi. ; donkey driver 

y\ ahmar', f. ,\jr- hamri'', pi. y- 
humr red, red-colored, ruddy; rosy, 
pink | j*-)l\ zJ., jt-y\ jjj infrared; 
j*V\ j~JI the Red Sea; jj-VI ■ . .' ." 
the Red Cross; yVI Ojll (maut) 
violent death; _^-VI ^jil (hawi) 
sexual intercourse; oljj-VI ("the 
two red ones", i.e.) wine and meat; 
jr-y\j j>-VI ("the black and the red", 
i.e.) all mankind; >Uill ji-\ lipstick 

*\j*- hamrS,'* smut, rust (disease 
affecting cereals);. 1^1 Alhambra, the 
Citadel of Granada 

->j** yahmur red; deer, roe, roe- 
buck; wild ass; hemoglobin (phyeiol.) 

Jjf\ ihmirar reddening, blush(ing), 
redness, red coloration; erythema 

j*£- muhammar roasted | l^A ^LUj 
(batSfis) fried potatoes 

J#- hamaza i (hamz) to bite, or burn, the 
tongue (taste) 

-»■ hamisa a to work with zeal, be 
zealous, eager, ardent, be or become 
enthusiastic, get all worked up, get 
excited, be filled with fanatio enthu- 
siasm V = I; to be overzealous or 
overenthusiastio (j in; to 
advocate fervently (J, throw 
o.s. wholeheartedly behind (J) 

^r*- hamia and ^j~t-\ ahmat* un- 
flinching, staunch, steadfast, ardent, 
eager, zealous, stout, hearty; fiery, 
enthusiastic, full of enthusiasm 

i^U- hamas and *-lt- ham&sa 
enthusiasm, fire, ardor, fervor, zeal, 

15*1*- hamasi enthusiastic, ardent, 
fiery, zealous, fanatio; stirring, rous- 
ing, thrilling, electrifying 

u~ £■ lahammut unflinohiug zeal, 
enthusiasm (J for), fanaticism 

o " ~ '* mutahammit enthusiastic, ar- 
dent, fiery, zealous, fanatio; an ardent 
follower, a fanatio adherent, a fanatio 

^r* hamaia u to excite, irritate, infuriate, 
enrage (■ s.o.) 

*!*• ham&a catgut (med.) 
'o**~ n to roast; to fry, broil (» 

iJ M*- himmif, himmas; (oolloq.) Aum- 
mus (ooll.; n. un. ») chick-pea 

*,j**" Aims' Horns (the ancient Emesa, 
city in central Syria) 

<j m*' hamuda u (<J»y- humuda) to be or 
become sour II to make sour, sour, 
acidify, acidulate (* ; to develop 
(» a photographio plate, a film;pio*.); 
to cause (* to oxidize 

,j**- hamd pi. ^i\jh-\ ahm&4 acid 
(chem.) | tiji ^ir- (baull) urio acid 

jyi»- y? iajar hamdi citrus trees 

*— i»- hamdiya pi. -St oitrus fruit 


^L»- hummdd, 

humuda sourness, acidity | 
-iV muwallid al-h. oxygen 

■ hummaid sorrel 

^j*~*£- takmid souring, acidification; 
development {phot.) 

^U-l ihmad jocular language, joking 

-i-U- hdmid sour, acid ; acidulous ; 
(pi. tji^y- hawamid*) acid (chem.) | 
-^ijl t ^L.U h. al-fahm carbonic acid; 
Ji jiT j*"!*- (Wiiili) sulphuric acid 

j> hamiqa a and Aamuga u (Awmg, i»l»- 
hamaqa) to be stupid, silly, foolish, 
fatuous; to become angry or furious 
II and IV to regard (. s.o.) as a fool, 
consider (• s.o.) dumb, stupid, idiotic 
VI pretend to be stupid VII to become 
angry or furious X to consider (• s.o.) j 
dumb, stupid, idiotic 

j> humq stupidity, silliness, fool- 
ishness, folly 

*jl»- hamaqa stupidity, silliness, fool- 
ishness, folly; anger, wrath 

JL?- humdq, hamdq smallpox, variola 

jr-\ ahmaq 2 , f. •li»- hamqd' 1 , pi. JJ- 
hum(u)q, J*- hamqd, JU- hamaqa dumb, 
stupid, silly, foolish, fatuous; fool, sim- 
pleton, imbecile 

jUu- hamqdn dumb, stupid, silly, 
foolish; angry, furious 

J> hamala i (haml) to carry, bear (*; 
to lift, pick up (» in order to carry 
it), load up and take along (*; to 
hold (», in one's hand); to carry 
on or with one, take or bring along 
(»; to transport, carry, convey 
(»; to bring, take (Jl or J » 
to s.o.) ; to take upon o.s. (jp instead of 

or for s.o., * a burden), carry, assume 
(» the burden, Jt of s.o. else), relieve 
(» jp s.o. from, take (* a burden, 
a grievance, etc.) from s.o. ( jp ); to extend, 
show, evince, cherish, harbor (» a feel- 
ing, J toward s.o.); to become or be 
pregnant {^, by s.o.); to bear fruit 
(tree); to induce, cause, prompt, get 
(Jp . s.o. to do, make s.o. (•) do (J*); to convert, bring around, win 
over (<jlj Jp • s.o. to one's opinion), 
convince («Jj Jp • s.o. of one's opinion); 
to attack (J* s.o.), also Jp «1»- J*- 
(hamlatan) to launch or make an at- 
tack on; to know by heart (» a book); 
to relate, refer (J* » to), bring (» to bear (Jp upon, link, 
con-elate, bring into relation {*, Jp 
with); to trace, trace back (J* » 
to); to ascribe, attribute, impute (Jp » to s.o.); to make (» a word) agree 
grammatically (Jp with another) | J»- 
.■ ;: j to feel annoyed, be in a mel- 
ancholy mood, feel blue; *— ii Jp J«" to 
pull o.s. together, brace 0.9. ; J^ Jp «li- 
(mahmali) to take to mean..., 
interpret or construe in the sense 
of . . ., as if it were . . . ; «L* jji Jp «b- to 
misinterpret, misconstrue; J-Jt *1j- 
ilA {mahmala l-jidd) to take 
seriously, take at face value II to 
have or make (. s.o.) carry or bear (», load, burden, charge, task (», • 
s.o. or » with), impose (» . on 
s.o. V to bear, assume, take upon 
o.s. (», e.g., oUiJI an-nafaqdt the 
expenses, <J>_>-^ al-mas'uliya the re- 
sponsibility); to bear up (> under), bear, 
stand, sustain, endure, tolerate, stomach 
(»; to undergo, suffer (»; to 
be able to stand (. s.o.) or put up (. with 
s.o.); to set out, get on one's way; to 
depart VI to maltreat, treat unjustly 
(Jp s.o.), be prejudiced, be biased, take 
sides (Jp against s.o.); to struggle to 


one's feet, rise with great effort | J* J^L*i 
<— aj (nafaihi) to brace o.a. ; to pull o.s. 
together, take heart, pluck up courage 
VIII to carry, bring (*; to carry- 
away, take away, haul off, lug off (a; to suffer, undergo, bear, stand, 
endure, sustain (*; to allow, permit, 
suffer, tolerate, brook, stomach (a, 
acquiesce (a in), put up, bear (* with; to hold (a, have capacity 
(a for); to imply that (a) is possible, 
permissible, or conceivable; J*^ yahta* 
milu and (pass.) yuhtamalu (it is) bear- 
able, tolerable; (it is) conceivable, pos- 
sible, probable, likely 

J*- hand carrying, bearing; induce- 
ment, prompting, encouragement (of 
s.o., J* to); delivery; transport, trans- 
portation, conveyance ; portage, carry- 
ing charges; — (pi. JIM ahmdl, JU- 
himal) foetua ; pregnancy | J*i- 1 >0c 
'adam al-h. sterility (of a woman) 

J> html, hand pi. JU-I ahmdl cargo, 
load, burden | ^j>~ Jj- hand hayy pay load, 
commercial load, live load ; c~* Jj- 
(mayyit) dead load; dead weight (arch.); 
oj]y J*- (muwazin) counterpoise, coun- 

J** hamal pi. 0:A> humldn, J U- 1 
ahmdl lamb; (unconsecrated) Host (Chr.- 
Copt); Aries, Ram (astron.) 

ii*- hamla pi. hamalat attack (Jp on); 
offensive; campaign; military expedition; 
expeditionary force | ojjIj iU- (ta'di* 
blya) punitive expedition; *J[& lb- 
(?ihdfiya) press campaign; SJli&J iU- 
(istiHaflya) reconnaissance raid (mil.) ; 
2_Sljlx_. <i> motorized detachment (mil.); 
5*jU^jI Jl»- (intikabiya) election campaign 

J>- hamall pi. -lya ambulant water 

J-*- hamil foundling; guarantor, war- 

J* *L*- hamlla 'aid el burden to, 
completely dependent upon 

Jy- hamul long-suffering; gentle, mild- 

JU- hammdl pi. -un, I porter, carrier 

iJL»- himdla work and trade of a 
porter or carrier 

jJU- hammdla (carrier) beam, girder, 
support, base, post, pier, pillar; suspend- 
ers | j-uJ 2JL»- (sadr) brassiere 

V>y humula pi. -at load capacity, 
load limit, capacity; tonnage (of a 
vessel) ; portage, freightage, transport 
charges; (pi. JJU- hamd'il 2 ) family (It.) 

J*^ mahmal see Jj- hamala; also 
xLI J^jst Jp bji JU-I (m. il-jidd) to take seriously 

J** mahmil (colloq. mahmal) pi. J*l£ 
mahdmil 2 camel-borne litter ; mahmal , 
a richly decorated litter sent by Islamic 
rulers to Mecca as an emblem of their 
independence, at the time of the hadj 

J-*^ tahmil burdening; encumbrance; 
imposition; loading, shipping, shipment 

«L*£ tahmila pi. J-.U? tahamil 2 sup- 
pository (med.) 

J**i tahammul taking over, assump- 
tion (of burdens); bearing, standing, suf- 
ferance, endurance; durability; strength, 
hardiness, sturdiness, solidity (of a ma- 

J-l* tahdmul prejudice, bias, partiali- 
ty; intolerance 

J ]^- I ihtimdl bearing, standing, suf- 
fering, sufferance, toleration; probability, 
likelihood , potent iality | J ]^~ *^ t ^a** 
(sa'b) hard to bear, oppressive 

J-U- hamil pi. ii*- hamala porter' 
carrier; bearer (of a note, of a check, etc. ; 
of an order or decoration); holder (of 
an identification paper, of a diploma, of a 



certificate) ; holding device, holder, 
clamp, fastener, hold, support (techn.); 
fighter (J* against); (pi. J*t>*- hatvdmil 3 ) 
pregnant | OjjJI J-U- courier; ^-Vl *b- 
h. al-aakum shareholders; WiVI *Lr- the 
publicists, the writers; *ul p 1 ^ J-U- A. 
Icaldm alldh one who knows the Koran 
by heart; J.U- jLJ (toj/ydr) carrier 
current {el.); il*U- c-U-j* (maujaO carrier 
waves (ej.) 

*UU- Admite pi. -d* device for carry- 
ing, carrier | *!•£_/"■ *l*l*> map case; iLU- 
oly U» A. j£'ird{ aircraft carrier 

J^ mahmfU carried, borne; bear- 
able, tolerable ; load weight, service 
weight, cargo; tonnage (of a vessel); 
predicate, attribute (logic) , *-l* J^*£ 
Bub j ect (logic) | *1_>** ! Li* (muioA) 
motorized infantry {mil.) ; 1^*- ^Jj*^- \y*r 
{javfwan) airborne troops {mil.) 

J** muhammal loaded, laden, heavily 
charged, burdened (t-> with), encumbered 

J^rf. muktamal bearable, tolerable; 
probable, likely 

jl> hamkiqa (iil#- AamZo^a) to stare, gaze 
( j or »j at) 

U*3b- &tma&#a Himalaya 

1 yf hamU (oonstruct state of *- ham) and iU* 
hamah see 1 *- 

\y- and jr* ) ^ Jiamiya a to be or become 
hot; to glow (metal); to flare up; to fly 
into a rage, become furious ( J» at) | ,^1- 
u-aUjII fierce fighting broke out II to 
make hot, heat (a; to heat to 
glowing (a metal); to fire up (a a stove); 
to kindle, inflame, stir up, excite (a ; 
to bathe (= 8 *■ II) IT to make hot, heat 

y hamw heat | ^\ y h. an-ntl 
prickly heat, heat rash, lichen tropicus 

yt- humuw heat 

*jh huma pi. -at, y human sting, 
stinger (of insects); prick, spine (of 

^- kamiy hot, glowing; heated, 


hummd see 8 j 

*-*■ hamiya zeal, ardor, fervor; enthu- 
siasm, ardent zeal, fanaticism; violence, 
vehemence; passion, rage, fury; heat of 
excitement; temper, temperament | i-J-l 
V>^l {qaumiya) chauvinism 

Lt* humayyd heat; excitement, agita- 
tion; enthusiasm; fire, passion, impet- 
uosity, vehemence; fury, rage; wine 

•jl»- Kamawa heat 

-^ mahman fire chamber, furnace 
(of a stove, oven, etc.) 

j»U- hamin hot; heated, violent, fierce 
(e.g., a battle); glowing, passionate, 
fiery; burning 

l l jt- hamd % (hamy, 5jU- him&ya) to defend, 
guard (a, • s.o.,, <>. against), protect, 
shelter, shield (^ a, • s.o., from); 
to deny CyijjM the patient) harmful 
food (a; = to put him on diet); to forbid 
( b\ • s.o. to do Ill to defend <j- s.o. 
or, also, of a lawyer in court); to 
shield, protect, support (j& s.o. or, 
take up the cause of {&), stand up for 
{^) VI to keep away (a from), shun, 
avoid (a VIII to protect o.s. (•, a 
from, from b.o.), defend o.s., cover 
o.s. (<-» with, seek protection, Beek 
shelter or refuge {<~» with s.o., also x*', 
£• from) 

jr- himan protection; defense; sanc- 

L*- himya that whioh is defended; 

~*Aj* himaya pi. -at protection, patron- 
age, sponsorship, auspices; protectorate 

*UU mukamdh defense (jur.); legal 
profession, practicing of law J IL.WI *L» 
kai'at al-m. the bar 

»£»-! tAitmd* seeking cover, seeking 
protection; cover, shelter, protection 

l»U- hamin pi. «U- humah protector, 
defender, guardian; patron { v^-' *MI 
(dauJa) protecting power (of a 'protector- 

HL*U- hamiya pi. -at patroness, pro- 
tectress; garrison (mil.) 

lJ ^- mahmiy protected (<-> by); being 
under a protectorate, having the status 
of a protectorate j «-*£ <ik* (min$aqa) 
protectorate (country) 

"****. mahmiya pi. -at protectorate 
(country; pol.) 

I»L»4 muh&min pi. OjA*- muHamun. 
defense counsel, counselor- at-law, lawyer, 
barrister, attorney (at law), advocate 

«-*l^ muhdmiya woman lawyer 

Z£- muhtamin one who seeks pro- 
tection; prote'gS; being under a pro- 
tectorate, having the Btatus of a pro- 

'Si*-, »l*- hamdh Hama (city in W Syria) 

fr- hanna % (j^'-*- hanin) to long, yearn, 
hanker (Jl for), crave (Jl; — (o- 
hanna, jb» handn) to feel tenderness, 
affection, sympathy (J* for s.o.) ; to 
sympathize, commiserate (Jp with), 
feel compassion (J* for); to pity (J* s.o.), 
have mercy (J* on) II to move, touch, 
fill with tenderness, soften, fill with 
compassion (*Jj qatbahu s.o.'s heart) ; 
to blossom, flower, be in bloom (tree) 
V to feel sympathy, feel pity, feel compas- 
sion (Jc for s.o.), commiserate (J*, with 
s.o.); to be tender, affectionate 

i*- hanna sympathy; commiseration, 
compassion, pity; favorable aspect, ad- 

OL*- handn sympathy, love, affection, 
tenderness; commiseration, compassion, 
pity; ,iJLJL>- handnaika have pity! have 
mercy ! 

iili»- handna compassion, pity, com- 

,> j- hanin longing, yearning, hanker- 
ing, nostalgia, craving, desire 

j^*- hanun affectionate, loving, soft- 
hearted , tenderhearted , compassionate , 
merciful; tender, soft, gentle, kind, 
moving, touching (voice) 

uL»- hanndn affectionate, loving, 
tender; compassionate, sympathetic 

uL^ tihndn attachment, devotion, 

j\£ tahannun tenderness, affection, 

u>- II to dye red (a, with henna) 

•Ij^- hinnd* henna (a reddish-orange 
cosmetic gained from leaves and stalks 
of the henna plant) J »LJ-1 y_\ abu l-h. 
robin (redbreast); »U-I j£ (colloq. tamr 
el-hinna) henna plant (Lawsonia inermis ; 

<JU- look up alphabetically 

J-^- hanbali Hanbalitic, of or pertaining to 
the maihab of Ahmad ibn Hanbal ; 
puritanical, Btrict in religious matters; 
(pi. iLU*- handbila) Hanbalite 

o_^jU-, <jy\»- see j^>- 

iJL»- hanita a (hint) with <c-c j or «u.*-j : to 
break one's oath V to practice piety, 
perform works of devotion ; to seek 
religious purification; to scorn sin, not 
yield to sin 

ii*>- hint pi. ib*-l ahndt perjury; sin 

c*- hanjara pi, 

■U*- hanajir* larynx, 
kunjur pi. j*»-U*- Aanaj"5r* larynx, 

J>^*- hanjala to prance (horse); to caper, 
gambol II tahanjala to dance, caper, 
gambol, frisk 

^-i^- At'ndw pi. j-il>- AandtitV dark night 

Jj»x*- handaquq (bot.) melilot, (yellow) 
Bweet clover (Melilotus) 

±j*- hanaS pi. ^U»-l ahnaS snake 

J«^. II to embalm (• a corpse) ; to stuff (* a 

«k*- hinfa wheat 

*]»L»- Aind^z embalming 

Ja^ tahannuf mummification 

II^ muAannaJ mummified 

jjWJ-1 *jjp 'ara&a* aJ-Aan#fir victoria, light 
carriage designed for two passengers 

JIfc*. hanzal (coll.; n. un. I) colocynth 
(Citrullus colocynthis; bot.) 

J,Cm~ hanafa i to turn or bend sideways 

,_•„ -~ Aant/ pi . »lL»- hunafa' 3 true 
believer, orthodox; one who scorns the 
false creeds surrounding him and pro- 
fesses the true religion; true (religion) | 

■_'-.• J- ' j-dl ( din ) ^e True tf- e -» Islamic ) 
Religion, also »U«— Jl ii-J-l (somAo') 

J>- hanafi pagan, heathen, idolater 
(Chr.); Hanafitic (see iJt*-); (pi. -fin) 

S_ii»- hanafiya paganism, heathendom 
(CAr.); Hanafitic madhab (an orthodox 
school of theology founded by Abu 
Hanifah) ; — (pi. -at) faucet, tap ; 

ULJ-I al-hanijiya the True (i.e., 
Islamic) Religion 

i_x*-\ ahnaf* afflicted with a distortion 
of the foot 

p- haniqa a {hanaq) to be furious, mad, 
angry; to be annoyed, exasperated, 
peeved, irritated (J* or j* at, by), be 
resentful (J* or j- of) IV to infuriate, 
enrage, embitter, exasperate, irritate 
(• b.o.) 

j^- hanaq fury, rage, ire, wrath, anger, 
exasperation, resentment, rancor 

ij~*- haniq furious, mad, angry; resent- 
ful, bitter, embittered, annoyed, exas- 
perated, peeved 

^U. haniq furious, mad, angry; 
resentful, bitter, embittered, annoyed, 
exasperated, peeved | *LA-1 Jp JJl»- 
(haydh) weary of life, dispirited, dejected ; 
»UJI Jp JJU- (msd') misogynist 

j^A muhnaq infuriated , enraged ; 
embittered, bitter, angry, exasperated, 

dh*. kanaka % u, II and IV to sophisticate, 
make experienced or worldly-wise through 
severe trials (said of fate, time, age) 

iL»- hanak pi. iiL»-l ahnak palate 

£*- hanakl palatal 

±L*- hunk, hink and *Sc»- hunka world- 
ly experience, worldly wisdom gained 
through experience, sophistication 

dU^ muhannak experienced, worldly 
wise, sophisticated | lii-* d\&- (mw 
bannak) shrewd, smart, sharp 

(ji»- and J»-) L*- hand u and J»- Aand t to 
bend, curve, twist, turn; to lean, incline 
(J*, or Jf toward s.o.); to feel for b.o. 
(J*)» sympathize (J* with s.o.), com- 
miserate, pity (J* s.o.), feel compassion, 
feel pity (J* for s.o.); to bend, bow, 
flex, curve, crook (a IV to bend, 
bow, tilt, incline (a ; e.g., <Aj 
ra'sahu one's head); to sympathize (Jp 


with b.o.), feel compassion, feel pity (Jp 
for s.o.), commiserate, pity (J* b.o.) VII to 
bend, curve, twist, turn; to be wind- 
ing, be tortuous, wind, meander (e.g., 
a road); to turn, deviate, digress (^ from) ; 
to bow (J to s.o.) ; to lean, incline (J* or 
3ji over, Jl toward s.o., toward}; to devote o.b. eagerly (J* to ; 
to contain, harbor (J* | ^jLi o! 
j^-i J* J**^ V (£«&*% #j?n) I harbor no 
grudge, I feel no resentment 

jL*- hanw bending, deflection, flexing, 
flexure, curving, curvature, twisting, 

j^- hinw pi. »U*-I ahna bend, bow, 
turn, twist, curved line, curve, contour; 
pi. ribs | l^U^-l j\* in her bosom 

_y*- hunuw sympathy, compassion, 
tenderness, affection 

J»- hany bending, deflection, flexing, 
flexure, curving, curvature, twisting, 

Ijj- kanya bend, turn, curve 

*j>- haniya pi. LL*- handyd arc; 
camber, curvature | y.u* bL*- j in his 
bosom; 4—i' bU>- j in his heart, deep 
inside him 

*jL»- hinaya curving, curvature, twist- 
ing, turning, bending 

Cj^U- see below 

Jrf. maknan pi. jU' 7naAdJ»'n curva- 
ture, bend, flexure, bow, turn, curve 

»L*i I inhina' bend, deflection, curvature ; 
curve; arc; inclination, tilt; bow, curtsy 

S»L^i tnhind'a {n. vie.) bow, curtsy 

JljJ-l al-haicdni the longest ribs; (fig.) 
breast, boBom | cr*\j*- »J-f bi-mil'i h. 
(they shouted) at the top of their lungs, 
with all their might 

^ mahnxy bowed, inclined (head) ; 
bent, curved, crooked 

j^w munhanin bent, curved, crooked, 
twisted; inclined, bowed 

,^»«i* munhanan pi. oL*w munha* 
naydt bend, flexure, deflection, curvature; 
turn, twist, break, angle; curve (of a 
road, and math.); slope 

C^jU- hanut pi. c^j]y hawanit 2 store, shop; 
wineshop, tavern 

Jji U- hanut » pi. -t ya (e^. ) corpse 
washer ; undertaker, mortician, grave- 

*\j»- haunod* 3 Eve 

t-jp- V to abstain from sin; to lead a pious 
life; to refrain, abstain (^ from 

~oj>- hauba sin, offense, misdeed, out- 

»Lj»- kaubd' 2 soul 

£jj>- hut pi. ob*- Aiftxn, o'j»-l oAtfa( fish; 
whale; Pisces, Fishes {a&tron.) j o>»- 
Jlt-U- A. mlaiman salmon 

ry- IV ahwaja to have need, stand in need, 
be in want (Jl of, need, require, 
want (Jl; to put (» s.o.) in need of 
(Jl), make necessary (Jl » for s.o., 
require (Jl » of s.o., compel, oblige 
(J[ » s.o. to); to impoverish, reduce to 
poverty (. s.o.) | Jl **-y\ L. {ahtvajahu) 
how much he stands in need of . . . ! how 
urgently he needs . . . ! VIII to have need, 
stand in need, be in want (Jl of; also J), 
need, want, require (Jl, s.o.) 

rj»- hauj need, want, lack, de- 
ficiency, destitution 

i*-U- haja pi. -at need {Jl or lj of); 
necessity, requirement, prerequisite; na- 
tural, bodily need; pressing need, needi- 
ness, poverty, indigence, destitution ; 
object of need or desire; desire, wish, 
request; necessary article, requisite; 
matter, concern, business, job, work; 
thing, object; — pi. 4\j»- hawd'if needs. 



necessities, necessaries; everyday objects, 
effects, belongings, possessions, stuff; 
clothes, olotning | (J) Jl *»-U- j olT to 
stand in need, be in want of ( need, 
require (; (J) Jl V 1 *- V (A^'ota) 
... is not neoessary, not required, there 
is no need of...; «j J U-U- V I don't 
need it; V^-' -^ if (or when) necessary, 
if need be, in case of need; *>-L»- j** j 
(jam Adjattn) unnecessarily; **-U-l *j U 
the essentials; S*-U-l Jrf. fnaAoIZ al-A. the 
essential passage, the gut, the substance, 
the crux, the interesting part (of an 
exposition); c*-L- x- «uft&z Ad;afaAfc to 
meet s.o.'s needs, provide for s.o.*s 
needs; <c*-U- ^^ go#S h&jatahu to fulfill 
s.o.'s wish; lj-U-1 ^i* to relieve nature 

i^L»-W h&jiy&t everyday commodities, 
utensils, utilities, neoessaries, necessities 

ry\ oAuaj* in greater need (Jl of ; more neoessary 

^L^-l ihtiy&j want, need, requirement, 
(pre)requisite, necessity; pi. -at needs, 
necessities, neoessaries 

^jU- mah&tvij 1 (pi. of jy* muA- 
wij) needy, poor, destitute people 

^Irf- mvht&j in need, in want (Jl of requiring (J!; poor, destitute, 

tL*-y haujala pi. J*-'j»- fyaw&jiP phial (chem.) 

{*y) jU- Adda u (Aaud) to turn aside, turn 
away (j* from), turn (j* off) II to turn 
off, take a turning 

•*y Aaw&z turn, turning 

(jy) Jl*- hd^a u (Aaud) to urge on, spur on 
(* animals) IT do. X ij*Ju*l istahwafa to 
overwhelm, overcome, overpower (J* 
s.o.; esp. emotions), get the better of 
(J*)» S** 11 niastery (J* over); to seize 
(J» on), take possession (J* of), usurp 

^jj>- Afl# coachman, cabman, driver 
uiy Aw^iyo coachman's work or trade 

{jy) jU- AtSro « to return ( Jl to) ; to recede, 
decrease, diminish, be reduced (Jl to) 
II to change, alter, amend, transform, re- 
organize, remodel, modify (* or ,>; 
to roll out (* dough); to make white, 
whiten (*; to bleach (* a fabric) 
in to talk, converse, have a conversation 
(• with s.o.); to discuss, debate, argue 
IT (with \*)y jawdban) to answer, reply 
(with negations only) T to be altered, 
changed, amended, transformed, re- 
organized, remodeled, modified TI to 
carry on a discussion 

jy hawar white poplar (also pro- 
nounced haur); bark- tanned sheepskin, 
basil; marked contrast between the 
white of the cornea and the black of the 

•jl*. k&ra pi. -at quarter, part, section 
(of a city); (Tun.) ghetto; lane, alley, 
side street (with occasional pi. isJy 
hawdri) | xJ\ !jU- A. as-sadd blind alley, 
dead-end street 

jy\ ahwar*, f. *\jy Aaurif 1 , pi. jy 
Aflf having eyes with a marked contrast 
of white and black, (also, said of the 
eye:) intensely white and deep-blaok 

»j]y kaww&ra (haw&ral) cretaceous 
rock; chalk 

gjy AowSrf pi. -urn disciple, apostle 
(of Jesus Christ) ; disciple, follower 

iSjy huww&rd cretaceous rock; chalk 

*ijy A-Sriya pi. -St, jy Aiir houri, 
virgin of paradise; nymph; (pi. -at] 
young locust | »III <>jy water nymph, 

o\jy hattran* the Hauran, a moun- 
tainous plateau in SW Syria and N 



jj£ mihtoar pi. jj\J- mahawir 3 rolling 
pin ; pivot, core, heart, center ; axis ; 
axle, axletree 

j\£- mahdr (coll.; n. un. «) oysters; 
shellfish, mussels; mother-of-pearl, nacre 

yU- mahara (n. un.) oyster; oyster 
shell, mussel; trowel 

jj£- tahwtr alteration, change, trans- 
foi'mation, reorganization, reshuffle, re- 
modeling, modification 

j\j>- hiwdr talk, conversation, dialogue; 
argument, dispute; text (of a play); 
script, scenario (of a motion picture) 

•jjl£ muhdwara talk, conversation, 
dialogue; argument, dispute 

jjl*£ tahdwur discussion 

(jj>- and >*-) jU- hdza u {hauz, »JL>- hiydza) 
to possess, own, have (a; to gain, 
win, get, receive, obtain, achieve, attain 
(a, e.g., success, victory, etc.); to 
gain possession, gain control (a of, 
seize, monopolize (a; — hdza » 
(>»- haiz) to drive on, urge on (a camels) 
V tahawwaza and takayyaza to writhe, 
twist, coil; — takayyaza to stay away, 
keep away, seclude o.s., isolate o.s. 
(^ from); to be disposed, incline, tend, 
lean ( Jl toward); to join (Jl s.o. or; 
to side (J, Jl with), take sides (J, Jl in 
favor of) VII to isolate o.s., seclude o.s., 
separate, segregate, disengage o.s., dis- 
sociate o.s., stay away, keep away, retire, 
withdraw (j* or y> from); to join (Jl 
s.o. or; to unite (Jl with); to side 
(Jl or J with), take sides (Jl or J in favor 
of) VIII to possess, own, have (a; 
to take possession (a of; to keep, 
prevent, hinder (j* • s.o. from) 

jj»- hauz possession, holding, tenure; 
obtainment, attainment, acquisition ; 
taking possession, occupation, occupancy ; 
(j'ur.) tenancy; — (pi. j]y\ akwdz) 

enclosed area, enclosure ; precinct(s) , 
boundary, city limits 

i$jj»- hauzi possessory, tenurial 

*j j*- kauza possession, holding, tenure ; 
property; area, territory | *Jj_j»- j or 
tJk i ~*>j*- J /* b- yadihi in his possession; 
_r-** *jj*- tf- p LioJI the defense of Egyptian 

>*- kayyiz, haiz pi. JL»-1 ahydz scope, 
range, reach, extent, compass, confines, 
field, domain, realm ; sphere | j*- J J>-.b V 
JjJuJJ (yadkulu) it is not within the 
bounds of reason; J^JUll j*- Jl jj (to 
advance to the realm of fact, i.e.) to 
become a reality; oov.^1 y*- j f% k. il- 
imhdn within the realm of possibility, 
quite possible 

•jL*- hiydza possession, holding, tenure; 
taking possession, occupation, occupancy; 
acquisition of title, acquisition of the 
right of possession ; obtainment, at- 
tainment, acquisition 

>*: iakayyuz partiality; prejudice, 

jL*l inhiydz isolation, seclusion, re- 
tirement; partiality; prejudice, bias 

j-'L- hd'iz possessor, holder, tenant 

>*■!• mutahayyiz partial, prejudiced, 

jUw munkdz secluded, retired, with- 
drawn, removed (jp from); an outsider, 

a stranger (j* to) 

,^0*- VIII (eg.) to be in a quandary, waver, 

1 ( (J ij*-) ^U- hdSa u (kauS) to round up, drive 
into a trap (a game); to stop, check, 
prevent, hinder (a, stand in the 
way (a of); to hold back, stem, stave 
off (a II to gather, collect, amass, 
accumulate, pile up, hoard (a; to 
save, put by (a money); to find (a 



J^j>- haui pi. L y']y^ ahwas, jIIaj- 
hiSdn enclosure, enclosed area ; court- 

J^j>- haivas mob, rabble, rifFraff 

<^-j>- hu&i wild; unusual, odd, queer, 

^U-1 9-j~*\ usbu' al-hdi Passion Week 

2 liL-, ^U- see jt*-, -i ^U- hdSa UUdk 

^j*- hawcq squinting of the eyes (caused 
by constant exposure to glaring light) 

^_^i akwa§, 2 f. »L»j»- hau$a 2 , pi. 
^j*- /iuf having narrow, squinting 

i*»L»- Atj/d*o girth 

J-*_p- hausal, ~*L*j>- hausala craw (of a bird) ; 
bladder; peUcan |5jjIj1I <L»j*-' (mordriya) 
gall bladder, bile (anat.) 

J^j^»- Auwatpt'J blister, bleb, vesicle; 
water blister 

iLeij*- huwaifiila pi. -at blister, bleb, 

^y- hav4 pi. j*'j»-l ahwad, ^U- Asy£tf t 
jLL»- AMdn basin; water basin; trough, 
tank, cistern, reservoir, container; basin 
of a river or sea; pool; (in the Egyptian 
irrigation system) a patch of land sur- 
rounded by dikes, flooded by high water 
of the Nile; pond; pelvis {a-nat); (garden) 
bed; dock; pi. ,>L»- hiyad (sacred) 
ground, area, domain (to be protected), 
sanctum | J»U ^iy (j&ff) dry dock; 

. h. hammdm bathtub; plj* j^ 5 - 
'{'aimvdm) floating dock; *-*!-»- ,j* ^ to 
assume the defense of s.o., make o.s. the 
champion of s.o.; to defend o.s.; .-o 
• a Jl ^Lj- j& {dahha) to defend the faith; 
-b-U-lj *jJl ^)y-\ coal and iron deposits 

O *-*ij»- buwaid® renal pelvis (anat.) 

(.Ujj-) J»U- Adia u {hauf, *J*~>- /»ia, iLL*. 
fttydja) to guard, protect (a, • s.o.,, 
watch (a, • over s.o., over, have the 
custody (a, • of); to attend (* to), take 
care (* of), look after (a); to sur- 
round, encircle, enclose, encompass (l-» 
s.o. , II to build a wall (a around, wall in (*; to encircle, sur- 
round (a, close in from all sides (a 
on Ill to try to outwit, dupe, or 
outsmart (» s.o.); to mislead, lead 
astray, seduce (• s.o.) IV to surround 
(<_> s.o.,, also a, • s.o.,, .-» with); 
to encompass, enclose, embrace, comprise, 
contain (i_<, also a); to ring, encircle 
(i_j s.o. ,, also a, • s.o.,, <_> with, close in from all sides (l-» on); to 
know thoroughly, comprehend, grasp 
completely, understand fully (<->, 
be familiar, be thoroughly acquainted 
(uj with) J 1,1* <i iU-l ('ilman) to know thoroughly, have comprehensive 
knowledge of; to take cognizance, 
take note of; ^ \^- J.U-1 he in- 
formed him of..., he let him know 
about . . . ; he brought ... to his notice 
V to guard, protect (a, • s.o.,; to 
take precautions (a with regard to), 
attend (a to); to be careful, be cautious, 
be on one's guard VIII to be careful, be 
cautious, watch out, be on one's guard; 
to take precautions, make provision (J 
for, so as to ensure...); to surround 
(._j s.o.,; to guard, protect, preserve 
(J* uj from), take care (<-» of), 
attend (^» to), look after (^), see to it 
(jL that) 

ijo-*- hifa, haifa, *iy haufa cautious- 
ness, caution, provident care, prudence, 
circumspection | <^*~ -U-l {hifatahu) to 
be on one's guard, take precautions; ^j 
*]*j- thoughtlessly, unthinkingly, inad- 

SLL»- kiydta guarding, custody, pro- 
tection, care 


Jaj j£ tahwit encirclement 

4WU.I ihafa encirclement, encompass- 
ment ; comprehension, grasp, understand- 
ing, knowledge, cognizance (uj of> 
acquaintance, familiarity (<_> with); in- 
formation, communication 

i»j^ tahawumf provision , care , at- 
tention, precaution, prudence; pi. -at 
precautionary measures, precautions 

.UL^-I ihtiyaf caution, cautiousness, 
prudence, circumspection, carefulness; 
provision, care, attention, precaution, 
prevention; pi. -at precautionary meas- 
ures, precautions j .UL^-Vl J_x- J* as a 
precaution, out of precaution, to be on 
the safe side 

^L^-l ihtiy&pi precautionary ; prophy- 
lactic; preventive; replacement; spare- 
tin compounds) ; reserve- {in compounds) ; 
stand-by; reserve funds, capital reserves 
{Jin.); reserve (mil.) | ,j1»Lj>-1 j~«- (haba) 
detention pending investigation; j»\£> 
S-tL^-l precautionary measures, pre- 
cautions; «J»L^-I c>\ji (quwdt) reserves 
(mil.); ^L™*-' Jl* capital reserve, reserve 
fund; *UM CjJ\ ^Li-I (crude-)oil re- 

J*!U- ha'if pi. jLL-*- kifdn, i»L>- hiyat, 
]^\y haiDd'ip 2 wall j Jill J*jU- h. al- 
mabka Wailing Wall (in Jerusalem); 
AuU-1 ^jc ai (u^ or) Jll alqd (tfaraba) 
bihi 'ur$a l-hd'it to make little of, 
scorn, disdain, despise; to reject, discard, throw overboard; 
to ruin, thwart, foil 

Jaj_j»- hawif (eg.) clever, smart, shrewd 

Ja_£ muhty surrounding (>-> ; 
comprehensive; familiar, acquainted (l_j 
with); — (pi. -at) circumference, periph- 
ery ; extent , range , scope , compass , 
reach, domain, area; milieu, environ- 
ment, surroundings; ocean; pi. CjUa-tf 
surroundings, environment | ^^LJlU^I ja-^l 

(aflanfi) the Atlantic Ocean; jjUI _L^I 
(kadi') the Pacific Ocean 

J#l^ muhdf surrounded (<_< by) 

]*j>jL* muidhawwit cautious, prudent, 
provident, circumspect, careful, watchful 

u>j>- hauf edge, rim, brim, brink; border, 
hem, fringe 

*iU- hdfa pi. -at, Ji]y- hatvdfin border, 
rim, brim, brink, verge; edge; fringe, 
hem I vV" if', within it, in it, therein 

(J>*~) JU- hdqa u (havq) to surround, 
enclose, infold, embrace (i~> s.o., 
II = I ( Jp s.o., 

1 j!p- kauqala (iliy- kauqala) to pronounce 
the formula: *j)b V' \ji Vj J>*"^ f 866 4**" 

2 *Jjp- hauqala pi. Jijj 
Florence flask 

- JmoaqiP phial (chem.), 

(4^-) iiU- Adifca u (AowJfc, iiLj- hiyak, aTL*- 
Atya&a) to weave (*; to interweave 
(a; to knit (a; to braid, plait 
(a ; to contrive, devise, hatch, 
concoct (a; e.g., ruses, intrigues, 
pretexts), think up, fabricate, create (a in one's imagination) 

«TL»- hiyaka weaving; knitting; braid- 
ing, plaiting 

jjjl*- hd'ik pi. 1S*U- haka weaver; — 
(mor.) an outer garment made of a long 
piece of white woolen material, covering 
body and head 

(J^*- and J-»-) JU- Ad/a u to change, undergo 
a change, be transformed; to shift, turn, 
pass, grow (Jl into, also a), become 
(Jl; to deviate, depart (^ from, 
e.g., a commitment), dodge, evade, fail 
to meet (j»; to elapse, pass, go by 
(time) ; — (*ij^*- hailvla) to prevent (Ojj; to intervene, interfere, interpose, 
come d>j between) | x+e. ^ JU- ( r ahd) to 
withdraw from a contract; o-^i ,>j JU- 


^*yi i> j .j to make inaccessible to 
s.o., impossible for s.o. ; to bar or obstruct 
s.o. 's way to; to prevent s.o. from, deny s.o.; J>.)j *— iJ ,jo JU- 
tSlii'V I (iifaq) to resist compassion, deny 
o.s. any sympathy II hamwala to change 
(Jl a or * a to else), transform, 
transmute, convert, turn, make (Jl a or 
a a into else); to transplant 
(a; to transfer (a; to convert 
(a, mathematically); to switch, 
commutate (a current; el.); to convert, 
transform (a current; el.); to shunt (a a 
railroad car); to switch (a a railroad 
track); to remit, send, transmit (a, 
e.g., money by mail, Jl to s.o.); to pass 
on, hand on (Jl a to s.o.); to forward 
(Jl a to s.o. or to an address); to 
endorse (a a bill of exchange, a promis- 
sory note); to direct, turn (a, also 
Ijaj nazratan a glance, Jl to or toward); 
to divert, distract, keep (jn a or • s.o. 
or from); to turn away, avert (»_?** 
tf. baparahu one's eyes from); to turn 
off, switch off, disconnect (a current; el.) \ 
lioJI Jj»- (daffa) to turn the helm, change 
the course III hawala to try, attempt, 
endeavor (a, jl to do, make 
an attempt, make an effort (jl to do; to seek to gain (a by artful 
means; to deceive by pretenses, make 
excuses, hedge, dodge IV to change (a a 
or Jl a to),, transform, transmute, 
turn, make (a a or Jl a into); to 
convert, translate (a a or Jl a into); 
to transfer (a; to remit, send (a 
Jl or Jp to s.o.); to assign (a, » s.o.,, Jl or J* to s.o.) ; to turn over, hand 
over, pass on (J* a or • s.o. or to); 
to forward (Jp a to); to refer (J) • 
s.o. to); to cede, transfer (a a debt, Jp 
to s.o. ; jur.) | ,jJl*ll (Jl) J* J-»-l (uhlla, 
ma'aS) and -IpUiII Jl J-»-l {taqa'ud) he 
was pensioned off; Jl «JL-XJl c-L»J 
_y~ijjJ\ the bill was protested (Jin.) V to* 

hamwala to change, undergo a change; 
to be changed (Jl to), be transformed, be 
transmuted, be converted (Jl into), 
become (J!, turn, grow (Jl into), 
transform (Jl — j- or jp from — into), 
change, develop, evolve ( Jl — j* from — 
to); to withdraw, go away, leave; to 
move (Jl to a residence); to turn away 
(^ from), turn one's back (jp on); to 
deviate (^ from); to depart, digress, 
stray (JjjUI J* from the way); to re- 
nounce, forgo, relinquish, disclaim (jp; to proceed slyly or cunningly | 
5L#- JT J_j^ to employ every conceivable 
trick ; — tahayyala to employ artful 
means; to ponder ways and means (J 
to an end, in order to attain 
VI takdwala to try, endeavor, take pains 
(J* to do, strive (Jp for); — 
tahayala and VIII to employ artful 
means, resort to tricks, use stratagems 
(J* against s.o.) ; to deceive, beguile, 
dupe, cheat, outwit, outsmart (J* s.o.); 
to be out (Jp for or achieve (Jp by artful means, by tricks VIII to 
work or strive ( on one's own re- 
sources), make efforts (on one's own) 
IX J_p-I ihwalla to be cross-eyed, to 
squint X to change (Jf to, into), turn, 
be transformed, be converted (Jl into); 
to be transubstantiated (bread and 
wine, Jl into the body and blood of 
Christ; Chr.); to proceed, pass on, shift, 
switch (Jl to new or different); 
to be impossible (Jp for s.o.); to be 
inconceivable, absurd, preposterous 

JU- hot m. and f., pi. Jl^-I akwdl 
condition, state; situation; position, 
status ; circumstance ; case ; present, 
actuality (as opposed to future); circum- 
stantial expression or phrase {gram.); pi.: 
conditions, circumstances; matters, af- 
fairs, concerns; cases; kola (prep.) dur- 
ing; immediately upon, right after; just 
at; in case of..., in the event of .. .; VL*- 


hdlan presently, immediately, at once, 
right away, without delay; now, actual- 
ly, at present [ JU-I j and JW on the 
spot, at once, immediately; JU- JT J* 
(kulli hdlin) and JL- ^1 J* (ayyi h.) in 
any case, at any rate, anyhow; J* J-j 
*JU- (yabqa) it remains unchanged, just 
as it is; JL^VI j- JU- j in some case or 
other, anyway, if occasion should arise, 
possibly; (with neg.) by no means, under 
no circumstances, not at all, in no way; 
JU- J*, JU, JU- ,Jj bi-ayyi h. with neg. : 
by no means, not at all, in no way; 
j JU-I JJJJ5" the same goes for..., it is 
the same with..., it is also the case 
with...; j JU-! j* \$~ as is the case 
with; jJJU- \JaS~ how are you? *JU^ *^ 
a thing in itself, a separate, independent 
thing ; 5j ji- 1 J \j>- V I (jawwiya) atmos - 
pheric conditions; IL^iJLJl Jj_j*-^l S~l*^ 
(Sajcpiya) courts dealing with vital 
statistics; ~*~*}^\ J^VI (fUii or) ojti 
personal statute ; JU-I <_->- L* noun 
referent of a circumstantial phrase 
(gram.); JL- ^^p e ard h. application, 
memorial, petition; JU-I jl—1, <0U- jLJ 
see jl-J 

11U- hdlamd (conj.) as soon as 

SJU- hdla pi. -at condition, state; sit- 
uation; (possible, actual) case; halata 
(prep.) during | jl ilU- halata an (conj.) 
whereas; a-U JUL I, under these circum- 
stances, such being the case, things 
being as they are; ill*- j (hdlati) in (the) 
case of ..., in the event of .. ., e.g., iJU- j 
o Li ( giydbihi) in case of his absence, 
eUjJI <JU- j (wafdh) in case of death; j 
iJU-i »i* in this (that) case; jl iJU- li- 
hdlati an in case that..., in the event 
that...; iil U^U j if ; j 5JU-1 ^ Lf as 
is the case with...; <s*£r' *JU- (ijti* 
ina'iya) marital status; *jjI-\ oVU-I {jaw* 
wlya) atmospheric conditions; J*X-\ UU- 
h. al-katar stand-by, alert, state of 
alarm; *^*\J\ *JU-I the status quo; *JU- 

^jjl^LJi h. af-tawdri' state of emergency; 
( _ r xUI iJU- j (taldbbus) flagrante delicto 
(jur.); iJ-ii! <J LA- 1 (madanlya) civil status, 
legal status; iJU-l »j*. su' al-h. predic- 
ament, plight 

JU- kali present, current, actual, 
existing; momentary, instantaneous; LJU- 
hallyan at present, actually | IJU- »j_j^ 
($ura) snapshot (phot.) 

1JU- kaliya actuality, topicality, time- 

Jj*- haul pi. Jl_j*-i ahwdl year; might, 
power | Zil> V' "*j> "ij <Sj*- V la haula 
wa-ld quwata Hid bi-lldh there is no power 
and no strength save in God; *) <Sj>- V 
iL>- Vj (wa-ld hllata) he is completely 
powerless, he can do nothing, he is at 
the end of his resources 

iSjy- hiwal change of place, change | 
V_»»- <c* o_j*iw V (yabtaguna) they don't 
want it otherwise, they ask for it 

J_p- haula (prep.) around, about; 
circa, about, some, approximately, rough- 
ly (with following number); about (esp. 
in news headings, approx. = re, concern- 

ing) | *)j 

, (haulihi) (= *J^>-) around 

him (or it), about him (or it); \^j>- J- 
(kaxdaihimd) around the two of them, 
about them; from their vicinity, from 
their surroundings (dual) 

J_j»- hauli periodic, temporary, interim ; 
one year old (animal), yearling; young 
animal; lamb, wether 

O ^LJ_j*- haultydt yearbook, annals 
(= Fr. annalea, as a scientific publication) 

J-*. hail strength, force, power, vigor | 
4L>. J*, (standing) upright, erect; ly V 
J-»- ^j *J (quwata) completely helpless and 

*L*- hila pi. J~»- hiyal, J^U-I ahdyil 2 
artifice, ruse, stratagem, maneuver, sub- 
terfuge, wile, trick ; device, shift ; a 


means to accomplish an end; expedient, 
makeshift, dodge, way-out; legal strat- 
agem (for the purpose of in jravdtm 
legis agere) | iLi-l U what's to be done? 
j J *L»- V (hilata) I have no possibility 
to..., I am in no position to ...; ^-u I* 
iL»- (6»-yadt) I can do nothing, I can get 
nowhere; V <L»- -Lf J lam yajid hilatan 
ilia he couldn't do anything except . . . , 
he had no other choice than . . . ; iLA-i c^l 
(a'yathu) he was at a loss, he was at the 
end of his wits 

J;*- htyali cunning, crafty, wily, sly, 
tricky, foxy 

J-»-l ahyaP craftier, wilier 

jj*» Aauu! squinting, strabismus 

Jj»-I aAux>P, f. »Vj»- Aau/o' 1 , pi. J_y- 
Awi squinting, squint-eyed, cross-eyed, 

JjJ»- Au'ui change, transformation, 
transmutation; prevention (u>» of 

Jlj*. At'uwJ obstacle; partition, screen 

JU- At't/dJa (prep.) in view of..., with 
regard to ..., in the face of, opposite, in 
front of, before 

*JI_p- haw&la pi. -at assignment, cession 
\jur.); bill of exchange, (promissory) 
note, check, draft | Jj^I «J1j»-, i-by «Ii_>»- 
money order; jJL> *JJ_j^- A. «/ar traveler's 

Jlj*- Aawoia (prep.) around, about; 
circa, approximately, roughly, about, 
some (with following number) 

*ijl*- kailiila separation, interruption, 
disruption; prevention (jja of 

JU ^ la mahala = ill* V (see 

iJLrf. mahala roller, wheel (of a draw 


o SJbfr V la mahatata minhu it is 
inevitable; there is no doubt about it; 

(also SJLrf- V alone) most certainly, pos- 
itively, absolutely, by all means 

Jj^ tahwil transformation, trans- 
mutation, conversion (Jl into 
change, alteration, modification; trans 
plantation ; transposition, reversal, 
version, translocation, dislocation, dis 
placement; transfer, assignment; conver- 
sion (e.g., of currency); conversion, trans- 
formation (of electric current); O trans- 
fer {Jin. ; also J.JI Jj_>* t. ad-dain) 
remittance (of money), transmittal, send 
ing, forwarding; bill of exchange, promis- 
sory note, draft (com.); check; endorse- 
ment (com.); c.o.d., cash on delivery | 
La^I o^UJI Jl Ji^dl iUIl Wi (qObi* 
Uyat al-'wnla, ajnabiya) convertibility of 

*L j£- tahwila pi. Jjj^ tahavAl* branch, 
offshoot ; Biding, sidetrack (railroad) ; side 
canal (irrigation; Eg.); switch (railroad) 

*}j[£- muhdwata pi. -St attempt, try; 
effort, endeavor; recourse to expedients, 
shifts, or dodges, dodging, hedging | 
4jL»- J* <JjU (haydtihi) attempt on s.o.'s 
life, murderous assault 

*Jl>-l ih&la transfer, conveyance, as- 
signment; remittance; forwarding, re- 
ferring (Jl or J* to a competent authori- 
ty); transmission, transmittal; O transfer 
[fin.); cession, assignment (Ial. Law); 
absurdity | Jp SJU-lfL with reference to; 
iJU-lfl ^U magistrate sitting at de- 
fendants arraignment, trial judge; 3JU-I 
u^l (J*) Jl (ma'dS) and o»UJ1 Jl UUI 
[iaqa'ud) pensioning off 

Jj* takawvnd change, transformation, 
transmutation; abrupt change, sudden 
turn, reversal ; shift, transition ; departure, 
deviation, digression (jp from) ; re- 
nunciation (^ of) | Jj»cll <k* nwfiat 
at-t. turning point 

J_* tahayyvi use of tricks, trickery 

JjUi tahdyul and JL^-I ihtiyal use of 
tricks, trickery; cunning, craft, subtlety, 
artfulness; malice, treachery, perfidy; 
deception, fraud 

JjI^ tahdyuli and JLi»-l ihtiyali 
fraudulent, e.g., Jl~*-I ,yt>tfl (iflds) frau- 
dulent bankruptcy 

*JU»i^l istihSia change, transformation, 
transmutation, turn, shift, transition ; 
transubstantiation (Chr.); impossibility, 
inconceivability, absurdity, preposterous- 


JjU- ha'il pi. JJ]>»- Aauxi'iP obstacle, 
obstruction, impediment (UjJ on the 
way to, j — ^ see JU- hala I); 
barrier; partition, screen, folding screen; 
• — (pl* Jy- huwwal) changeable, variable, 
frequently changing; feeble, languid, 
wan, pallid 

Jj£ muhawwil pl. -at converter, trans- 
former (el.) ; endorser 

*}j£- muhawwila switch (railroad) 

*-i* J^ mukawwal 'alaihi o.o.d., cash 
on delivery; « J^ collected on delivery 

J^ muAtl transferor, assignor (1st. 


Jl£ muhal inconceivable, unthink- 
able, impossible, absurd, preposterous, 


J^-z. mutahawtoil changeable, variable, 
changing | *J^**dl iU* 1 ^ I (o'ydd) the 
movable feasts (Cftr.) 

Jljrf. muAidZ artful, cunning, deceit- 
ful, treacherous, perfidious, fraudulent; 
Bwindler, cheat, impostor, fraud; crook, 
scoundrel; assignee (Isl. Law) j 4-L Jli£ 
debtor of a ceded claim, transferee (Isl. 

J;*!^ muetahtl impossible, absurd, 
preposterous; O^L»i~* impossible things, 
impossibilities, absurdities 

(fj>-) A*- hdma u (haum, uly»- hawamdn) to 
circle, hover, glide (in the air; of a 
bird, also of an aircraft) ; to hover, swarm, 
buzz (Jj»- and J* around) j »-L* < r li\ ti^U- 
(iuftAo, iiddahu) suspicion concentrated 
on him, he was suspected II to circle in 
the air; to hover in circles, to circle; to 
go around, revolve (thoughts and images, 
in one's head or mind); to browse (j in 
a book) 

<*y~ hauma pl. -Si turmoil of battle, 
thick of the fray; main part, bulk, 
main body; (tun.) quarter, section (of 
a city) 

jU- and iiU- see ,>»■ 

Cjjji*- see j*- 

,3j*- hawa i to gather, collect, unite (a; 
to encompass, embrace, contain, hold, 
enclose, comprise, include (a; to 
possess, own, have (a; to clasp 
(a, the hand) V to curl (up), coil (up) 
VIII to encompass, embrace, contain, 
hold, enclose, comprise, include (a or 
J*; to possess, own, have (a or J* 

Ijjj- kaiviya convolution, coil, curl, 
roll; pl. \j\j— Hawdyd intestines, bowels, 


<>}j*- hawaya pl. -at (eg.) wase, round 
pad to support a burden on the head or 
on the back 

jU- hawin pl. *]y huwah snake charmer; 
juggler, conjurer, magician 

£j\ij&- muhtawaydt content(s) (of a 
book, of a receptacle) | ^j*^ Cj 'kj~^- the 
innermost thoughts, the secrets of the 

^- hayya L* yakya 
^f hayya to live to 

(;!_«- haydh) to live; ^ „„ 

see, experience, witness (a, live 

(a through a time) | illi.1 ( ymJ li-yahya 

1-maWe long live the king ! — ^- hayiya 
L* yahyd (»L»- hayd*) to be ashamed (,> 
of, because of) II L»- hayyd to keep 
{• s.o.) alive, grant (• s.o.) a long life; to 
say to s.o. (•) : Jsl iiL*- may God preserve 
your life!; to greet, salute (♦ s.o.) IV L*-l 
ahyd to lend life (a, * to s.o., to 
enliven, animate, vitalize, endow with 
life, call into being (a, give birth 
(a to); to revive, reanimate, revivify 
(a, give new life (a to); to put on, 
produce, stage, arrange (a e.g., a theat- 
rical performance, a celebration, and 
the like); to celebrate (a, also a 
festival) j ^jS*a)l L*-l ($\krd) to commem- 
orate (a deceased person), observe the 
anniversary (of s.o.'s death); JJI L»-l 
(fail) to burn the midnight oil, JJI L»-l 
•■^L* (paldtan) to spend the night in 
prayer; i^JI L*-l (aahraia) to perform 
in the evening (of an artist); L»-l 
*Li*- (haflaian) to give a performance; 
to perform at a celebration (artist); 
JU &-$$ *ijJb\ £-f\ jS gad ahyat il- 
firgatu tcUdta lay&lin the theatrical troupe 
gave three evening performances X L*-i-1 
istahyd to spare s.o.'s (*) life, let live, 
keep alive (» s.o.); L»*i*1 tatahyd, l y^>^ 
istahd to be ashamed (• to face s.o.; &» 
of, because of; to become or 
feel embarrassed (,y in front of s.o.), be 
embarrassed (<>• by) ; to be bashful, shy, 

f hayy pi- •'-*■' ahyd* living, live, 
alive; lively, lusty, animated, active, 
energetio, unbroken, undaunted, un- 
dismayed; living being, organism; tribe, 
tribal community; block of apartment 
houses; section, quarter (of a city) f i* 
•L»-VI 'Urn al-ahyS biology; iUJI (J »- 
h. al-*dlam houseleek tree (Sempervivum 
arboreum L.; bot.) 

^f-hayya; a^LJI ^fi^hayya'aldf-palah 
come to prayer! 

S-*- hayya pi. -of snake, serpent, viper 

O jUI ahyd'i biologic(al); (pi. -un) 
biologist j 5-IL»-l *\?*S {klmiyd') bio- 

tf- hayiy bashful, shy, diffident, modest 

*L»~ hayd 3 shame, diffidence, bash- 
fulness, timidity; shyness | »Li-l JJLi 
shameless, impudent; »LA-I <U qiUat aX-h. 
shamelessness, impudence 

»L»- haydh pi. £>'_>-»- hayawdt life; life- 
blood; liveliness, animation | J*iJ\ »L»- 
h. ar-rxf country life, rural life; <*UI SLJ-! 
('dmma) public life; 5-ttUI *U-I family 
life; »Li-l ^i— » mustawd l-h. living 
standard; O !l-A-l V 'tfnt cU-h. biology 

tfjf hayawi lively, full of life, vital, 
vigorous; vital, essential to life 

*j j-»- hayaiviya vitality, vigor, vim 

oLj-*- hayawiy&tz o1jj-JJ oUi* jIj* 
(mawddd mudadda) antibiotics 

u]>-»- hayawdn pi. -& animal, beast; 
(coll.) animals, living creatures | c»ljlj-»- 
ILjJj (todyiyo) mammals; «j^f oUI^ 
(mujiarra) ruminants; JjiU uj>-*- (fufaill) 
parasite; oj>J-l i* 'tfm aZ-A. zoology 

tjlj^ /taj/awdnf animal (adj.); zoolog- 

vl>s*- Aayouwmyo bestiality ; animality , 
animal nature 

,>>*• huwayyin pi. -a( minute animal, 

lJ f\ ahyd livelier; more vigorous, 
more vital 

<rf? tahlya pi. -<W, bl^ tahdyd greeting, 
salutation; salute; cheer (= wish that 
God may give s.o. long life) | •l^TiJ *-£■ 
tahiyatan li-dikr&ku in order to keep his 
memory alive, in remembrance of him; 
*j^-JI l_»Jl ('askariya) military salute 

•U-l ihyd* animation, enlivening; 
revival, revitalization, revivification; ar- 
ranging, staging, conducting, putting on, 


holding (of a celebration) | t£^"aJI »L*-I t. 
ad-d\kra commemoration (of a deceased 
person); tf^JJ »U*.I (ihya'an) (with foil. 
gen.) in commemoration of..., in me- 
moriam ...; ol^l »L»-I ». o2-mauxi£ culti- 
vation of virgin land 

»L»^-I istihya' shame ; diffidence, bash- 
fulness, timidity; shyness 

L* muhayyan face, countenance 

4., >c .ll C-JI as-aitl al-mustakiya sen- 
sitive plant (Mimosa pudica; 6o(.) 

*£-*- Aatfu (conj.) where (place and di- 
rection); wherever; since, as, due to the 
fact that ; whereas ; inasmuch as | 
ul <1~»- {anna) Bince, as, because, due to 
the fact that...; in that...; j6* >t^- 
wherever it be; in any case, at any rate; 
£-»- Jl ild kaitu where (direction); to 
where . . ., to the place where . . . ; J,,r ^» 
min Aatfu from where, whence, where- 
from ; where (place) ; whereas ; (with 
foil . nominative ) as to , as for , 
concerning, regarding, with respect 
to, in view of, because of; j_. 
liliiJI ti-*- min h. t-taq&fatu with regard 
to education, as far as education is 
concerned; jjOj Vj ^jJb .i-*- ^ (yadri 
ma-la yadri) whether he knows it or not, 
knowingly or without his knowledge; 
V ii-»- j> (with foil, imperf.) without 
(being, doing, etc.) ; j* £~*- (> *■ B uch» in 
itself, j* £~»- > jiUil ('Slam) the world 
in itself, the world as such; jl £«». ^ 
(anna) inasmuch as; in view of the 
fact that; since, as, due to the fact 
that ; d~*^ bi-haitu inasmuch as ; in 
such a manner that..., so as to...; so 
that...; such as...; (he found himself) 
at a point or degree where, e.g., j* c-JlT 
iSJ "if <Z~* ;»ljJl (bar&'a, tard) = she 
was so naive that she couldn't see . . . ; 
"^ <Z~& insofar as ... not, provided 
that... not; o\ ii--^ (anna) in such a 
manner that..., so as to..., so that... 

]£*- haitumd wherever, wheresoever 
(place); wherever, no matter where... 
(direction) | jiJl £*- (ittafaga) any- 
where, wherever it was (or be), haphaz- 
ardly, at random 

<^- haifiya pi. -at standpoint; view- 
point, point of view, approach; aspect, 
respect, regard, consideration; high social 
standing, social distinction, dignity; pi. 
also : considerations, legal reasons on 
which the judgment is based, opinion 
(jur.) | (IjjUl) oLJJ.1 jj* (dawu) or 
5JU-I »-*UM t oLiJ-l ^UH people of 
(high) social standing, prominent people, 
people of distinction; S-J'js^' Vs^*' t> 
(hayaioaniya) from a zoological view- 

• jjJLL I al-hitiyun the Hittites 

(4-*-) jU. hada i (hatd, ^-*- huyud, jl-t_». 
hayaddn, -Lrf- moAtd) to deviate, swerve, 
depart, desist (jp from); to leave, quit, 
give up, abandon, relinquish (je; 
j* 4j iU- to dissuade or get s.o. away 
from . . . ; to incline, tend ( Jl, j£ to, 
toward), shade, blend (Jl, j* into) II to 
keep aside, put aside (* Ill to stay 
away, keep apart (*, • from s.o., from; to avoid, shun (*, • b.o., 
Til to depart, deviate, digress, swerve 
(je from) 

■L*- haid, o(j-«- Hayaddn deviation, 
digression, departure, swerving, turning 
aside, turning away 

•a-»- haida deviation, digression, swerv- 
ing, departure (from a course); neutrality; 
impartiality J I.L*- J* aside, apart, to 
one side 

x^- mahid avoidance (js of | 
<** x^ V (mahida) it is unavoidable 

jL*- hiydd neutrality (pol.) | iLi-l J* 
neutral; JJ^I je aL*. (£a#) derailment 


^L*- hiyddi neutral (pol.) 

•ajl^. muhayada neutrality {pol.) 

ju'U- hd'id neutral (pol.) 

Aj Irf. muAdytd neutral (pol.) ; jj-ul^ I 
the neutrals {pol.) 

JbU^u mutahdyid neutral (poZ.) 
aWjJ-*" Aawfo^ad 1 Hydarabad 

Aaira, jljw /tayardn) to become confused; 
to become or be helpless, be at a loss, 
know nothing (j of, about); to waver, 
hesitate, be unable to choose (c^j — cr-\ 
between — and) | ^.1 j jU (amrihi) to 
be confused, baffled, bewildered, dis- 
mayed; to be at a loss, be at one's wit's 
end II to confuse, baffle, bewilder, non- 
plus, embarrass (• s.o.) V to become con- 
fused; to be or become dismayed, startled, 
baffled, perplexed ( j by), be at a loss ( j 
as to) ; to waver (uncertainly) (0^ 
between) | *j*\ j jf- {amrihi) to be 
confused, baffled, bewildered, disconcert- 
ed, be at a loss, be at one's wit's end 

j*- hair fenced-in garden, enclosure j 
"jjjj-l jw h. al-hayawdn zoological 
garden, zoo 

\j*- kaira confusion, perplexity, be- 
wilderment, embarrassment, helplessness j 
Ijv j embarrassed, at a loss, helpless 

o\j*~ hair&n*, f. <sj*~ kaira, pi. if jU- 
haydrd, huyard confused, perplexed, 
Btartled, dismayed, disconcerted, baffled, 
nonplused, bewildered, appalled, taken 
aback, Btunned; embarrassed, at a loss, 
at one's wit's end; uncertain, helpless, 
sheepish (smile, etc.), confused, in- 
coherent (words, and the like) 

jj. tahayyur confusion, perplexity, 
bewilderment, dismay ; embarrassment, 

j\*- ha'ir disconcerted, perplexed, 
startled, dismayed; embarrassed, help- 
less, at a loss, at one's wit's end ; baffled, 
bewildered, confused, uncertain (j 
about); straying, astray | *^\ j /U 
{amrihi) confused, baffled, bewildered, 
embarrassed, at a loss, helpless 

j*.*- muhayyar embarrassed, at a loss, 

jv*i» mutahayyir and Js£ muhtar 

Ojtj^- see <-?>j*- 

(j-V-) o-»^- M#o » (&°*0> «-*s~ Jo**°» u*s* 
mahxf) to flee, escape (j* or from, run away (jp from), turn one's 
back (jp on) VII do. 

ur « s »- haif, t^t- Haifa flight, escape 

jaj ,_ r *^- J Vj waqa'a /» haipa baifa 
to get into a bad fix, meet with 

i-»L*- ( 

» ofy 

lJ a 1 £. mahif flight, escape; place of 
refuge, retreat, sanctuary | ^j*^ te U it 
is unavoidable; jl <> u - ^^ u& { *key 
couldn't but ..., they had no other 
alternative but to . . . 

( iJ ±*-) C— »U ha4at i (hai$, ^^ mahujl, 
^Irf. maha4) and V to menstruate, 
have a monthly period 

^.i-*- hai4 (n. un. i^*-) and ^>L»- 
kiyS4 menstruation, monthly period 

^U- ka"i4 (f.) and i^IU- menstru- 

ikj-, il»U-, jlLj*-, J»L»- see J»j»- 

^(.jfcrf-) \_jU- £d/a t (haif) to deal unjustly 
(J» with s.o.), wrong, injure, harm (J* 
s.o.) ; to restrict, limit, curtail, impair 
(Jp, enoroach (J* upon) V to 

impair, injure, prejudice, violate (* or 
j-, encroach, infringe (* or j- 

._*->- haif wrong, injustice ; harm, 
damage, prejudice | 4~U *Ju»- what a 
pity! too bad! «u ■_*_>- V (haifa) it 
is not out of place, it is quite appro- 

2 LL»- Am/a Haifa (seaport in NW Israel) 

(J=*-) jl*- Aaja » to surround, beset from all 
sides (<_j b.o.) ; to fall, descend, come 
(l^ upon s.o., punishment), befall, over- 
take, grip, seize, overcome (<_j s.o.), 
happen, occur (<_j to) ; to penetrate, 
pierce (J the body; of a sword); to 
affect, influence (j s.o., IV to 
surround, beset from all sides (l-j s.o.); 
to bring down (* <_j upon s.o., cause (a) to descend {lj upon s.o.) 

J-*- haiq consequence, effect (of a 
misdeed redounding upon the evildoer) 

dL»- II to weave 

iTL*. see 4j*- 

iLj- haik = liUL- ; see iij»- 

1 ^ r V, il*., j-^l, jL*- f 'aJjL^, etc., see Jp- ; 
J-»-i see ji*- 

2 JjU- hdyil 2 Hail (town and oasis in N 

((>*") *J^*- A*" 1 * 1 * to draw near, approach, 
come, arrive (time); to happen accidental- 
ly | cijJ! jU- the (right) time has come; 
now is the time; jl <l jL- the time has 
come for him to ...; jj*+ij jl ± jL- LI 
{a-ma, an yafhamu) haven't they under- 
stood yet...?; ULisJI J- cJU- (nu'nwi 
Uifata) I happened to turn around ( Jl to), 
it just happened that my eyes fell on 
(Jl) II to set a time (» for b.o.) IV to 
destroy, wipe out (• s.o.) V to watch, 
wait (* for a time or an opportunity) | 
**</*" t>*^ (furfata) to wait for an op- 

portunity, bide one's time X ,>>*lJ 
istahyana to wait for the right time 

jW hdn bar; cabaret 

iiU- ha/na pi. -at bar, wineshop, wine 
tavern; pub, tavern, taproom 

,>»- hain death, destruction 

,>*- Am pi. JL»-I ahyan, joL-l ahayin 2 
time; propitious time, good time, op- 
portunity; Aina (prep.) at the time of..., 
at, upon; (conj.) at the time when, when; 
as soon as; L-»- hinan for some time; 
once, one day; UU*-I ahydnan occasional- 
ly, from time to time, sometimes j 
L-»- — L_»- sometimes — sometimes, at 
times — at times; joWlM J at times, 
sometimes, once in a while; ^ j 
(^jUNI) oLj-VI ft ba'4i l-a. and u *»i 
jL»-Vl fta'^a J-a. sometimes, occasionally, 
now and then, once in a while, from time 
to time, at times; jL»-VI i_-UI j fi aglabi 
l-a, mostly, most of the time, in most 
cases; ,>>- Jl for some time; meanwhile, 
for the time being; 4^*- j then, at the 
time, in his (its) time; in due time, at 
the appointed time; ,>i-l li da l-hina 
just now, right now; <>i-l jJJi ,y from 
that time on, from then on; ^i-l lilli Jl 
until that time, till then; ^^ j (with 
foil, verb) whereas; jl ,>»- j and jl j-.*- J* 
(Aim) at the same time when ..., while; 
whereas, also without jl, e.g., ,>*- J* 
jj^_> > 'aZ6 Ami Awm yaz'wmuna 
whereas they, on the other hand, claim; 

ilr* - J' u\*~ i>*>(j^v j^* - j^> O 1 * - "**i l~*~i 
^V j«- j- (ii-ahra) and j*-Tj ,>»■ ,>j 
(wa-dkara) from time to time, now and 
then, once in a while 

■itL*- hineCidin at that time, then, 
that day 

iJI-L-*- hinadaka at that time, then, 
that day 

t->- hinama (conj.) while; when, as 

J !>=*■> i^j?*- 

and 4 


*U- fed* name of the letter £ 

j_jjU- kdtun pi. CrJ]>»- feauw#» a lady, socially 
prominent woman | o>jUM »yj zahrat 
al-k. little blue flower of the steppe (*yr.) 

*L>-U. kakam (= fl*-U-) rabbi 

j-.-*jU- fcaropin and J~*jU- feflra^in* (ey.) 

JjjU jfcoafi^ pi. Jj jl^ feau>dzig a post, stake, 
pole; dirty trick | jjjU- ii* that's tough 

iJliU- kdqdn pi. (>*lj»- &auwg?n s overlord, 
ruler, sovereign, monarch, emperor 

i5"U- fedfet earth- colored, khaki 

Jjj** '•Ajy- see Jy- 

j»U- fcdm raw, unworked, unprocessed; un- 
tanned ; linen ; calico ; (pi. -at) raw 
material; inexperienced, green, untrain- 
ed, unskilled, artless, uncouth, boorish; 
pi. CjUU- raw materials | *U- ^1>- raw 
leather; pU- -U^*- raw fibers ; f U- C-j j (zaii) 
crude oil; fU- j&* (sukhar) raw sugar; 
aU^I jl^il {wwuxhW) the raw materials 

jU Bn pi. -at hostel, caravansary; inn, 
pub, tavern | J-U-'l OU-'l (kalili) district 
of Cairo (center of art trade and market 
activity); ^y, oU- Khan Yunis (town 
in Gaza sector) 

SiU- k&na pi. -at column (e.g., of a news- 
paper); square (e.g., on a chessboard) 

._-*- kabba u (kabb, i_-»- kabab, t-^*- kabtb) 
to amble (animal); to trot (horse); to 
jog, saunter (person); to sink (j in 
sand); — u {kabb) to surge, heave, be 
rough (sea) V and VIII to amble (animal) ; 
to trot (horse) 

<_-»- kabab amble; trot 

<_-»^ feo&fe, kibb heaving, surging (of the 
sea), rough sea 

<~s~ kabb impostor, swindler 

L>- kaba'a a and II to hide, conceal (* 
T to hide, conceal o.s.; to be hidden, be 
concealed VIII to hide, conceal o.s.; to 
disappear; to be hidden, be concealed 

*-*- kab\ kib' that which is hidden, 
a hidden thing 

**j_»- kabi'a pi. UL*. kabayd that which 
is hidden ; a hidden, secret thing; a 
cache | ^jVI IjL*- k. l-ar4 that which 
is hidden in the earth; natural resources 

Li. makba* pi. *jli makabi'* hiding 
place; hide-out, refuge, haunt, retreat; 
cellar, shelter, air-raid shelter 

»L>- kibd* pi. 4Z-»-\ akbi'a, i-»-l akbiya 
tent; husk, hull (of grain) 

fcil>- kabi'a, i-jU kabiya pi. 'j^ 
fcawdW* 8 , v!>*- A»«w6*» large vessel, 
cask, jar 

cXJfi- mukabba'at hidden, secret things; 

*^jfi- muktabi* hidden, concealed 

£-± IV to be humble (Jl before God) 

<i->. kabufa u (jcvbt, iJL*- kabdta) to be bad; 
to be wicked, evil, malicious, vicious, 
malignant VI to behave viciously, dis- 
play malice; to feel awkward, feel em- 

Jl->- k-ubt badness, wickedness; ma- 
lignancy (e.g., of a disease); malice, 
malevolence, viciousness 

£-»- Jpabai refuse, scum, dross, slag 

ti^*- kabit pi. <t~»- kubut, .Uj*. kubatd'*, 
<1»L*-1 akbdt,2i^- kabata bad, evil, wicked; 
malicious, vicious, spiteful; noxious, 
injurious, harmful; malignant (disease); 
offensive, repulsive, nauseating, disgust- 
ing (odor) 

it_»-l akbat 2 worse; more wicked 

UU kabata badness, wickedness; mal- 
ice, malevolence, viciousness, malignancy 

i- kabara u (knbr, *j>*- kibra) to try, test 
(a; to experience (a; to have 
tried, have experienced, know by ex- 
perience (a; to get to know thor- 
oughly, know well (*, • s.o.); — 
kabura u to know thoroughly (i_< or a, be fully acquainted (^> or a with II to notify, advise, apprise, in- 
form, tell (# s.o., w of or about) III to 
write (• to s.o.), address (• b.o.), turn, 
appeal (• to s.o.), contact (• s.o.) in 
writing; to negotiate, treat, parley (• 
with s.o.) IV to notify, inform, apprise, 
advise (v * s-o. of), let know, tell (>~> • 
s.o. about) ; to communicate, report, 
relate (^ • to s.o., tell (<_> • s.o. V to inquire (* of s.o.), ask (» s.o.) 
TI to inform one another, notify one 
another, keep one another informed; to 
correspond, write each other; to nego- 
tiate, treat, parley (« with s.o., j about) 
VIII to explore (a, search (a into), 
seek information (a about); to test, 
examine (• b.o., a; to try, put to 
the test (• s.o., a; to have tried, 
have experienced, know by experience 
(a; to know well (a X to 
inquire {je- a of s.o. about), ask (jn * s.o. 

s»- fcabar pi. jL^I ajcbar news; in- 
formation, intelligence ; report, com- 
munication, message; notificationjrumor; 
story; matter, affair; (gram.) predicate 
of a nominal clause; pi. annals [ je. JL 
yL*-l to inquire of s.o. about s.o. else; 

jlT j^- j jtf or jK* jJ- j J^j (kabari 
kdna) to belong to the past, be passe*, be 
no longer existent 

*jyi~ kibra, j**- kvbr experience; knowl- j 

edge 1 

j^J- kabvt experienced, expert (*_* 
in); familiar, conversant, well -acquainted 
(i~> with), cognizant (i~> of); j*X\ the 
Knowing (one of the attributes of God) ; 
(pi. *\j*- kitbard**) expert, specialist | 
l-JIj-^JI j*-*- tax expert, tax adviser j 

j_^jU- kabur pi. jy]y*- Jcawabtr* peg; 
pin; wedge 

jJt- makbar sense, intrinsic significance ; 
(pi. yUt makdbir 3 ) laboratory 4 

j Li- mikbdr pi. jylit makdbir* test tube 

Ij^fi. mukabara pi. -Si correspondence, 
(esp. written) information (in classified 
ads: >_j IjCM please write to..., please 
contact ...), notice, notification, com- 
munication | <J>iJj •jCfi- telephone call, 
telephone conversation; <?rj\>- V* (£** 
rijiya) long-distance call; \j* «/lJft 1 

(eirriya) secret communique ; ol_/UM A* ' 

qalam al-m. intelligence bureau; !/lJil 
L jj*i»- [hutfuriyan) apply in person (in 
classified ads) | 

jL^I ikbar notification, information, 
communication, note, message; report; 
indirect discourse, oratio obliqua (gram.) 

i£;L»^l ikbdri news-, information- (in t 


j\£ takabur negotiation; correspond- 

jL^-l iktibdr pi. -at exploration, study; 
examination ; test ; test item (of an 
examination) ; trial, testing; (scientific) 
investigation, research, experiment; ex- 
perience, empirical knowledge; practical 
experience | ly/ ol;Ls*tl {tahririya) 
written examination items; jli jUs^l 


(4dti) personal experience; jL=*-Vl J-*- Jp 
experimentally ; jtiiV I c^ on probation, 
on trial; jti»-1/l 6y*»- experimental fields 

^jL^-l iktibdri experimental; experi- 
ential; empirical 

«jjL^-1 iktibariya empiricism 

jLii^l istikbar pi. -at inquiry | »J\i 
O IjUi^.'il I information bureau 

_ni mukbir pi. -tin reporter; detective 

jcjt muktabar pi. -at laboratory 

- kabaza i (kabz) to bake (a bread) VIII do. 

j^~ kvbz pi. jL*-l akb&z bread 

ijvi- kubza loaf of bread 

JL>- kabbdz pi. -tin, SjL*- baker 

jL»- kubbaz, j^>- kubbaiz, ^jLji- &w&* 
6dzd mallow (6o(.) 

•jL»- H6oza baker's trade, art of 

jJt makbaz, iyjfi- makbaza pi. >lit 
makdbiz 2 bakery 

i^- Jcabapa i {kab§) to mix, mingle, intermix 
(^ * with) II to mix, mingle, inter- 
mix (a; to muddle, jumble, confuse 
(a, make a mess (a of) 

iJ ^ s: >- kabif, i-«-*^ kabi$a medley, 
mess, mishmash, hodgepodge; : .L «n, . r - a 
jellylike sweet 

^Lw- kabbaf one who causes confusion, 
who messes things up; an irresponsible, 
light-minded person 

*- kabafa i (jcabf) to beat, strike (a, 
against; to knock, rap (a on, c-»UI 
on the door) ; to stamp ( ^-Jj V 1 the ground ; 
of animals) | ,\jU. ^ .UJtf (kabfa 
'a&wd'a) he acts haphazardly, he proceeds 
rashly or at random V to beat, strike, 
hit (• s.o.) ; to bring down, fell, knock out, 
throw to the ground (• s.o.); to bump, 
hit (a against), collide (a with), stumble 

(a over) ; to be lost, wander about, stray; 
to grope about, fumble about; to strug- 
gle, resist; to clatter over the ground, 
gallop (horse) VIII to bump (against) ; to 
struggle, resist; to grope about, fumble 
about; to be lost, wander around, stray; 
to stir, bustle 

*L*- kabfa blow, stroke; rap, knock; 
noise, din, uproar 

J»U^- kubaf insanity, madness, mental 

J-»- kabala u (kabl) to confound, confuse, 
mess up, complicate (a; to hinder, 
impede, handicap, stop, hold back (• 
b.o.); to befuddle (• s.o.), confuse b.o.'s 
(•) mind, rob (• s.o.) of his senses, make 
(• s.o.) crazy; — kabila a (kabal, JL*. 
kabal) to get confused; to be or become 
mentally disturbed, crazy, insane II to 
confound, confuse (a, ■ s.o.) ; to 
complicate, entangle, mess up, muddle, 
throw into disorder (a; to rob of 
his senses, drive insane (• s.o.) VIII to 
become muddled, disordered (mind) 

Jt*- kabl, kabal confusion; mental 
disorder, insanity 

J^ kabil mad, crazy, insane; feeble- 
minded, dim-witted 

JjjU akbaP mad, crazy, insane; feeble- 
minded, dim-witted 

JL^-I iktibdl mental disorder 

Jj-jt makbul mad, crazy, idiotic, 
imbecilic, mentally deranged, insane; 
muddlehead, dolt, fool 

JJt mukabbal confused, baffled, per- 
plexed, dismayed; muddled, confused, 
mixed up 

{^-) L»- kaba u (kabw, kvbuw) to go out, die 

LL*. and »L>- pi. < st >-\ see U>- 

5_jU- pi. ^>]y~ see L^ 


i$j\~*- kiby&ri caviar 

j+- katara i (Jfatr) to betray (• s.o.), act 
perfidiously, disloyally (* toward s.o.); 
to deceive, cheat, dupe (• s.o.) 

j*- katr disloyalty, breach of confi- 
dence, perfidy, treachery, betrayal, de- 

jbi- kattdr traitor, disloyal person, 
cheat, swindler 

j-'U- katir treacherous, perfidious, dis- 

Ji>- katala i u {kail, b~te*- kataldn) to dupe, 
gull, cheat, double-cross, deceive (• s.o.) 
IU to deceive, cheat, dupe (* s.o.); to 
behave hypocritically VIII = I 

Jz»- kail and iljljt mukdtala deception, 
trickery, double-dealing, duplicity, dup- 
ing, gulling 

JjUft mukdtU deceitful, crafty, wily, 

J*- katama i (katm, As»- kitdm) to seal, 
provide with a seal or Bignet (*; to 
stamp, impress with a stamp (a; 
to seal off, close, make impervious or 
inaccessible (a; also J* the hearts, 
said of God); to put one's seal (a on), 
conclude, terminate (a; to wind 
up, finish, complete (a; to close, 
heal, cicatrize (wound) V to put on or 
wear a ring (i~>) | 1 _-*JJLi J£T (dahab) to 
wear a golden ring VIII to conclude, 
finish, terminate, wind up (a 

JU- katm sealing; — (pi. #Ujt| aktam, 
pys- kutum) seal, signet, seal imprint; 
stamp, stamp imprint; also = **i>- (see 
below) | Jj^Jl 1st postmark, (postal) 
cancellation stamp; IAM «r* Sam* al-k. 
sealing wax 

<^J- katma pi. katamal recital of the 
entire Koran, esp. on festive occasions 

rU- kdtam, kdtim pi. r\j>- kawdtim 2 
seal ring, signet ring; ring, finger ring; 

seal, signet; stamp | ^\jj\ ^U- k. az- 
zawdj wedding ring; ,^-JI ^U- k. on- 
nablyin the Seal (i.e., the last) of the 
Prophets = Mohammed 

pUU kdtam pi. -Jl^ kawStim* seal 
ring, signet ring; ring 

fU»- kitdm sealing wax; end, close, 
conclusion, termination | flx£l j at the 
end, at last, finally, eventually 

lykst kitdmi final, concluding j <JT 
L»b»- (kalima) concluding speech 

pb^-l iktitdm end, close, conclusion, 

4x U- kdtima pi. /I^- kawatim*, ^Jl^ 
kavxUlm 2 end, olose, conclusion, termina- 
tion; epilogue (of a book); -jt^ final 

Ji mukattam ringed, adorned with 
a ring or rings (hand) 

Jjyt muktatam end, close, conclusion, 

I ( jut katana i (katn) to circumcise (• a boy) 
VIII pass. 

{/>■ katn circumcision 

jC*- feafcin pi. olijtl a&(an son-in-law; 

JU>- kitdn, Ub^- kitdna circumcision 

*u>jU. look up alphabetically 

jut katara u and katira a to become solid, 
become thick, solidify, thicken; to be or 
become viscous, sirupy; to clot, coagulate 
(liquid); to curdle (milk) II and IV to 
thicken, inspissate, condense, coagulate 
(* liquid); to curdle (a milk) V = I 

O *Ln*- katra thrombosis (med.) 

jljji- ku$dr dregs (of a liquid); scum 
of the earth, riffraff, mob 

•jU»- jcutdra dregs (of a liquid); sed- 
iment, lees 

JjC takagur coagulation | O ^' j j^ 
{mukk) cerebral thrombosis 

J\+- kdfir thiokened, inspissated, con- 
densed; visoous, ropy, sirupy; curdled, 
coagulated, clotted; yoghurt, curd 

Jdt mukagar thickened, inspissated, 
condensed; viscous, ropy, sirupy; curdled, 
coagulated, dotted 

J£ kajila a {kajal) to become embarrassed; 
to be ashamed (,>* of or to face s.o.), 
be abashed (j* by, feel embarrassed 
(j>. about or in front of s.o.) II and 
IY to shame (• s.o.) ; to embarrass, abash, 
put to shame (• s.o.) 

Jje kajal shame (<> at); bashfulness, 
diffidenoe, timidity, shyness; abashment; 
disgrace, shame, ignominy | J*J* U 
(la-l-k.) O disgraoe! the shame of it! 

J* kajil abashed, embarrassed; bash- 
ful, diffident, shy, timid ; overgrown 
with luxuriant, profuse vegetation; long 
and flowing (garment) 

Jy£ kajvl abashed, ashamed, shame- 
faced ; shy, bashful, diffident, timid 

a^je kajl&n* abashed, ashamed, 
shamefaced; shy, bashful, diffident, tim- 
id; bewildered with shame, embarrassed 

Jj»J& makjul ashamed, shamefaced 

JmJ£ mukjtt arousing Bhame, shame- 
ful; shocking, disgraceful, ignominious | 
lUail »Lii>VI (a'i&*) the pudenda 

d± kadda u to furrow, plow (* the ground) 
V to be furrowed; to become wrinkled 

-U- kadd pi. *jJ*- kudud cheek; lateral 
portion, side | a-W- ^» §a"ara kaddahu 
to put on a contemptuous mien 

-W. kadd and «-u- kvdda pi. j-u- kudad 
furrow, ridge, groove, rut 

ajO»-i ukdvd pi. JjjU-I akddid 2 furrow, 
ridge, groove, rut; trench, excavation 

•ojt mikadda pi. jlit makadd* cushion, 
pillow; seat cushion 

£.W. kadij premature child 

r-'-l*- i*daj abortion, miscarriage 

j-U- kadira a {kadar) to be numb, prickle, 
tingle (leg, arm); to be or become limp, 
benumbed, paralyzed; — kadara u to 
confine to women's quarters, keep in 
seclusion (U a girl) II to numb, benumb, 
stupefy (» b.o., a; to anesthetize, 
narcotize, put to sleep (• s.o., a; 
med.); to confine to women's quarters, 
keep in seclusion (U a girl) IV to make 
torpid, stupefy, benumb, deprive of 
Bensation, narcotize (• b.o., a V to 
be numbed, be stunned, be stupefied, 
be deprived of sensation; to come to 
rest, calm down 

j4»- kidr pi. jjJ*- kttdur, jl-U-l akdar, 
joU-1 akadir* curtain, drape; women's 
quarters of a tent ; boudoir, private 
room (of a lady) 

j-W- kadar and »j-w- kudra numbness, 
insensibility (esp. of a limb gone to 
sleep) ; daze, torpor, stupor 

j-U- kadir numb (limb); benumbed, 
torpid, dazed 

jjjd takdir anesthetization, narcotiza- 

jjU- kadir limp, languid; benumbed, 
torpid, dazed; bidden in his den, lurk- 
ing (lion) 

•pU- kadira chrysalis (of a caterpillar; 

jXf- mukaddir anesthetic, painkilling, 
tranquilizing; (pi. -d*) an anesthetic; a 
narcotic, drug, dope 

jXfi- mukaddar numb, torpid, in- 
sensible; (eg.) tipsy, fuddled, drunk 

•jjjt mukaddara girl kept in seclusion 
from the outside world 


,J* < 

^2-w- kadasa i (kad&) to scratch (a; to 
maul, lacerate, tear to pieces (a; 
to violate (a the rules of decenoy, s.o.'s 
honor, and the like); to disturb (a the 
peace); to ruin, sully, run down (o»f 
sum'atahu s.o.'s reputation) II to scratch 
(a; to maul, lacerate, tear to 
pieces (a; to violate (a the rules 
of decency, s.o.'s honor, etc.); to ruin, 
sully, run down (<uf sum'atahu s.o.'s 

^.u- kadi pi. Jjjji. kuduS, J.\js-\ akdaS 
scratch, scratch mark; graze, abrasion 

£4». kada'a a to cheat (.s.o.,^ out of; 
to deceive, mislead, dupe, gull (• s.o.); 
pass, kudi'a to be mistaken, be wrong 
(^ about) ; to fail to see clearly (^ with 
regard to), get the wrong impression 
(je- of Ill to cheat, dupe, deceive, 
take in (• s.o.); to try to deceive or 
double-cross (• s.o.) VII to let o.s. be 
deceived, be deceived, deluded, misled 
(l_» by); to be mistaken, be wrong 

i*0>- kud'a pi. £-w- kudo,', -at de- 
ception, cheating, swindle 

U-U- huda'a impostor, swindler, cheat, 

4po>-I ^j^ sawwd akdaahu to crush 
s.o.'s pride, humble s.o. 

4-i-U. kadi' a pi. g\j*- kadd'i' 3 de- 
ception, deceit, betrayal, treachery, per- 
fidy, trickery, imposture 

£^4»- kadda" impostor, swindler, sharper, 
cheat, crook; deceptive, delusive 

f-0-*- kai&a fata morgana, mirage 

£j.iU-l akadi'* swindles, underhand 
dealings, crooked practices; phantoms, 
phantasms, delusions 

£0J£ mikda', ■mukda', makda' pi. fjljfi 
majcadi' 2 small room, chamber, cabinet; 

£jo>- kidd' deception, deceit, swindle, 
imposture, betrayal, treachery, perfidy, 
trickery, duplicity 

(jtl-l*. kidd'i deceitful, fraudulent; 
deceptive, delusive, fallacious 

£\sLi£ mukddi' swindler, impostor, cheat, 
sharper, crook 

J-i»- kadila a to stiffen, become rigid; to 
become numb, torpid, limp 

l»4*- kadama i u (<*j^i- kidma) to serve, be at 
service, do service ; to have a job ; to work ; 
to wait (#ons.o.); to serve (• s.o., a; 
to render a service (• to s.o., a to, 
stand up {. for s.o.) | ^jVI p-bt to till or 
cultivate the soil; ;_^T oUa>. <.u*. (ki* 
damdtin katiratan) he rendered him many 
services; j^i v [f, ^ (rikaba) to 
be at s.o.'s beck and call; iU** *.u- 
o*£i (ma$aliha) to serve s.o.'s interests; 
^IjiJI J..U- (qudddsa) to celebrate Mass 
(Chr.) II to employ, hire (• s.o.), en- 
gage the services (» of s.o.); to give 
work (• to s.o.), provide work (. for) 
X to employ, hire, take on (. s.o., J for, engage the services (J • of s.o. for; to put in operation, operate (a 
e.g., a public utility); to employ, use 
(a, J for), make use, avail o.s. (a 
of, J for a purpose) 

pi*- kadam servants, attendants 

<.o>- kidma pi. >.u- kidam, -at a service 
(rendered) ; attendance, service ; opera- 
tion ; office, employment, occupation, 
job; work | .^i i.o^. j in the service of ; £^..u- j at your service; U-UJ i.-U- 
{kidmatan) in the interest of truth, for 
the sake of truth; l ij $L*l\ ~**jX\ ('aakariya) 
military service; ^jl^l i-U-"! (ijbdriya) 
conscription, compulsory service; i.ij.'l 
'<ij~i\ (airriya) secret service ( pol.) ; 
^l-AiJl i,o*. k, al-quddda celebration of 
Mass {Chr.) 


flu*- kadddm pi. • manservant, servant, 
attendant; woman servant, female do- 
mestic servant, maid 

Z>\i>- kaddma attendance, service; 
employment, occupation, office, job 

iJo*. kadddma pi. -at woman servant, 
female domestic servant, maid 

fojc takdim work, occupation or duty 
of an employment agent (f JJs. miLkaddim 
see below) | fJ*dl ^Si* maktab at-t. labor 
office, employment bureau 

*Ij*»l*I istikddm (putting into) oper- 
ation; use, utilization; employment, hir- 
ing (of an employee); service, occupation, 
position, job 

pjU kadim pi. j»IJbt kuddam, 4.-U- 
Jcadama domestic servant, help ; man- 
servant ; woman servant ; employee ; 
attendant; waiter; deacon (Chr.) 

wU Jcadima woman servant; female 
domestic servant, maid ; woman at- 

ijjU- hddimlya status of a servant 

>jAit 7nakdum pi. -un, £>£ maka* 
dim 2 master, employer 

<*jOJt makduma mistress, lady (of 
the house), woman employer 

i~yJJ£ makdumlya status of the 
master or employer 

*jj£ mukaddim pi. -un employment 

MV,,- mustakdim pi. - Sn employer ; — 
mustakdam (colloq. mwatofcdiwi) pi. -«n 
employee, official 

o-W- HI to befriend (. s.o.), make friends (. 
with s.o.); to associate socially (» with) 

jo*. Jcidn pi. jlj>-l akdan (intimate) 
friend, companion, confidant 

•/■a*- kadln (intimate) friend, com- 
panion, confidant 

yjXi- kidlw, ,j j±J»- kudaiwi khedive 

[$jl±*- kidiwi khedivial 

1.U- X to submit, subject o.s, 

j-AV-- miwfafeJi* submissive, servile, 
subservient, obedient 

Jsjjj^- kv4ruf pi. <Juj!i*. kaddrif* (spinning) 

jjjJU- kvdrufi turbinate, topUke 

JjJU- kadaja i (kadf) to hurl away (», o» 

«iJJ£ mikdafa sling, slingshot, catapult 

J-U- kadala u {kadi, u^-U kigl&n) to leave, 
abandon, forsake, desert, leave in the 
lurch (• or j* s.o.); to Btay behind; to 
disappoint; pass, kugila to fail, suffer a 
setback, meet with disappointment in to 
leave, abandon, forsake, desert, leave 
in the lurch (• s.o.) VI to let up, flag, 
grow slack, languish, wane, decrease, 
fade, grow feeble VII to be left in the 
lurch; to be helpless; to be defeated; to 
meet with disappointment 
uV-i*- kidJdn disappointment 

Jiljc" tak&dul fatigue, languor, weak- 
ness, feebleness; relaxation, lessening of 
tension; disagreement, dissent, disunion 

JUiel inkid&l forsakenness, deserted- 
ness, abandonment; defeat 

JiU*i* mutakddil languid, weak, ex- 
hausted, spent, effete 

jJU- X to Bubmit, Bubject o.s. 

*\Xicj*\ istikdd* subservience, submis- 
siveness, servility 

■Uw« mustakdin submissive, servile, 
subservient, obedient 

j>- karra iu(y/ karir) to murmur, bubble, 
gurgle, purl (of running water); to 
ripple, trickle; to snore; — {karr, jjj>- 


kurur) to fall, fall down, drop; to sink to 
the ground, prostrate o.s. | u J>j)}\ J* jt- 
to fall to the ground; 4jJj ^j ji- (baina 
yadaihi) he prostrated himself before 
him; *-*-£ c^ j>- (tahta qadamaihi) he 
fell at his feet 

j j*- karir purl, murmur, ripple (of 

Ifj*- kari'a a (*j*~ kar*) to evacuate the 
bowels, defecate 

kur* and 

kard' excrement, 

j U 1^ kurasan* Khurasan (province in 
NE Iran) 

l ^>j»- karaba i (karb) to destroy, wreck, 
demolish, shatter, devastate, lay waste 
(a; — kariba a (v!/*- karab) to 
be or become destroyed, ruined, waste, 
go to ruin, fall apart, disintegrate II to 
devastate, lay waste, destroy, wreck, 
demolish, ruin, lay in ruins (a 
IV = II; V to be or become destroyed, 
ruined, waste, go to ruin, fall apart, dis- 

<->j*~ karb destruction, devastation 

wj^i- kurb hole; eye of a needle; anus 

i_^>> karib destroyed, demolished, 
wrecked, devastated, waste; dilapidated, 
tumble-down, ramshackle; broken, ruin- 
ed, out of order 

*ij*- kirba pi. <~>j>- jcirab (site of) 
ruins; ruin, disintegrating structure 

*jjji- karba, kurba irreligion, lawless- 

lij»- kurba pi. i_^>- kurab hole; eye 
of a needle ; anus 

4j_^- kariba (site of) ruins 

^!_^- karab ruin, ruination; state of 
destruction or dilapidation; desolation; 
(pi. lij*-\ akriba) (site of) ruins 

<l\j*- karaba pi. -at, ^[r- kard'ib 2 dis- 
integrating structure, ruin, ruins 

o\jj>-karbdn,kirban destroyed, wrecked, 
demolished, devastated, waste; ruined, 
broken, out of order 

<->ij£- iakrlb pi. -at devastation, de- 
struction, wrecking, demolition; sabotage 

isij*- J^ 'amal iakrlbl act of sabotage 

yjU karib annihilator, destroyer 

t-»ji mukarrib pi. ~un annihilator, 
destroyer; saboteur 

i_yi mukrib annihilator, destroyer 

^jj*- karrvb (coll.; n. un. •) carob, locust; 
carob bean, locust pod, St.-John's-bread 

Jjj/ karrvba pi. -at kharouba, a dry 
measure (Eg.; = l / u ^ii = .1291) 

J^j>- karbaia to scratch ; to scrawl, scribble 

jljjj*- karbuS pi. jii»[^- karabiS* (syr.) 

O cA±>J£ mukarbaSdt graffiti 

lajj*- karbafa to throw into disorder, dis- 
arrange, confuse (a 

,jij*- karbaqa to perforate, riddle (a; 
to spoil, mar (a 
Jjj^- karbaq hellebore (bot.) 

£)j*- karata u (kari) to pierce, bore, perforate 
(a, make a hole (a in) 

£jj>- kurt, kari pi. ol^l akrdt, £jjj*- 
kurut hole; bore, drill hole; ring, eye, 

£*ij»- kirrit experienced, practiced, 
skilled; guide 

C*£j>- kartU rhinoceros 

rj»- karaja u (rj^>- kuruj) to go out, walk 
out; to come out (^ of), emerge dj* 
from); to drive or ride out, go out (in a 
vehicle); to flow out, exude, effuse; to go 
away, depart, leave, retire; to protrude, 



project, stick out; to leave (j-; 
to dismount, alight, disembark (^. 
from), get out, step out (j* of); to 
emanate, issue, arise, originate, result 
{^a from) ; to draw away, segregate, 
separate, secede, dissent (^ from), dis- 
agree (^ with); to deviate, depart (j* 
from an arrangement, from a prin- 
ciple); to be an exception (^ to); to be 
outside a given subject {je), go beyond a 
topic <j*), exceed (j* a topic); to be 
alien {^ to), be extraneous (^ from), 
not to belong (^ to), be not included 
(j* in), have nothing to do with {^); 
&■ rj£ V it is limited to . . ., it is nothing 
but . . . ; to go forth (into battle) ; to 
attack (J* s.o.,, rise, fight (J* 
against); to rebel, revolt (J* against); to 
violate, break, infringe (J» a rule, a 
regulation) ; t_> «-U r/ to come up 
to s.o. with ..., confront s.o. with ...; to 
get out, bring out, take out (<-* s.o.); to 
turn out, oust, dislodge (L* s.o.); to lead 
away, dissuade (j* <-> s.o. from); to 
find out, discover (*_< | J*A-'I jc rj*- 
(haff) to be derailed, run ofif the track 
(train) II to move out, take out, dislodge 
(• s.o., *; to turn out, oust, expel, 
evict, drive out (• s.o., a ; to remove, 
eliminate (• s.o., a; to exclude, 
except (a; to train (* s.o., J in a 
skill, and the like); to educate, bring up 
(• s.o.); to distill (a; to pull out, 
extract (a; to gather, deduce, infer 
(a; to explain, interpret, expound, 
elucidate (a IV to move out, take 
out, get out, bring out, dislodge (• s.o., 
a; to unload (a, disembark, 
detrain, etc. (a s.o., e.g., troops); to 
turn out, oust {* s.o.); to emit, send out 
(a, e.g., electric waves); to stick 
out (a e.g., the tongue); to fish out (a from the pocket); to bring out into 
the open, make public (a; to 
remove, extract (a; to eliminate 

(a; to expel, evict, exile, expatriate 
(• s.o., j- from a country); to dismiss, 
fire, remove (• s.o., <y. from an office); 
*hj i> ^j**' (tanvatthi) to rob s.o. of 
his property, dispossess, expropriate s.o.; 
to give ofif, sound, emit (a, e.g., 
a tone; said of a musical instrument); 
to set forth, state, express, utter, voice 
(a an opinion); to break (Uij rihan 
wind); to educate, bring up (• s.o.); to 
train (» s.o.); to stage, produce (a a play; 
theat.); to bring out, make, shoot (*Ajj 
riwayatan a film, said of a director); to 
except, exclude (a, je from); to 
pull out, extract (a; to select (a V to be educated; to be trained (j 
in a school, college, also ,>.; j in a field); 
to graduate ( j from a school, from a 
college, also j*) VI to part company, 
separate; to disengage, disassociate, 
withdraw from one another ; to cede, 
assign, transfer, make over (J j* to 
s.o.) X to get out, move out, remove (a, j* from); to take out, draw (a, ,y from); to pull out, extract 
(a, j- from) ; to mine, extract, 
recover (a mineral resources); to win, 
gain, make (a a product, j^ from); to 
copy, excerpt (a, j* from a book or 
document) ; to derive, draw, deduce, 
figure out, compute (^ a from); to 
elicit (a, e.g., astonishment, ^* from 
s.o.); to find out, discover (a 

xj»- karj expenditure, outlay, ex- 
pense^), costs ; land tax ; appropriate 
or suitable, that which is s.o.'s due, 
which s.o. deserves, which s.o. needs; 
(eg.) ration (food); (pi. oU-j/ kurujat) 
trimming; edge, edging, piping; pi. lace; 
trimmings | <tl> r j>- la* that's what you 
need, what you deserve; ii-lll r^- k. 
al'TrtaSnaqa one who deserves to be 

rj»- kurj pi. **-j*- kiraja saddlebag, 



*»-,»- karja pi. karajdt exit, departure; 
protrusion, protuberance, projection, sa- 
lient part; {eg.) funeral 

£•!>- karaj tax; kharaj, land tax (1st. 

(yrl^- karaji of or pertaining to land 
tax; of or pertaining to the taxed and 
cultivable area 

x]j>~ kuraj (coll.; n. un. !, pi. -dl) skin 
eruption; tumor, abscess 

rjj*- kurujexit; egression, emergence ; 
departure; exodus; emigration; raid, 
foray, sortie (J* against), attack, as- 
sault (J* on) [ Ia£l & £Jj*~ (fatP) 
derailment (of a train) 

£j»- kirrlj pi. -un graduate (of a 
school, college, or university) | j«f Jt- 1 ye"J* 
>->j*}\ mu'tamar al-k. al-'arab Congress of 
Arab Graduates (a supra-national or- 
ganization of university graduates ad- 
vocating a unified Arab world) 

rjt- makraj pi. jtj^ majcdrif (place 
of) exit; way out (of a difficult situation), 
outlet, escape, loophole, shift, dodge, 
excuse; articulation (of a sound); O cath- 
ode (el.) | oyjJ-1 rj^'*- J* phonetics 

£j£ takrij education, training (in 
schools, colleges); raising, upbringing, 
rearing (of children); extraction; deriva- 
tion, deduction ; interpretation, exegesis 

r|^>-l ikraj taking out, moving out, 
removal; unloading, disembarkment, de- 
trainment; emission; moving, carting 
away, hauling off; evacuation; publica- 
tion, publicizing, bringing before the 
public; extraction, removal; elimination; 
dismissal, removal (from an office); oust- 
ing, expulsion, eviction, expatriation, 
banishment (from a country); excretion 
(biol.); finding out, discovery, figuring 
out; training, formation, education; 
direction, production, Btaging (motion 
pictures, theater) | r^-Vl J._jJ (tavxtUa) 

to have the. direction. (motion pictures, 
theater) ; ... r!/*-' J- directed by . . . 
(motion picture) 

xj£ takarruj graduation (from a 
school or college) 

£j lie takaruj separation , disassocia- 
tion, disengagement, (mutual) with- 

r\ji*z*\ istikraj taking out, moving out, 
pulling out, removal; withdrawing; ex- 
traction, derivation, gaining (of in- 
dustrial products, etc.), mining, re- 
covery (of mineral resources); prepara- 
tion of an extract; excerpting, copying; 
deduction, inference ; solution (of a 

*-jU- karij outer, outside, outward, 
exterior; external, foreign; outside, ex- 
terior (n.); foreign country or countries; 
quotient (arith.); kdrija (prep.) outside, 
out of; U-jU- kdrijan outside | jn U-j^ 
outaide of, apart from; rj^ <J abroad, 
in foreign countries; outside; rjU-l Jl 
abroad, to foreign countries; to the out- 
side, outward, out 

*>-jU-'l £1 Kharga (town in central 
Egypt, in Kharga oasis) 

^>-jU- kdriji outer, out- (in compounds), 
outside, outward, exterior, external ; 
foreign; nonresident | ^jU- SiL* ('iydda) 
policlinic ; i->-j U-' I »j jj j ministry of 
foreign (external) affairs, foreign min- 
istry; ^tj^- -LJj (tilmtd) a student 
not living at a boarding school, a day 

■rj\y- kawdrij 2 the Khawarij, Kha- 
rijites (the oldest religious sect of Islam); 
dissenters, dissidents, backsliders, rebels 

jyi mukrij pi. -un (screen or stage) 

■rjfi- mukraj excerpt, extract (from 
a book); oU^it excretions (biol.) 



rj^> mutakarrij pl. -un graduate 
(j or j- of a school or college) 

r>»=— mustakraj pi. -at extract; 
excerpt (^ from), partial oopy (> of) 

ji-ji~ karkara to snore 

1 i J ^- kartda a to be a virgin, be untouched, 
innocent, chaste 

••bj*- kartda pi. aJl^ kar&'id*, Sj*- 
hurud virgin; unbored pearl 

'•*j>- hurda scrap metal, scrap iron; pi. 
o \j*j>- kurdawat notions , small wares ; 
small goods, smalls, miscellaneous Bmall 
articles; (eg. also) novelties, fancy goods 
for ladies 

j-iji- kurdaji dealer in miscellaneous 

ja^- Jcurdaq, kurduq small shot, buckshot 

J^>. kardal (coll.; n. un. •) mustard seeds; 

jjt- karaza tuto pierce, bore (a 
jj>- karaz (coll.; n.un. J) pearls 
jjf- mikraz pi. jjl* makariz* awl; 

j\Jfi- mikraz awl; punch 

1 U * J »- karisa a (karat) to be dumb, mute ; to 
become silent, keep silent, hold one's 
tongue IV to silence, reduce to silence, 
gag (. s.o.) 

^jt- karas dumbness, muteness 

^y-1 akras 3 , f. »U^> fcarsa' 1 , pi. ^j*- 
kurs, oU^- kuraan dumb, mute 

oL-ji- karsdn* dumb, mute 

■uU^- karaadn, *i U^- Jearasana concrete 
(beton) | O *-l • *Jl->- (mtwaWoAa) 
armored (or reinforced) concrete 

i~ltj^j»- kurSuf (coll.; n. 
kardSif artichoke 

!) pl. 


^j*- karasa u (kar$) to guess, estimate (a; to conjecture, surmise (a, 
form conjectures (a about); to tell an 
untruth, a falsehood, to lie V to fabricate 
lies ( Jp against s.o.) ; to raise false 
accusations (J* against s.o.) 

<j*j*- kits, kurs pl. uL*^- ktrpdn, 
kuraan earring 

^[f- karrds pl. -un liar, slanderer, 

J^*. karafa u i (karf) to pull off, strip (a 
leaves from a tree); to turn, lathe, shape 
with a lathe (a wood, metal); to exag- 
gerate, boast, brag, lie; — u (eg.) to cut 
into small pieces; to mince, chop, dice 
(a meat, carrots, etc.) II (eg.) to cut into 
small pieces, mince, chop (a VII to 
be turned, be lathed, be shaped with a 
lathe; to join, enter (j, iL* j /* ailk 
an organization, a community), af- 
filiate (J, *iiL j with an organization, 
a community); to penetrate (j or 
into); to plunge headlong (j into), 
embark rashly (j upon); to labor, slave, 
toil | »t£jl j J^icl (bukd') to break into 

$*j»- karp pulling-off (of leaves); bj* 
alsill .!»>- ^fJJi see jp; turning, turnery 

b\j*- karrat pl. -tin turner, lather; 
braggart, bluffer, storyteller 

51»l^- kirdfa turner's trade, turnery, 
art of turning 

SLl^- karrafa skirt (syr.) 

<Ljy- karlta pl. -Ul/- kard'ip 3 , lyfc 
kurut map, chart 

il^jt mikrafa, makrafa pl. J»jlit ma* 
fcdrt'J 2 lathe 

ilyU- kdrifa pl. -dt map, chart 

iy_^£ makrut cone (maM.); conic 

^jjt makrfyi conic 



Jfij*- karfiiS, '<*£>/- karfvJa pi. J&\j*- 
kardftf* cartridge; lead (of a pencil); 
cartouche (arch.); daybook 

Jli^>- hartal oats 

fjl»p. kuiium pi. *}»\j*- kardfim 2 probosois, 
trunk (of the elephant) ; hose 

l*jl«^l at-karfum Khartoum (capital of 
the Sudanese Republic) 

i>tj^>- kardfin* a kind of earthworm 

J^\j*- karafini wormlike, vermiform 

itJ^>- karfif rhinoceros 

f-j»- karu'a u (kur' t 3*j^»- kara'a) and kari'a 
a (kara') to droop, be or become slack, 
limp, flabby; to be or become languid, 
soft, spineless, yielding VII do. Till to 
invent, devise, contrive (a ; to 
create, originate (a 

9j>- kari* and Mj>- kari" soft, languid, 
yielding, spineless, devoid of energy, 

fjj>- kirwa' castor-oil plant, palma 
Christi (Ricinus communis; hot.) 

f\j*-\ iktira' pi. -at invention 

9 Juft mukiari' pi. -un inventor 

9 J& muktara' pi. -at invention 

<_jij»- karifa a (karaf) to dote, be senile and 
feeble-minded; to drivel, talk foolishly 

i_jy^ karaf feeble-mindedness, dotage, 
senility; childishness (of an old man) 

«J»^- karif and o\ij>- karfdn feeble- 
minded, doting; childish; dotard 

<J*ij>- karif autumn, fall 

Jj_^- karifi autumnal 

J»jj»- karuf pi. <J» \j>- kiraf, ii^-l 
akrifa, d)li^- Jir/dn young sheep, lamb, 
yearling; wether 

*»\j>- kurafa pi. -at superstition; fable, 
fairy tale 

,jl^- kurdfi fabulous, fictitious, leg- 

iijk- makrafa prattle, drivel, twaddle, J 

boah % 

±juj£ takrif folly, delusion ; foolish 
talk, drivel, twaddle, bosh, buncombe 

._jyt mukarrif childish, foolish ; (pi. 
-fin.) prattler, chatterbox, windbag; char- 
latan | 

J&j*- karfaia to shuffle, mix (a 

U>jij*- karfuSa pi. J^*]^- karafti* card 
of low value, discard (in card playing) < 

<5j>- karaqa i u (karq) to tear, rend, tear 1 

apart (a; to make a hole (a in); to 
perforate, pierce, bore (a ; to 
penetrate (a, break, pass (a through; to traverse, cross, transit (a, 
a country); to violate, impair, infringe 
(a, encroach (a upon); to break I 

(a a vow, and the like), commit a breach 
of (a); to exceed the ordinary, be un- 
usual, extraordinary, unprecedented, un- j 
heard-of | *^U)I 3j»- to go beyond what 
is ordinary or customary IV to lurk, lie 
in wait V and VII to be torn, be rent, be 
pierced, be broken VIII to pierce (a I ; to cut, break, pass (a through, 
penetrate (a; to traverse, ctobs, 
transit (a, travel through (a); 
to exceed (a e.g., a limit), go beyond (a) I ***!—. i5_r*-l (masami'ahu) to ' 
shrill in s.o.'s ears 

3j*~ karq tearing, rending, laceration; 
piercing, boring, perforation ; penetration ; 
disruption; breakthrough ; tra version, 
crossing, transit; violation, breach; (pi. 
3jj»- kuruq) hole, aperture, opening | 
fUJI £*j\ 3j*- k. al-amn al-'amm violation 
of public security; £jl.iUt <jj^- offense 
against common usage, violation of 
mores; **\J\ J* j^AM *— Jl (ittasa'a) the 
rent is beyond repair 

"J J- 

3j*- kurq and <#^- kurqa awkwardness, 
clumsiness; stupidity | JiJ\ J Jj*- (ra'y) 
Stupidity; folly, madness; J Ji^J-'l ,>- 
... ul Jij\ it would be very unwise 
to ... 

5i^- jw-ga pi. J^. fctrag tatter, shred; 
rag; Bcrap (of paper); polishing cloth; 
eraser (cloth) 

jj^-l akraqr*, f. .1*^- karqd**, pi. «3/t 
^wrj clumsy, awkward; stupid; irregular; 
illegal, illicit, unlawful 

*5^t makraqa trickery, sleight of hand, 
legerdemain, hoous-pocus, swindle 

jjljt makdriq* a kind of pastry (fun.) 

j\j»-\ iktirdq penetration; piercing, 
disruption; tra version, orossing, transit 

i3jU- jc&riq and (JjIJI or) S.»LH Jjl*- 
exceeding the customary, unusual, extra- 
ordinary, unprecedented, unheard-of; 
pi. <3j\j~- kato&riq* preternatural phe- 
nomena, miracles; that whioh transoends 
the conceivable or the rational | JjU- 
4m~UI supernatural; CjUjLJlI Jjj>»- k. 
al-muf&daf&t miraculous coincidences 

jjjf- muktaraq passage, passageway 

fj*~ karama i (Jcarm) and II to pierce (a, make a hole or holes (* in); to 
perforate (* Til to be pierced, be 
riddled, be torn; to be deranged, un- 
settled, disorganized; to oome to an 
end, run out, peter out, get lost VIM to 
destroy, annihilate (• s.o.); to carry 
off, carry away (• s.o., of death); to 
break (Jiji-JI the ranks), pass through (*) 

pjit harm pi. *jf* JcurUm gap, blank 
(e.g., in a manuscript, or the like) 

tj*~ kitrm hole | 5j- # Vl ?j*- k. al-ibra 
eye of the needle 

<*ir»- karr&ma drill, bit, auger, gimlet; 
punch, perforator 

*j*-\ akram 2 having a perforated nasal 

fj£ takrim piercing, boring, drilling; 
perforation; punching; lacemaking, lace- 

*xj£- takrima lace, lacework, open- 
work, filigree 

l*l^c I inkirdm state of unsettlement, 
disturbance, disorganization, derange- 
ment | Ojl^ll j f)jd\ (taw&zun) disturb- 
ance of equilibrium 

rjje- tnakrum defective, incomplete 
(e.g., a manuscript) 

tje- mukarram perforated; done in 
openwork, in filigree 

iiU^- kurmdSa pi. -at (»r.) harrow 

i-fyj* kurnub carob , locust ; oarob bean , 
locust pod, St.-John's-bread 

Jiff- kirnig pi. Jj]j»- kardniq 1 young hare, 

tjj*~ b^ rva ' castor-oil plant, palma Christi 
(Bicinus communis; bot.) 

l j*- kazza u to pierce, transfix (* s.o.); to 
stab {• b.o.» t-> with) Till to pierce, 
transfix (• s.o., *-> with) 

l j*- kazz pi. jjj*- kuzuz silk, Bilk fabric 

\)j*- kazara u to look askance (• at s.o.), give 
s.o. (•) a sidelong glance 

^jjA-' I jrf bahr al-kazar the Caspian Sea 

ji;>*- kaizur&n pi. jjU*- kaySair 1 cane, reed; 
rattan; bamboo 

olj>^- kaizurdna cane, stick 
9jt- kaza'a a {kaz*) to cut, sever (* 
J.»^- kuxa'bal idle talk, bosh 

*L*j»- kuza'bala pi. -at idle talk, bosh; 
joke, jest, hoax; fib, yarn; cock and bull 



ijj»- kazaf pottery, earthenware; porcelain, 
china; ceramics 

Sf- kazafl (made of) porcelain ; 
poreelaneous, porcelain, china (adj.) 

J»'^ kazzaf dealer in china ware; 

i»lj>. kizdfa potter's trade, pottery 

1 JJ»- kazaqa i to pierce, stab, transfix (a, • 
s.o.,; to drive, ram (j-ljVl j * into the ground); to tear, rend, rip 
apart (a II to tear, rend, rip apart 
(a V and VII pass of I and II 

3j»- kazq rip, rent, tear, hole (in a 

jjjU kazuq pi. JijJ>^ kaivdztq 2 post, 
stake, pole; dirty trick j JjjU- IJ* that's 
tough luck! 

3 3jj*- look up alphabetically 

4/*" t aza ^ a * {kazl) to cut off, sever (*; 
to hinder, prevent, hold back, restrain, 
keep (« s.o., je- from) VIII to cut off, cut 
short, end abruptly (a; to shorten, 
abridge, abbreviate (a; to stand 
alone (<-> with an opinion) 

J'j^-I iktizal abridgment, abbreviation; 
shorthand, stenography 

(Jjtjt muktazil stenographer 

?yi- Jcazama i (kazm) to string, thread (a 
pearls) | <ujl >j>- (anfahu) to pierce the 
nasal septum (of a camel) and insert the 
nose ring for the bridle; to make s.o. 
subservient to one's will 

fl^- Jcizdm, <•])*■ kizdma pi. f\j>- ka* 
za'im? nose ring 

<j\j>- Jcuzdma lavender (bot.) 

bj*- Jcazana u (kazn) to store, stock, lay up, 
hoard, amass, accumulate; to keep 
secret, keep (a a secret) II and VIII to 
store, stock, lay up, warehouse (*; 
to store up, accumulate (a; to dam 

(a; to put in safekeeping, keep (a 

uj»- kazn storing; accumulation, 
hoarding, amassing ; storage, warehousing 

*ijt- kazna treasure house ; safe, 
coffer, vault ; wardrobe, locker ; cup- 

iJljjt kizana pi. -at, $\yi- kaz&vn* 
treasure house ; va ult, coffer, safe ; 
treasury, treasury department (of an 
official agency), any office for the 
deposit and disbursement of funds; 
locker, wardrobe, closet; cupboard; li- 
brary | iljjJI o[^- k. ad-daula and Z\j^- 
l»L ('ammo ) public treasury, exchequer; 
pliil *i\j*- k. at-talj icebox, refrigerator; 
>_^&l *j\j>- k. al-kutvb bookcase; library; 
't^ay**- **i\ji- (hupufiya) private library; 
^■^U.1 iJ[^- wardrobe, closet, locker 

oj*. kazina pi. ^1^- kazd'in* treasure 
house; public treasury, exchequer; treas- 
ury, treasury department (of an official 
agency), any office for the deposit and 
disbursement of funds; cashier's office; 
vault, coffer, safe; cashbox, till (of a 
merchant) |^*>l£l oj£l {kaf$a) (formerly) 
the Royal Privy Purse (Jr.); *J>UI ijj^ 
k. ad-daula public treasury, exchequer; 
lJu^\j Oi^-, »x*\j jjii ~*^ij*- cash register 

o\}>~ kazzan pi. -St, ,>j[^ kaz&zin* 
dam ; reservoir ; basin, sump, pool ; 
storage tank (also for oil); — (pi. -un) 
storehouse man, warehouseman 

bj£- makzan pi. dj\jt mak&zin* 
storeroom, storehouse; depository; stock- 
room, storage room; depot, magazine, 
warehouse ; store, shop, department 
store ; u^l al-makzan the Mokhzan, 
the Moroccan government (formerly: 
governmental finance department; M or.) \ 
hj*\ byfi- m. adwiya drugstore; uji 
j1ju-»VI m. al-ifdar shipping room (com.); 
^^-uil Ojit m, eU-'afS trunk (of an auto- 



Jjjt makzant being under government 
control or administration, belonging to 
the government (Mor.) | iJjit ibU 
(amJdifc) government land (Mor.) 

Jjljt makazini pi. -*ya native gendarme 
(.If or.) 

ujUfi makuzin'; j*J$ jjlit m. af-fariq 
the nearest, shortest way, a short cut 

^^i. makzanjl storehouseman, ware- 

jl-tfj*- fcosanddr, faizTiador treasurer 

jrjjc takzln storage, storing, ware- 
housing; storing up, accumulation; dam- 

CjjU- Jcazin pi. 4J)>- kazana, b\j*- 
kuzzdn treasurer 

bjy& makzun stored, stored up, 
deposited, warehoused; (pi. •&) stock, 
supply, stock in trade 

&yi- kaziya a (kizy, kazan) to be or become 
base, vile, despicable, contemptible ; 
(olj»- kazaya) to be ashamed (,> of); — 
kazd i to disgrace, dishonor, discredit, 
put to shame (• s.o.); to shame, abash, 
embarrass (• s.o.) IT to humiliate, de- 
grade, dishonor (. s.o.); to shame, put to 
shame (» s.o.) X to be ashamed 

j;j>- kizy, kazan shame, disgrace, 
ignominy | Ij:ji£ L yet la-Ukazd what a 
shame ! 

jlj_^- kazyan*, t i>J>- kazya, pi, IjIj»- 
kazaya ashamed, shamefaced, abashed; 
shameful, disgraceful, scandalous, in- 
famouB, base, mean, vile 

• Ijje makzdh pi. jIJ£ makazin a shame- 
ful thing, a disgrace; reason for shame; 
pl. shameful things, disgraceful acts, 

t^yfi- makziy ashamed, shamefaced, 
abashed; embarrassed, confused; {Sj£\ 
the Devil 

jfi- mukzin disgraceful, shameful, 
scandalous, infamous 

ojjt mukziya pl. -at disgraceful act, 

l>r >- kassa (1st pers. perf. kasistu) a (*— »■ 
kissa, i-L-jt- kaaSaa) to be mean, base, 
vile; to become less, decrease, diminish, 
depreciate, fall in value; — kaaaa u to 
lessen, reduce, diminish (a II to 
lessen, reduce, diminish (a 

j**- kass lettuce (Lactuca sativa; 

<_*• kaaaa (n. un.) head of lettuce 

<->- kiaaa and S-L*- kasdsa meanness, 
baseness, vileness 

- fj-i-*- koala pl. »l— »-l akiaaa'* mean, 
base, low, vile, despicable, contemptible, 

*_*-*- kaaiaa pl. ,^-JL 
trick, infamy 

kaaa'ia 9 mean 

!■*■ fewa'ff a (faw*) to chase away (• s.o.); — 
'jj-rf- £*wt*a a to be driven away, make 
off | ci-A kaei'ta beat it ! scram ! iLJI t-»-l 
ikaa* Uaika do. 

L-»-l akea'* baser, meaner, more des- 
picable; weaker 

'^U- kaai* spurned, rejected, outcast; 
low, base, vulgar, despicable, contempt- 
ible; disgraceful, shameful, scandalous, 
infamous; futile, vain (attempt); weak, 
feeble, languid 

^ koataka indisposition 

tfl: M Z mukastak indisposed, unwell, 

—A kaaira a (kuar, jL,*- koadr, «jl~ >- koa&ra, 
jl— »- fctwrow) to incur a loss, suffer 
damage; to lose, forfeit (a; to go 
astray, lose one's way, get lost ; to 
perish II to cause loss or damage (• to 
s.o.); to do harm (» to s.o.); to destroy, 



ruin (» s.o.) ; to corrupt, deprave (• s.o.) 
IT to cause a loss (• to s.o.); to shorten, 
cut, reduce (* X to grudge (J* 
or j s.o. *, envy s.o. (J* or j) the 
possession of (a) 

_ / — ii- £u«r loss, damage 

jl,-*. ^twron loss, damage, forfeiture; 
decline, deterioration ; depravity, pro- 

•jl—*. kaadra pi. j?l_>- faMtfir* loss, 
damage ; pi. losses, casualties (J in ; 
mil.) | #)U>- U what a pity! too badl 

jl^-^ kasrdn (eg.) loser; affected by 
damage or loss 

_^U- kdsir lost, hopeless ; involving 
substantial losses; loser; depraved, cor- 
rupted; profligate, disreputable person, 

j— i. mukassir causing damage, harm- 
ful, noxious, injurious, detrimental 

uji kasafa % (kasf, <jj~*- kusuf) to sink, 
sink down, give way, cave in, disappear, 
go down ; to be eclipsed (moon) ; — i [kasf) 
to cause to sink, cause to give way | 
j^jVI -u 4)1 J*-»- k.lldkubihil-artfa God 
made him sink into the ground, God 
made the ground swallow him up 
VII to sink, sink down, go down 

<Jl_>- kasf baseness, ignominy, disgrace, 
shame; inferiority | Li->- fU sdma 
kasfan to humiliate, abase, degrade (• s.o.) 

kusuf occultation (astron.) ; 

lunar eclipse 

^ kaSSa i u (kaSS) to enter ( j 

^Ll^- kiSdi vermin, insects 

!*■ II to lignify, become woody or wood- 
like; to line, face or case with wood, to 
panel, wainscot (* V to lignify, 
become woody or woodlike; to become 
hard, stiff, firm, rigid; to stiffen, freeze 
(e.g., with panic) 

«_~i>- kaSab pi. v li>-l akSdb wood, 
lumber, timber | »Ly^l l,*- k. al-anbiyd' 
guaiacum wood, lignum vitae 

i-i*. ka&aba pi. -at, ^Li^l akSdb piece 
of wood; a timber; pale, post; plank, 
board | c~il <Jji- k. al-mayyit coffin; 
^,-il i-i*- k, al-masrah stage (of a 
theater), ^^J.\ l*L± J* on the "boards" 

,^JL>- kas'abi wooden, woody, ligneous, 
made of wood; timber-, lumber- (in 

t-jli*- kaHdb pi. • lumber merchant 

i_^L£ takHib paneling, wainscoting 

i T AiJc iakilba pi. -at, t-^ilic takdiib 2 
barrack, wooden shed 

L--1*! takassub stiffness, rigor, rigidity; 

i_JL^i* mutakaiiib frozen, rigid; stiff, 
hard, firm 

c tJ- kuSt pi. Cjjls- kvMU javelin 

*jiU«JL*- ka$kd& (coll. ; n. un. S) pi. J^-\l»- 
kaidkU 2 poppy 

3 u i*m.L*- kaSkaia to clank, clatter, rattle; to 

Lii*i»- kaSkaSa pi. -at noise; clank, 
clatter, rattle; rustle, rustling; crash 

itx^Z*. (= ii.-JLiS' ) rattle (toy) 

lj\Jj- kusara leftover (of a meal); offal, 
refuse; a discard, a worthless thing 

-JL*. kaJa'a a (fj-i>- ku&u') to be submissive, 
be humble ; to humble o.s. ; to fade 
(voice) | tj^ut *~+ (basarihi) to lower 
one's eyes II to humble, reduce to sub- 
mission (* s.o.) V to display humility; 
to be humble; to be moved, be touched 

y^U- kuSu' submissiveness, submis- 
sion, humility 

*iU- kd&i' pi. 

kaia'a submissive, 

Jill*, kuf&f various fruits, stewed and soaked 
in sirup or rose water, compote 

jt£i^ kuilcdr coarsely ground grain, grits 
*£j_£i>. ka&kartia Bcab, slough, Bcurf 
-i»- II to intoxicate, make drunk (• b.o.) 

•^. kaihn nose; mouth; vent, outlet 

/>>£*»• kaiSum pi. ^Lt- kay&Hm* nose; 
gills; also pi. ---L*- nose 

/^ JeaSuna u (ii^i»- £u£una) to be rough, 
coarse, crude; to be raw, uncut, un- 
polished II to roughen, coarsen, make 
crude (a Ill to be rude, uncivil, 
boorish {• to s.o.) V to display rough, 
rude, or coarse, manners; to be rough, 
uneven; to lead a rough life XII ^jL>-\ 
ijciauSana to be rough, coarse, crude; to 
lead a rough life 

j£* kaSin pi. uLi*. kiSdn rough, crude; 
coarse (as opposed to *\J nd'im); rude, 
unpolished, uncouth; tough, harsh (life); 
hoarse, raucous (voice) | iJ ~J\ ^Z*- k. 
al-lame coarse to the touch, rough, un- 
even, wrinkled; j)X\ jJLjt k. (U-jctdq 
uncouth, boorish; S^l ^JU- #. al-qiSra 
thick-shelled; ^'1 ^JU {jina) the 
strong sex « 

jU.\ akian*, f. »Li*^ ka$n& ,% , pi. jU- 
kuin rough, tough, harsh, rude, un- 

.LJJ-I al-ha&n&' the vulgar, uneducated 

Hjl»- jcu&una roughness, coarseness; 
crudeness; rudeness 

^ kaHya a (%aSy, S-A* Ml*) to fear ' 
dread (« s.o., a, J» for s.o. or, 
be afraid (a of) II to frighten, scare, 
terrify, alarm (• s.o.) V = I; VIII to be 
embarrassed; to be ashamed 

'/~ fcaiya fear, anxiety, apprehension | 
j+ i-i*t fca&yatan min for fear of 

•rf-1 dfsM more timorous, more fearful; 
more to be feared, more frightening 

uLi*. fcaiydn*, f. LiA kaiyd, pi. ULi*i- 
kaJSdyd timorous, timid, anxious, ap- 

^iU- kaMn timorous, timid, anxious, 

vi- kassa u to distinguish, favor (especially, 
before others), single out (» s.o.), bestow 
special honors (• upon s.o., in preference 
to others); to endow (*-> • s.o. with), 
confer, bestow (.-> • upon s.o.; to 
apportion, allot, assign, accord, give, 
dedicate, devote (■-» • to s.o., in 
preference to others) ; with *-iJ : to take 
possession (a of), demand (a; also 
4 ,.. i; «u <J **- nafaahu); to be specifically 
associated (• with s.o.), be characteristic 
(. of s.o.), be peculiar (. to); to apply 
in particular (a to), be especially valid 
(a for); to concern, regard (• s.o., *, 
have special relevance (a to), bear (a 
on) I oil* *%*A (bi-'indyatih%) to devote 
one's attention to s.o., favor s.o. with 
one's attention; jToJIj *-■»■ (bi-4-dikr) to 
make special mention of s.o. or; 
J+ ^m^^j (afcufau) I mention, among 
them, especially (with foil, ace); II li» 
l L*& this does not concern me, this is 
none of my business II to specify, 
particularize, itemize (a; to spe- 
cialize (a, narrow, restrict (J a to); to designate, destine, set aside, 
earmark, single out (J a or • s.o. or 
for a purpose); to devote in particular, 
dedicate, assign (J a to); to allocate, 
allot, apportion (J a to); to ap- 
propriate (J a funds for); to reserve, 
hold, withhold (J a for); to tie 
down (<-* • s.o. to a Bpecial field) V to 
specialize (J in, also «-> or j, in a scientific 
field); to devote all one's attention 
(J to; to apply o.s. (J to), go in 
for (J); to be peculiar (^ to); to 


be chosen, destined, earmarked <J for) 
VIII to distinguish, favor (u> • s.o. with), 
confer distinction (i~> » upon s.o. by); to 
devote, give, accord, afford (*-> • to s.o., in preference to others); to dedicate 
(ij • to s.o., e.g., one's services); 
(with 4-JJ) to take exclusive possession 
(a of), claim, demand (a, lay 
special claim {* to; also *~J6 *t ,j*^-l 
nafsahv) ; to be distinguished, be marked 
(i_j by); to possess alone, in, distinction 
from all others, have above others (^, have the advantage over others 
(o> that); to be peculiar (<-> to); to 
concern, regard (^j, bear («_> on); to 
be pertinent, have relevance (t_> to), 
have to do (»_j with) ; to be duly qualified, 
be competent, have jurisdiction (i~> in; 
e.g., an authority); to have as a special 
function or task (<_j 

u **- kasa lettuce (hot.) 

tJ m»~ kuas pi. ^L*^- kia&a, ^LmU 
akaaa, < j*J~** m ^^ ^ u ^> shack, shanty, 

- kassa jet of water 


j^La*- kasaa interstice, 
crevice, crack, gap 

i«»L*»- kasdaa crevice, crack, interval, 
g a P 

"k^m*- kaaiaa pi. ^U**- kaad'ia 2 
special characteristic or quality, specialty, 
particularity, peculiarity 

L*~«l»- kiaaisan particularly, especially, 

\j*y~*»- fcusus specialness; L#^«»- kw 
fi&san especially, in particular, specifical- 
ly J ^j^^uC, ,jo~*»- j and ^j-m*- j* 
(with foil, genit.) as to, concerning, 
regarding, with respect to, as regards; 
]J +j**£\ \Xf and ^j*y0*£\ ii* &> in this 
connection, in this matter, in this 
respect, about this, concerning this; J* 
,j+j*£\ and Lf j' J ^\ *»-j J* (wajhi l-k.) 

especially, particularly, in particular, 


iS j^M»- kusuai special; private, per- 

**»L**- kaaasa poverty, penury, priva- 
tion, destitution, want 

Lr *»-1 akass 2 more Bpecial, more specific | 
,j-»»-Vl J* especially; ^^ *iH j do. 

,UulI akiaaa' 2 intimate friends, con- 

JL*».I iA^d'i see '&**- 

,ja~0£- taksia specialization; specifica- 
tion, particularization, itemization; des- 
ignation, destination (for a purpose); 
allotment, apportionment, allocation ; 
reservation; (pi. -at) appropriation, fi- 
nancial allocation; credit | iJ *~*£ J* 
and ^^^amJI *-j J* Bpecifioally 

*~*i£ takasaua specialization (esp., in 
a scientific field) 

u +l*z*-\ ikiipds pi. -<U jurisdiction, 
competence; special province or domain, 
bailiwick (fig.); pi. prerogatives, privi- 
leges, monopolies; concessions (Intern. 
Law); ^L^-Vl (olj) ji duly qualified, 
authorized, responsible, competent; lj\> 
^Ua^-^i scope of competence, sphere of 
authority, jurisdiction, province, domain, 

^Lo^-I iJftisaai pi. -«n specialist 

,j^l>- jfcdft* special, particular; specific, 
peculiar; relative, relevant, pertinent 
(l_j to), concerning (<_*; earmarked, 
designated, destined, set aside («_< for); 
especially valid or true (v for), especially 
applicable (<_j to), characteristic (*-> of); 
distinguished ; private ; exclusive, not 
public | u l«U ! Jj j>- professional 
journal for...; aUIIj ^U^l ('dmm) the 
special and the general; high and low, 
all people; j^U-'l ^-±JJ1 physician in 

<*»U kappa pi. ^j*- kawapp* exclusive 
property; private possession; specialty, 
particularity, peculiarity, characteristic* 
property, attribute; essence, intrinsic 
nature; leading personalities, people of 
distinction, <*»Ltl the upper class, the 
educated; kappatan and I^lit fet-£<Sfljaltn 
especially, in particular | j— iil i-*U j 
/i £. anfusihim at the bottom of their 
hearts, deep inside 

V-»U &S#tya pi. -at, ^l**. kap&'ip* 
specialty, particularity, characteristic, 
peculiarity, property, special attribute, 
feature, trait, qualification; prerogative, 
privilege; jurisdiction, competence 

*^ij»- kuwaippa (dimin. of <«*U- kappa) 
one's own business, private affair | J»-b 
6jA <-*ij^ j he meddles in my private 

■ makeup special 
mukappap chosen, set aside, ear- 
marked, designated, destined (J for); 
allotted, apportioned, allocated; — pi. 
■•■I "'<*■ (financial) allocations; appropria- 
tions, credits; (daily) allowances; (food) 
rations | *J'Li\ tL>L**J£ (i4&fiya) extra 
allowances; illil oL*u«Jt m. al-malik civil 

,j^jft muktapp pertaining, pertinent, 
relevant, relative (*-> to); duly qualified, 
authorized, responsible, competent; spe- 
cial; pi. cA^fi- muktappSt competences | 
i-t^AI oULiil the competent authorities; 
l^jM. _/ IjOJI competent (or authoritative) 

«*»- kapaba i and kapiba a (kipb) to be 
fertile (soil) II to make fertile (a; 
to fructify, fertilize {* IV = I 

u^ kipb fertUity; abundance, plenty; 
superabundance, profusion 

w-^A fea^tfr and i~±+*- kapxb fertile, 
productive, fat 

- kupvha fertility 

- takpib fructification, fertilization 
i^L**-! ikpab fertility 
oU*^ mukappib&t fertilizers 
i._ <*'*■ mukpib fertile, productive, fat 

*»- kapira a (kapar) to become cold; to 
suffer from the cold III to clasp (* s.o.) 
around the waist, put one's arm around 
s.o.'s (•) waist Till to shorten, condense, 
abridge, epitomize (a ; to sum- 
marize (a 

j***- kapr pi. jj~**- kupur hip, haunch, 

*s+£- mikpara pi. ^Jd- makapir* stick, 
baton, wand; maoe, scepter 

jL*i»-l iktip&r shortening, condensation, 
abridgment, summarization, epitomiz- 
ing (of a statement); brevity | jLa^-Vb 
and jL«^-1j briefly, in short, in a few 

j^cJ- muktapar shortened, condensed, 
abridged; brief, short; concise, terse, 
succinct; (pi. -at) short excerpt, brief 
exposition, synopsis, outline, summary, 
abstract, epitome, compendium 

•^U- kapira pi. j~*])*- kawapir* hip, 
haunch, waist | *jj**\i- j IS^i {Sauka) a 
thorn in his side 

*-•*- kapafa i {kapf) to mend, repair, bow 
(a a shoe) 

U*«»- kapfa pi. JiUut- kipSf basket 
(made of palm leaves) 

*vi- kupla pi. ( \***~ .kupal, -dt tuft; bunch, 
cluster; lock, wisp (of hair) 

'<L*+ kupla pi. jU*rf- kip&l quality, 
property, characteristic, peculiarity, trait; 
(natural) disposition 

*»- kaparna % to defeat (* an opponent) in 
argument; to deduct, subtraot (*, 
^ from) ; to discount (a a bill, a note' 
III to argue, quarrel, dispute (• with s.o.' 


to bring legal action (* against s.o.), sue 
(• s.o,), litigate (• with); TI to quarrel, 
argue, have a fight; to go to law, carry 
on a lawsuit, litigate (^- with s.o.) 
VII to be deducted, be subtracted VIII to 
quarrel, argue, have a fight 

«**■ kapm pi, f_>~*>- kvfiim, fL*>-l 
ak^dm adversary, antagonist, opponent; 
opposing party (in a lawsuit) 

wt*- hapn deduction; subtraction; 
rebate ; discount ; pi. rj~**- Jeupum 
liabilities (Jin.) | -**A.'l _,*- «'r al-k. 
discount rate, bank rate; c»Vt— &l ****■ 
fc. al-lcambiyalat bill discount 

— m>~ kafim pi. •| r ^u^ kupama**, o)?**- 
kupn&n adversary, antagonist, opponent 

\*y*i- jcup&ma quarrel, argument, dis- 
pute, controversy, feud; lawsuit 

l»L*A kip&m quarrel, argument, dispute, 
controversy, feud; lawsuit 

f^fe- mukd$im adversary, opponent, 
opposing party (in a lawsuit) ; antagonist ; 

- kifd') to castrate, emascu- 

^- katf % (»U- 
late (• s.o.) 

, iS **- kafiy pi. oUh»- kify&n, '<-++■ ki$ya 
a castrate, eunuch 

■ kutya pi. 

■ ku^an testicle 

iS *£- makpiy castrated, emasculated | 
<$**■ uv* (/ ar *») gelding 
*jLm»-\ ikfid'i pi. -u» specialist; expert (of 
a specialized field) 

^»- kadda {ka44) to jolt, jog (*; to 
shake (>; to frighten, scare (• s.o.) 

Lf Mii- ,jJ laban kad4 buttermilk 

iU»- kadda concussion, shock, jolt; 
fright, terror, fear 

<_«*»- katjUtba i (katfb) to dye, color, tinge (a; — kadaba i and kadiba a {<-?j*m»- 
kudub) to be or become green (plant) II to 

color, tinge (*; to dye (a 
Xll ._— »>-^*-l ikda-udaba to be or become 
green (plant) 

O <—-*>- kadb chlorophyll {biol.) 

i_<Li»- kiddb dye, dyestuff | O yl^— 
p-ill k. ad-dam hemoglobin (biol.) 

i-^i^ kudvb green, greenness, green 

i^a**^- fcodtft dyed 

i^^- kadkada (**i^i>- kadkafa) to set in 
motion, upset, rock, shake (a 

S-^^i.^ kadkada concussion, shock, jolt 

i^ kadada i (kadd) to cut off, break off (* 
thorns) | *^i -Ui^ (AzufcafaAfi) to tame 
s.o., hold s.o. in check, curb s.o.'s power 

i>- £a^tra a (kadar) to be green II to make 
green, dye or color green (* | j*»- 
,j*Si\ (ar$) to sow the land, till the earth 
IX to be or become green XII J J>j*m>-\ 
ikdaudara = IX 

jj*± kadir green, verdant; verdure, 
greenery; young green crop (of grain) 

^_«£l al-kadir, al-kufr a well-known 
legendary figure 

l^Jui- hudra green, greenness, green 
color; — (pi. j-i*- kudar) vegetation, 
verdure, greenery, greens; meadow; jJ**- 

■ kudari greengrocer 

j Li*, kadar green, greenness, green 
color; greens, herbs, potherbs 

s~**- kadlr green 

yU»»- kvddra greens, herbs, potherbs 

jLa»- kadddr greengrocer 

^1 akdar*, f. .1^- kadrff*, pi. ^ 
kwj.r green | ^LJIj j-^-VI J* Jl (aid) to 
destroy everything, wreak havoc 

*\y^\ aX-kadra "the Verdant" (epi- 
thet of Tunis) ; the sky 


£i\j\j*i»- ktufraw&t vegetables; greens, 
herbs, potherbs 

»\j*i£\ al-kudaird' Paradise 

O jj~& yakdur chlorophyll {biol.) 

\j**£ makdara meadow, lawn, turf, 
sod, greens, Terdant land 

ot^iit mukaddardt vegetables 

fjJt*- kidrim pi. fjLi>- kadarim* abundant, 
copious; well- watered, abounding in 
water; openhanded, generous, liberal, 

(•j-i* mukadram designation of such 
contemporaries of Mohammed, esp. of 
poets, whose life span bridges the time 
of paganism and that of Islam; an old 
man who has lived through several 
generations or historical epochs 

****- kada'a a (fj^- kudu') to bow, defer, 
submit, yield, surrender (J to s.o., to, humble o.s. (J before), obey, 
follow (J s.o. or ; to be subject (J and 
Jl to a law, to a power, etc.), be under 
b.o.'b (J or Jl) control II and IV to humble, 
subjugate, subdue, make tractable (• 
b.o.) ; to submit, subject, expose ( J • or a or s.o. to , 

fj-^»- kti4u" submission, obedience, 
humility, subjection 

fjJ*>- kadv,' pi. «_A»i kudu' submissive, 

fLi^l ikdtf subjugation, subdual; 

wU- kddi* pi. pjk». kudda", ul*-i»- 
kwf&n, kid* an submissive, humble; obe- 
dient, pliant, tractable; subject,, liable, 
prone (J to 

L*»- kadila a to be or become moist II and 
IV to moisten, wet (a IX = I 

J*i»- kadil moist, wet; juicy, suc- 
culent; refreshing, gay, lighthearted 

~«*t jcadama i (kadm) to munch (a, 
with a full mouth), bite (a into 

«*»• feidamm vast (said of the sea); 
sea, ocean 

,L>- kaffa u (ka#) to draw or trace a line (J» 
on); to draw, trace, sketoh, design (a; to write, pen (a; to carve, 
engrave, inscribe (a; to outline, 
mark, trace out, prescribe (a J for s.o. | (]>-) U>»- J**- (kaftan, safran) to 
draw a line; u-xill *^- [Saibu) his hair 
turned gray II to draw lines; to rule (a; to furrow, ridge (a; to mark 
with lines or stripes, stripe, streak (a; to pencil (a the eyebrows); to 
mark, designate, earmark, indicate ( a; to demarcate, delimit, delineate, 
stake out, survey (a land, real estate); 
to lay out, map out (a roads) VIII to 
trace out, mark, outline, prescribe (a a 
way) ; to mark, demarcate, delimit, stake 
out, delineate (a; to map out, plan, 
project (a e.g., the construction of a 
city); to make, design, devise (a a plan); 
to plan (a, make plans (a for) 

Jt»- kaff pi. JyLt kupHf line; stroke; 
stripe, streak; (railroad) line, line of 
communication; telephone line; frontline 
(mil.); furrow, ridge; handwriting; writ- 
ing, soript; calligraphy, penmanship | 
O 45-yl -W- (artfl) ground wire (radio); 
O J^ VI -U-'l (isfini) cuneiform writing; 
4~*l*VI ■]*>!■£ I (am&mtya) the foremost 
lines, battle lines (mil.); jjb J*>- (bariz) 
relievo script; iJ^tJS b*- telephone line; 
it j*. J»jL*- (jaunoiya) airlines; ^-bO*- .!■>• 
[fyadidi) and JbJi-l i£- W- %, sikkat oi- 
fyadid railroad line, railroad track; 
J \jJ\ J»>- k. az-zawal meridian (aslron. ; = 
jLfJl <Ji«*J W k. niff an-nahar); O -J**-*' 
j^jlp-ll (mismarl) cuneiform writing; 
»|^-Vl .!■*- k. al-istitoa* equator; J^Ul J**- 
k. af-tul or J^l» -L^ (f fiZ») circle of longitude, 
meridian (gwpr.); (j**/^ J^ £• oi-'or^ or 

^jc Ji*. ('ardi) parallel (of latitude) 
(geogr.); »Uil **J£ J«>- k.taqsim al-miyah 
divide, watershed; «JI^£ll ljii\ it*, k. ah 
quwaal-kahrabd'iya power lines; *j*-LAI \x*- 
meridian {geogr.); iuUI ^ ^i- to derail, 
run off the rails (train); /*■ <r J^ Jp 
(wtwJogim) straightaway, in a straight 
line; outright, out and out; Ja£l J>1* J* 
(JmZ oZ-&.) all along the line 

]a>~ kupp section, district, quarter (of a 

Ja»- kappi handwritten; linear; spear 

SJ**- kupfa matter, affair ; condition, 
state; office, function, position 

iL»- kitpa, kutta pi. JaL^ kipat, kupap a 
piece of land acquired for the purpose of 
building a house ; a piece of real estate, lot ; 
district ; map or plan of a piece of real 
estate, layout ; plan, project, design, inten- 
tion; line of action, course, policy, rule, 
precept, guiding principle | J**Jl <io^ 
k. al-'amal operation plan, work plan; 
*+j"j* <i*^ 1^ (fibqan) according to 
schedule, as scheduled or planned 

i»U»>- kapfaf pi. -un penman, callig- 
rapher; — tracing lines, leaving a 
straight trace | J*U«»- iLii (faSak) or 
iUUa^- AJuJi tracer bullet, tracer (mil.) 

-UJa*^ takpit ruling, drawing of, or 
marking with, lines; lineation; designa- 
tion, marking, earmarking; surveying, 
survey (of land); planning; projecting, 
mapping out, laying out (of cities, of 
roads); plan, design 

JaJai: ~y (raam) rough draft, first 
sketch, design 

\>J*£- makpu} handwritten; manuscript 

*J»jLis makputa pi. -at manuscript 

JaLk mukappap striped, streaked, ruled; 
furrowed; designated, marked, earmark- 
ed; planned, guided, controlled; (pi. -at) 
sketch, design, plan, layout; map (of a city) 

'^^a*- kafi'a a (IL^ kata') to be mistaken; to 
commit an error, make a mistake; to 
sin II to charge with an offense, in- 
criminate, declare guilty (• s.o.); to 1 
accuse (* s.o.) of an error or mistake; to 
fine (* s.o. ; tun.) IV to be mistaken, to 
err, commit an error, be at fault ( j in) ; 
to be wrong (j about, in); to make a 
mistake (j in, with); to miss (• s.o., 
e.g., a shot; * the target); to escape (• 
s.o. or s.o.'s notice; a fact) | *Jti Ut».l ' 
(fa'luhu) (his omen was wrong, i.e.) his 
expectations do not come true, are not 
fulfilled; that's where he is wrong, 
that's where he made a mistake! stL»-l 
►^iJI (iai'u) (lit.: the thing escaped j 
him, missed him, i.e.) he lacked it; »U*»-I 
j-iydl he failed, was unsuccessful; U**-l 
4jL»-liJa-l j he drew the wrong conclu 
sions; ^jxl}\ jo tk»U he confused the 
two things, he mistook one thing for the 

*]*>- kip 8 hp, lapse, fault, offense, sin 

U*»- kafa* and »IW- fcapd' error; mistake, 
incorrectness; offense, fault; kafa'an 1 

erroneously, by mistake | ... ol ti*£l j* 
it is (would be) wrong to ...; tkJ-'l »-iL-»l 
isldh al~k. corrigenda, errata, list of 
corrections; Iktl JJ gatl al-k. ac- " 

cidental homicide (jur.) 

*JLL>- kafl'a pi. -at, liU*>- kafdyd mistake, 
blunder; slip, lapse; fault, offense; crime, 
sin; fine (tun.) i 

[jUU- kafi' wrong, incorrect, er- 
roneous; mistaken, at fault; (pi. «IU>- 
kufah, actually, pi. of colloq. kafi), f. 
i&U fcafi'a pi. *J*\j»- kaimpi' 2 sinner 

* tJ UJt mukpi' mistaken, at fault, wrong; 
incorrect, wrong, erroneous 

_-!*>- kapaba u (Uwt kupba, ilk^ kaf&ba) to ! 

deliver a public address, make a speech; 
to preach, deliver a sermon (^Ul j and 
^-Ul an-naaa to the people); — (kafb t 



U*rf- ki\ba) to propose (l* to a girl; said 
of the man), ask for a girl's hand (U) in 
marriage (J on behalf of s.o.; said of the 
matchmaker) ; to give in marriage, 
betroth, affiance, engage (J* or J *i 
one's daughter to s.o.) | Ujj i_J«t- {wud* 
date) and L<ij* «_-L»- {rruiwaddaiahd) he 
courted her love III to address (• s.o.), 
speak, talk, direct one's words (» to s.o.), 
turn (» to s.o., orally or in writing) | 4-WU- 
jjiJoJU to telephone s.o., call s.o. up; 
J»I&Ij *i»U- (bi-l-kaj) to address s.o. on 
an intimate first-name basis YI to talk 
to one another; to converse, confer, have 
a talk, carry on a conversation ; to write 
each other, correspond, carry on a cor- 
respondence VIII to seek a girl's (U) 
hand in marriage, ask for a girl's hand 

ijiat. katb pi. t-jjiM 5 - kufvb matter, af- 
fair, concern, business; situation, con- 
ditions, circumstances ; misadventure, 
mishap | ji±&- L. what do you want? 
what's the trouble? what's the matter 
with you ? j *J*>- U what concern of his 
is ... ? what has he to do with . . . ? U 
,*Jlj s^Jui- what's it all about? 

"t^ui- kifba courtship ; betrothal, en- 

Uwt kufba pi. ._-]*>*- kufab publio 
address; speech; lecture, discourse; ora- 
tion ; sermon, specif., Muslim Friday 
sermon, khutbah | ^Ua^fl U*^ opening 

i^lU*. kifdb pi. -at, *A*>-\ akfiba public 
address, speech; oration; letter, note, 
message | ^^-J^^- welcoming address; 
J>jA\ v 1 ^ k - <d-' ar & speech from the 
throne; J>»*i-* ^^t- (musta'jil) express 
letter, special-delivery letter; <.JJ3 ^Um^ 
k. taqdima letter of introduction ; O oUUaV- 
ljjji\ **JtJI oli {dat al-qima al-muqarrara) 
(= lettres avec valeur declaree) reg- 
istered, insured letters (e^.); ^ILAM J-ai 
fa$l al-k. (in letters:) conclusion of the 

formal greetings by the words Am LI 
ammo, ba'du; conclusion, termination, 
end; decision; unmistakable judgment; 
^Uai-'l J-^i .il^j J-i we're through with 
one another once and for all 

jUa»- kifdbi oratorical, rhetorical, 
speech-, lecturing (in compounds) 

^*- katlb pi. »Ua*- kufaba'* (public) 
speaker ; orator ; lecturer ; preacher, 
khatib; suitor (for the hand of a girl); 

*-J*»- kafiba fiancee 

ijlL>- kafaba preaching, sermonizing, 

<jIW- kifaba rhetoric, oratory; speech, 
lecture, discourse 

o *L»- kufuba courtship ; betrothal, 

LUU& mukafaba pi. -at address; public 
address, speech ; proclamation ; con- 
versation, talk; conference, parley IV* 1 -* 
iJjiJl telephone conversation, telephone 

l^Uc takdfub conversation; talk, dis- 
cussion; (inter)communication (also, e.g., 
telephonic, by radio, etc.) | <_»i»UJl i*J 
lugat at-t. colloquial language 

U-U- katib pi. >UuE- Jcutaba'*, ^U«* 
kuffab suitor; matchmaker 

U»U- kafiba pi. ^>IL^ kuffab woman 

ojLic- ma&fv&a fiancee 
^lifi mukdfab addressed, spoken to; 
{gram.) second person 

j^i»Ll look up alphabetically 

J*~ kafara i (b\J*»- kataran) to swing, wave, 
brandish (v; to shake, tremble, 
vibrate; to walk with a (proud) swing- 
ing gait; to strut, parade haughtily; — 
«' w (j^- kutur) to occur (J to s.o.), come 

tos.o.'s (J) mind | <Jb J*>*Vl J**- {bdlihi) 
the matter came to his mind, occurred to 
him, he recalled the matter (also *Jlj j 
and *)U or a-U Jp); J*\*- *J Ja*~ he had 
an idea; <JL Jit 4 j*\ (lam yakfir bi-bdlin) 
an unexpected matter, one wouldn't 
dream of; — kafura u {hj**- kv$ura) to 
be weighty; to be important, significant; 
to be grave, serious, momentous, danger- 
ous, perilous, risky, hazardous III to 
risk, hazard, stake {^, <-ii> one's 
life); to incur the danger, run the risk 
(v of), risk (v; to bet, wager (• 
s.o., Jp a stake) IV to notify, inform (• 
b.o.), let {« s.o.) know (i_> about; to 
warn, caution (» s.o.) V to walk with a 
lofty, proud gait; to stride, strut (with 
a swinging gait); to pendulate, oscillate, 
vibrate VI to make a bet (J* against a 

J*+ kafar weightineBS, momentousness ; 
importance, consequence, significance ; 
seriousness, gravity; — (pi. -at, jU»>-l 
aktar) danger, peril, menace (J* to); 
riskiness, dangerousness ; risk; hazard; 
(pi. jlW- kifar) stake, bet, wager | J-U 
^LA-'I of very great importance, momen- 
tous; J*i~ ji dangerous, perilous; ,_^»- 
J±£ (mu'arrad) endangered, jeopardized; 
^VA-'I JjLil iidrat al-k. alarm signal 

J**- kafir dangerous, perilous, risky, 
hazardous; serious, grave, weighty, im- 
portant, significant 

lja>- katra pi. kafarat pompous walk, 
strut ; swinging gait ; idea, thought, 

jUm^ Jcaftdr pendulum (phys.) 

s±i+ Jcafir pi. JU+ kufr weighty, 
momentous ; important, significant; grave, 
serious | jliJI jb*- of great importance 

•j_jL>- kufura weight(iness), importance, 
moment{ousness) ; consequence, signifi- 
cance; gravity, seriousness 

o[^a»- kafardn swinging, oscillation, 

_^>-l aktar 2 more dangerous, riskier; 
weightier, of greater consequence; more 
serious, graver 

•jki look up alphabetically 

jtlit makatir 3 dangers, perils 

~*J>\£ mukafara pi. -at venture, risk, 

jU>»-l ikfdr notification, information; 

jUU- kdfir pi. J»]y- kawapir* idea, 
thought, notion; mind; desire, inclina- 
tion, liking | 4>U- Jr*^ (K-o/K) for your 
sake; J»U J£" > min kuUi kafirin with 
all one's heart, most gladly; jl»U- *-U je 
'on tibati kdfirin gladly, with pleasure; 
of one's own free will, voluntarily; Jp 
i]_^U- as you like; »J>& JW to afford 
satisfaction to s.o., to comfort, reassure 
s.o.; ,y •jUU- J* -1^1 to feel offended 
by, take offense at; *JLU~ £X* padda'a 
kdfirahu to trouble, bother s.o. ; J>]>X\ 0*1» 
(fammana) to calm the excitement; j» 
jl t^lje (marra) the thought crossed his 
mind that ...; iijUU-' UjTl (ikrdman) for 
your sake, to please you ; jULt I ap^. sur'at 
al-k. presence of mind ; J*\£- 1 ^ mJ ^ quick- 

J*\J£ mukdfir one who risks, 
who takes a chance ; daring, bold, 

J*£ mukfir dangerous, perilous, risky, 

jjJa*. kafrafa (eg.) to be delirious, to rave, 
talk irrationally 

isjti- kafrafa delirium, raving 

JiL^ katifa a, kafafa i (kaff) to snatch, 
wrench or wrest away, seize, grab (*; to make off (* with; to 
abduct, kidnap (« s.o.); to dazzle (j~*Jt 



al-ba$ara the eyes) V to cany away, 
sweep away (• s.o.) VI to Bnatch or seize 
(a from one another VII to be 
snatched away, be wrested away; to be 
carried away, be swept away VIII to 
grab, seize, take forcibly (a; to 
snatch, wrest, wrench (,y a from 
s.o.); to abduct, kidnap (• s.o.); to run 
away, elope (L* with a woman); to make 
off (a with; to dazzle (j-aJI al- 
bapara the eyes) 

«_aL»- kaff grabbing, forcible seizure, 
rape; abduction, kidnaping; UJa*. kaffan 
rapidly, quickly 

4jtL»- kaffa pi. kafafat (n. vie.) a 
snatching away, a grab ; sudden stirring, 
flash | JjOl ~4JL>- j (barq) instantly, in a 
trice, like a Btreak of lightning; !&*■ 
jj-JLJI oUt»- £* an impulse, a sudden 

tjUa*- kaffaf rapacious; robber 

J»IW- kuffdf pi. ,Jd«,lV. kaf&tif* (iron) 

hook; fishhook; (coll.; n. un/3) swift, a 

variety of swallow 

•Jul** kaffif pi. ciJ*lU*. kafatif 3 iron 

<J»lk*-l iktif&f grabbing, forcible seizure, 
rape; abduction, kidnaping 

<Jd»U- kafif pi. tj^|^- kawafif* raven- 
ous; rapacious; rapid, prompt; quick, 
sudden; lightninglike; fleeting; short, 
brief | iil»U- ^Ui ravenous wolves; *jj~* 
*il»U. (fiUra) snapshot; ULU- ^j»- (Aar6) 

Jl**- kafila a (JcafaX) to talk nonsense IV do. 
V to Btrut, walk with a pompous gait; 
to walk with a proud, swinging gait 

Jla*- kafal idle talk, prattle 

Jl«>- kafil garrulous, chattering, given 
to silly talk; stupid, foolish 

Jwi kafm nose, snout, muzzle (of an animal) ; 
front part (nose and mouth) ; foremost or 

first part; important matter | <uki: Jtl 
(alalia) appro*.: to manifest its force, set 
in (e.g., of a disaster) 

jjJ**- kifml, kafmi {coll. ; n. un. «) marsh 
mallow (Althaea officinalis; lot.) 

fUwi kifdm pi. ^*- kufum noseband, 
halter (of a camel) 

(jk»-) LL>- &a£a u (katw) to step, pace, walk; 
to proceed, advance, progress | Cjljlwt- LW- 
i*-lj (£o£xtwz(tn) to take large strides, 
also fig. = to make extraordinary 
progress II and V to overstep, transgress 
(a; to cross (a, go or walk 
through (a); to ford (a a river); to 
leave its banks, overflow (river) ; to cross, 
traverse (jUJI the seas); to omit, dis- 
regard, ignore, pass by (• so.); to go 
beyond (a); to extend (Jl to); to 
exoeed, transcend (a; to excel, 
surpass, outstrip, outdo (* s.o.); to 
proceed, pass (a through, Jl to), 
leave (a) behind and turn to 
else (Jl); to disregard (a, * s.o., in 
order to turn one's attention to (Jl) j 
fUVI Jl 4j Jot (ild l-amami) to promote, 
advance VIII to step, pace, walk; to 
proceed, advance, progress 

ijL*- kaftoa pi. kaiatoat and kufwa pi. 
kitfwdt, kufutvdt, Jo*- kufan step, pace, 
stride | til**- j jU (kufahu) to walk, or 
follow, in s.o.'s footsteps; «jJ*iJ {^**- ,».& 
taqaddama kufwatan fa-kufwatan to pro- 
ceed or advance step by step; ija»- JLJcf 
*jf U- (iUakada) to take a decisive step; 
l)iij uljjW- kafwatdn wa-qafza hop, skip 
and jump (atttiet.) 

i-L*. kafiya ( = liiwL) slip, lapse, trans- 
gression, fault, offense, sin 

ILL*- kufah pi. of "J^U kdfi' sinner 

J&+ kaffa i to be light (of weight); to be 
slight, insignificant; to become lighter, 
decrease in weight, lose weight; to 
decrease in intensity, grow lighter (color) ; 

to be nimble, agile, quick; to hasten, 
hurry, rush (Jl to) II to make lighter 
(a, reduce the weight of (a); to 
ease, lighten, relieve, soften (a j» for 
s.o. difficult or oppressive, also 
a J*; t>, e.g., s.o.'s situation); to 
lessen, decrease, reduce, diminish (a or 
,y ; to mitigate, alleviate, moderate, 
temper (a or j-; to thin, dilute 
(a e.g., a liquid); (gram.) to pronounce 
(a a consonant) without taSdid | dJL# ,Jaa>- 
kaffif 'anka ! cheer up ! be of good cheer ! 
.iii*-* j- <J&Jl»- kaffif min sur'atika! 
slow down! c*. fN^i t_ii>- to soothe 
s.o.'s pains V to dress lightly; to dis- 
burden, relieve o.s. (of a burden); to 
rid o.s., free o.s. (j- of; to hurry 
away (jt from), leave (je- in a 
hurry X to deem (> light; to value 
lightly, disdain, scorn, despise (<-< s.o. or, look down (w upon), think noth- 
ing (v of), make light (l-> of), set little 
store (i-> by); not to take seriously (<-», attach no importance (<_* to); to 
carry away, transport <» s.o., e.g., joy) 

J«*- huff pi. i_jli»- kifdf, J»U*.I akfdf 
shoe, slipper; — (pi. J»li»-I akfdf) camel 
hoof; foot (of the ostrich); sole (of the 
foot) | <jo- ^ g-j raja'a bi-kuffai 
hunain to return with empty hands, 
without having achieved one's mission; 
to accomplish nothing, fail, be un- 

ii»- kiffa lightless (of weight); slight- 
ness, insignificance, triviality; sprightli- 
ness, buoyancy ; agility, nimbleness ; 
inconstancy, fickleness, flightiness, levity, 
frivolity | ST^-I <i»- k. al-haraka, j <a*- 
iT^-l nimbleness, agility, quickness; 
l»Jl)l <a+ k. ad-dam amiability, charm; 
r)J\ ii>- Jc. ar-ruh do.; uJI *i>- k. al-yad 
manual skill, dexterity, deftness 

Ja*-\ akajf* lighter; lesser, slighter; 
weaker | ifjj**h «J«>-I a. ad-dararain the 
lesser of two evils 

(J»U»- kafdf, ijLi^l j£ liajar ahk. 
pumice, pumice stone 

olU- kuffdn pumice, pumice stone 

J^M- b°f*f pl* >J-\i*- kifdf, tjLU-1 
akfdf, »li>-l akiffd' 2 light (of weight); 
slight, little, trivial, insignificant; thin, 
scanty, sparse; nimble, agile, sprightly, 
lively; — «Jui£l name of a poetic meter j 
"<S~ji~\ <Jui>- k. al-haraka easily movable, 
very mobile; nimble, agile; f-dl .Ji-ii- k. 
ad-dam amiable, charming; rjj\ <Jn 7 *»- k. 
ar-ruh likable, charming, winning, ami- 
able; gay, in high spirits, cheerful; i-XJi*- 
JliJl k. az-zill likable, nice (person); ^i*- 
^^jLJI k. al-'dridain having a thin beard; 
JUI *J»~i»- k. al-aal feeble-minded, dim- 
witted ; aJt .Jo-i^ k. al-yad nimble- 
fingered, deft ; JoJl>~ ^Li weak tea 

takfif lightening, easing ; les- 
sening, decrease, diminution; reduction; 
allaying, mitigation, alleviation, pal- 
liation, moderation; commutation (jur.); 
relief; thinning, dilution (e.g., of a liquid) | 
(Ji-iijJl J»j^ extenuating circumstances 

(J»Lii*i-l istikfaf disdain, scorn, con- 
tempt; levity, frivolity 

iJL&fi- <S*jJ* zuruf mukaffifa extenuating 
circumstances (jur.) 

,J»ii. mukaffaf thin, diluted 

&>- kafata u (o^i>- kufut) to become in- 
audible, die down, die away (sound, 
voice) ; to become silent, become still 
III AJj~*i, <4^Axj ciU- (bi-kaldmihl, bi-?au* 
tihl) to lower one's voice IV to silence, 
reduce to silence (* s.o.) VIII = I 

C»ja»- kufiil fading (radio) 

C-iU- kafit dying away, dying down, 
becoming silent; inaudible; faint, dying, 
fading, trailing off (sound, voice); soft, 
subdued (light, color) 

cJcJfi- muktajit soft, low, subdued 



a»- kafara u (kafr, ylk*. kifara) to watch (a, » 
b.o., or over s.o., over, guard, 
protect (• s.o., a ; — kafira a (kafar, 
yLi*. kafara) to be timid, shy, bashful 
II = I kafara V = I kafira 

j*»- kafr watching, watch, guard(ing) 

ji»- kafar guard detachment, guard; 
escort | J*-^J1 jj&- coast guard (Eg.) 

jit*- kafar timidity, shyness, bashful- 
ness, diffidence 

jA»- kafir bashful, diffident, timid, shy, 
embarrassed, coy 

jJt*- kafir pi. »tji»- kufara* 2 watchman; 
protector, guardian ; guard, sentry, senti- 

yLi»- kifara watch(ing), guard(ing), 
protection; guard duty 

ja£ makfar pi. ^ilja makafir* guard- 
house, guardroom; guard, control post | 
ilr^ijl jJut m. aS-Surfa police station 

•yU- kafira: J*-J>»JI I^iU- fc. ow-sawoAti 
coastguard cruiser (£?.) 

j_f«t makfur under escort, escorted; 
covered, sheltered, protected 

r-U- kafasa u (kafa) to ridicule, scorn (• 
s.o.), laugh, mock (• at); to destroy, 
demolish, tear down (a a house) 

ri*- kafai day blindness, hemeralopia 

Jjrf akfai*, f. »lii»- fcz/ia'*, pi. ^ii* 
kufi day blind, hemeralopic; weak- 
sighted, afflicted with defective vision 

^U*- kujfai pi. ^iiiLut kafafiP bat 

kafara i (kafd) to make lower (a; 
to lower, decrease, reduce, lessen, di- 
minish (a; to lower, drop (a, j-, also, e.g., the voice); (gram.) to 
pronounce the final consonant of a word 
with i; to put (a a word) in the genitive j 

J **-U»- ,jaj*- (jandhahu) to unbend toward 
s.o., show o.s. open-minded, responsive, 
accessible to; — kafu4a u to be carefree, 
easy, oomfortable (life) ; to sink, dip, drop, 
settle, subside; to become low, drop to an 
undertone (voice) II to lower, decrease, 
reduce (a, price) | iLU ^Jt>- kaffi4 
'alaikaf take it easy! <iliu- <iIJp iJ *i>- 
(ja'Saka) cool off! calm down! relax! 
IV *jj^ (ji^-l (aaviahu) he lowered his 
voice V and VII to sink, dip, drop, settle, 
subside ; to be lowered, be reduced 
(price); to decrease, grow less; to be 

,j*i»- kafd lowering, lessening, decrease, 
diminution, reduction; subduing, lower- 
ing, muffling (of the voice) ; curtailment, 
limitation, restriction ; ease (of life) ; 
(gram.) pronunciation of the final con- 
sonant with t | ^u~iJI ,jAJui- k: al-qima 
devaluation (of a currency) ; J^^ o***~ 
k. al-'aiS carefree, easy life ; ,j*a»- J j* 
^IaJI ^ he lives in ease and comfort; 
c^moJI ^^i-U- k. aa-aavi lowering of the 
voice; *J&\ ^j*- h&rf &-k. preposition 

jj-i-i*^ kaf\4 low, soft, subdued (voice) 

(ar «-juc takfid lowering, cutback, re- 
duction (esp. of prices) ; diminution, 
decrease, lessening, curtailment, restric- 
tion, limitation 

^Luf t inkifaa" sinking, dropping, 
subsidence; lowering, reduction; lessen- 
ing, decrease, diminution, decrement ; 
dropping of the water level, low water | 
,Syr i^*^' (jawm) low-pressure area 

iJ +*£- mukajfa4 lowered, reduced, low, 
moderate (price, rate); lower 

ifkii^A muntcafid low (altitude, fre- 
quency, price, etc.); soft, low, subdued, 
muffled (voice) | i*iii*J.I ^ I j V I the 
Netherlands; — munkafad pi. -at low 
ground; depression (geogr.) 



ji»- kafaqa i u (kafq, jliU- kafaq&n, 3j*»- 
kujuq) to vibrate; to tremble, shake; 
to beat, throb, palpitate (heart); to 
flutter, wave, stream (flag); to flap the 
wings, flutter (bird); to waver, flicker; — 
{kafq) to flash (lightning) ; to beat, whip 
(*; eggs, cream, etc.); to make the 
sound of footsteps (shoe) ; — {3j**- kufvg) 
to drop one's head drowsily, nod off, doze 
off (iii*- J**- k. kafqatan); — *' (Jji»- 
kufdq) to Bet, go down (celestial body) 
II to roughcast, plaster, Btucco (* a wall) 
IV to flap the wings, flutter (bird); to set, 
go down (celestial body); to be unsuc- 
cessful, go wrong, fail, miscarry, come to 
nothing, be abortive ; to fail, be un- 
successful (j in 

3**- kafq throb(bing) palpitation; beat- 
ing, beat; footfall, footstep, tread (of a 
boot, of the foot) 

iii>- kafqa pi. kafaq&t (n. vie.) beat, 
throb; tap, rap, knock; ticking noise, 

ijlii*- kafaqdn palpitation of the heart, 
heartbeat; throb(bing), beat(ing); flut- 
tering, flutter 

3ti*-kajfdq palpitant, throbbing (heart); 
fluttering, waving, streaming (flag) 

O **** mikfaqa whisk, eggbeater 

JU*-I ikfdq failure, fizzle, flop, fiasco 

jiU- kdfiq palpitant, throbbing (heart); 
fluttering, waving, streaming (flag) ; 
jliiU:! al-kSfiqdn East and West; Jij^l 
al-kauvfiq the cardinal points, the four 
quarters of the world 

JiU- kafiqx mortar, plaster, rough- 
cast; stucco 

uLU- see Jm*- 

j*> kajiya a to be hidden, be concealed; to 
be unknown (a fact; Jp to s.o.); to 
disappear, hide | b\ j£ V it is well 
known that ...; as everybody knows ..., 

it is obvious that . . . ; iiJUU Jjc V you 
know very well ..., you are well aware 
(of it); — kafd i to hide, conceal (*; 
to keep secret (* IV to hide, conceal 
(a ; to afford (• s.o.) a place to hide, 
shelter, hide {• s.o.); to keep secret (a; to disguise, conceal (a, J* 
or je from s.o.) | Cy-Jl J>-\ to lower the 
voice, speak in an undertone V to hide, 
keep o.s. out of view; to disguise o.s. 
VIII to hide, keep o.s. out of view ; to dis- 
appear, vanish; to be hidden, be un- 
known; to be lacking, be missing, be 
absent | jlkiVl ^ J^-t to be hidden or 
disappear from Bight X to hide, keep o.s. 
out of view; to be hidden, be concealed; 
to be hidden from b.o.'s (,y) view, become 
invisible (j* to s.o.), disappear from 

J~ kafiy hidden, concealed; secret, 
unknown; unseen, invisible; mysterious | 
fW j*- k- ol-^n anonymous; O j!^' 
Li^- (anw&r) indirect lighting 

*-**■ kufyatan, kifyatan secretly, clan- 
destinely, covertly; <* <Jt»- without his 

Lit kajiya pi. Uirf- kafdyd a secret, a 
secret affair 

»Li>- kafd' secrecy, hiddenness | »U£ I J 
secretly, clandestinely, covertly; »Li»- V 
jl j (kafd' a) it is quite evident, it is 
quite obvious that . . . 

•LU-I ikfd* biding, secretion; conceal- 
ment; lowering of the voice 

<Ju£ takaffin disguise 

>\Jc+\ iktifd* disappearance 

<_>U- kdjin hidden, concealed; secret, 
unknown; unseen, invisible 

LiU- fc&fiya pi. ijil^- kawdfin a secret; 
— pi. jy^l al-kawajx the coverts, the 
secondaries (of a bird's wing) 

jt- maJcfiy hidden, concealed 


*ju mutakafin disguised, in disguise 

yjafi- mvJctafin hidden, concealed, clan- 
destine, covert, secret; disappearing, 

Jaft muktafan hiding place, hide-out 

OliU- look up alphabetically 

J*. kaUa u (kail) to pierce, transfix (* 
II to turn sour; to make sour, to sour, 
acidify (a; to pickle, marinate (a; to salt, cure with salt or in brine 
(a; to pick (a the teeth); to run the 
fingers (a through s,th.). part, comb 
(a the hair, the beard, also with the 
fingers) III to treat (* a.o.) as a friend 
IV to offend (<_* against), infringe, trans- 
gress (i~» ; to violate, break (<~», e.g., a rule, a custom); to fail to 
fulfill, fail to meet (<-> an agreement); 
to forsake, desert, abandon (^ s.o.,; to disturb, upset, harm, prejudice 
((-* T to be, lie or come between (a; also in time), intervene (a 
between); to be located or situated, be 
interposed, be placed (a between); to 
permeate, pervade, interpenetrate (a, mix, mingle, blend (a with) VIII to 
be or become defective; to be in dis- 
order, be faulty, deficient, imperfect; to 
become disordered ; to be upset, be 
unbalanced ; to be disturbed (order, 
system) | iyyill ci^-i the conditions 
are not fulfilled; *Jjlj3 J=»-l (tawdzunuhH) 
to lose one's balance, become unbalanced; 
■dip J=»-l ('aqlvJiu) to be mentally deranged 

Jrf- kail vinegar 

y kiU, kvtt pi. J^Ul akW, friend, 
bosom friend 

JU- kalal pi. J^U Jcilal gap, interval, 
interstice; cleft, crack, rupture, fissure; 
a defective, unbalanced state, imbalance ; 
defectiveness, imperfection; fault, flaw, 
defect, shortcoming; disturbance, upset, 
disorder; damage, injury, harm (that suffers or suffered); J^U kildla 
during; between; through | JU j j\ kalali 
and J"5U j /» kildli during; in the 
course of, within, in a given period of; 
»illi J^U- j meanwhile, in the meantime; 
J^U ^ min kildli across, through, right 
through the middle of; out of, from 
within; (to judge, reason, draw conclu- 
sions, etc) by, on the basis of, on the 
strength of, (to recognize) from 

*1*- kalla need, want, lack; — (pi. 
J'iU- kildl) property, attribute, pecu- 
liarity; characteristic; natural disposition 

<U- kulla pi. JJU- kulal friendship 

Jt)U- kildl pi. *L-I aJciUa boring or 
drilling implement; peg, pin; spit, 
skewer; (also iJ^U-, pi. -di) toothpick; 
see also JU- kalal 

JJ*. kalil pi. oUl aJfciHa* 2 , J-^U- Man 
friend, bosom friend; lover; JJJ-'l Hebron 
(town in Jordanian Palestine) | Zt\ J-U- 
epithet of Abraham 

*LL- £aZt/a pi. -dt girl friend, woman 
friend; sweetheart, paramour 

JjU-'l j»l umm al-kvlul river mussel (zooi.) 

J^U-1 ȣ&W pi. -dt breach, infraction, 
violation (of a law, of a treaty, and the 
like) ; offense (against), transgression, 
infringement (of) ; disturbance (of an 
order, of a system); impairment, injury, 
harm (to); average, damage by sea | 
«-> ihU-VI fJ*. *. ('adami l-i.) without 
prejudice to, without detriment to 

J^i»-I iktildl deficiency, defectiveness, 
imperfection; (a falling into) disrepair, 
deterioration; faultiness; disturbance (of 
a system, of a function, of the equilibrium, 
etc.); disorder, confusion 

Ji*t mukallal pickled; salted; (pi. -at) 
pickles, pickled vegetables 

Jjt mujciU disgraceful, shameful | 
^li^fU Jit immoral, indecent, improper 



u-J*- kalaba % u (Jcatt>) to seize with the 
claws, clutch (a, pounce (* on) ; — u 
(<j*)U kilaba) to cajole, coax, wheedle 
(• s.o.) ; to inveigle, beguile, bewitoh, 
enchant (* s.o., *U* , aqlahu b.o.'s mind); 
to charm, fascinate, captivate (• s.o.) Ill to 
cajole, wheedle, coax, inveigle, beguile, 
bewitch, enchant (• s.o.) VIII to seize 
with the claws, clutch {*, pounce (* 
on); to cajole, inveigle, beguile, bewitch, 
enchant (• s.o.) 

t_~U- kilb pi. <~oU-l akldb fingernail, 
claw, talon 

i_JU- 3j baTqun kullabun and bargu 
kuilabin lightning without a downpour; 
a disappointing, disillusioning matter; 
i_-U- and 3 j ,j* i-J*- delusion, illusion 

^U- kullabiv J*- till* (faSak) blank 
cartridges (Syr.; mil.) 

i-j'sU- kallab gripping, captivating, 
fascinating ; attractive, engaging, win- 
ning ; tempting, enticing ; fraudulent, 
deceitful; deceptive, delusive, fallacious 

«j"jU. kilaba engaging manners, at- 
tractiveness, charm 

i_lit miklab pi. i_JLit makdUb 1 claw, talon 

^JU kalib = w^U- kallab 

j^-U- II takalbasa {eg.) to clown 

(J- »j r U- kalbus pi. ^-*-jiU. feaJd&is 1 , '<***•&- 
kaldbiaa (eg.) clown, buffoon, harlequin 

^U- kalaja i and III to be on s.o.'s (•) mind, 
trouble, preoccupy, prepossess ( • s.o. , 
s.o.'s mind; said of worries, doubts, etc.); 
to pervade, fill (» s.o.; said of a feeling) | 
*Ji i-U- (qalbahu) to be uppermost in 
s.o.'s heart V to be shaken, be convulsed, 
be rooked VIII to quiver, tremble, quake, 
shake ; to twitch ( eye, limb, body ) ; 
to animate, move, stir, inspire, fill, 
pervade, possess (*, j the heart; said 
of a feeling) | \S gk*-\ (gamman) to be 
filled with sorrow, with grief (heart) 

i»*U- kalja pi. kalajat emotion, senti- 
ment; scruple, qualm, misgiving 

«JU- kalxj pi. ^U- kiduj, jU*U- jpuljan 
bay, gulf; canal; ^JJ^I name of Cairo's 
ancient city canal which was abandoned 
and leveled at the end of the 19th 
century | ^jLifl ^lU the Persian Gulf 

r^>- kil&j misgiving, doubt, scruple, 

**."^.l iktUdja (n. vie.) convulsion, jerk, 
twitch; tremor 

li-U- kdlija pi. Uyi- kaw&lij* emotion, 
sentiment; scruple, qualm; idea 

Ji*L>- kalkala to shake, convulse, rock (a 
s^th.); to rarefy (*, e.g., air; chem.- 
phya.) II takolkala to be shaken, be 
rocked; to come off, become disjointed, 
become detached; to become loose, work 
loose; to be or become rarefied (chem.- 

JiJU kolkol pi. J^.->U kaldkiP anklet 

JU*U kalkal pi. J^^U- kalakU* anklet 

JjJje takalkvl rarefication 

Jii* mukalkal and JiJL^i* muta^alfpil 

.iL- kalada u (sj*- kvlvd) to remain or last 
forever, be everlasting; to be immortal, 
deathless, undying; to abide forever (Jl 
or i_> in, with); to remain, stay (Jl or <-* 
or j at a place) | **-\J\ Jl ol»- to rest, 
relax; <»jjl Jl jS»- to Ue down to sleep 
II to make eternal or everlasting, per- 
petuate, eternalize (a, make im- 
mortal, immortalize (• s.o.); to make in- 
effaceable, unforgettable (a ; a 
memory); to remain, stay, abide, linger 
(i_» at, in a place) ; to grow very old, enjoy 
a long life, be long-lived IV to eternize, 
immortalize, make immortal {» s.o., *; to perpetuate (a; to remain, 
stay, abide, linger ( Jl or <_> at, in a place) 



to be disposed, incline, lean, tend (Jl to) 
V to become eternal or immortal, 
perpetuate o.s.; to be or beoome long, 
lasting, perpetual 

-lU- kuld infinite duration, endless time, 
perpetuity, eternity | oU-'l jIj Paradise, 
the hereafter 

xU- kuld mole (zool.) 

jSji- kalad, pi. j^U-1 aklad mind, heart, 
spirit, temper 

*j\j- kulvd infinite duration, endless 
time, perpetuity, eternity; eternal life, 
immortality; abiding, remaining, staying 

■Llic taklid perpetuation, eternization, 

oj U- kalid everlasting, perpetual, eter- 
nal; immortal, deathless, undying; un- 
forgettable, glorious; pi. oJl^- Jcawdlid 3 
mountains j oljlil J)£\ the Canary 

■UjC muklid disposed, inclined, tend- 
ing ( Jl to) 

ur JU- kalasa i (kals) to steal (a; to 
pilfer, filch, swipe, purloin (a 
Ill JicS\ *-JU- (na%ara) to glance furtively 
at s.o. Till to steal, pilfer, filch, swipe 
(a; to get under false pretenses or 
by crooked means (a; to embezzle, 
misappropriate (a; to spend secret- 
ly (a hours) | Jl JJM ^t.\ (hufd) to 
sneak up on s.o.; (j) Jl jiiJI ^-li^-l to 
glance furtively at s.o. 

UU. kuUatan by stealth, stealthily, 
surreptitiously, furtively 

,^-lU kilos* mulatto, bastard 

^"^l iktil&s pi. -at embezzlement, 
misappropriation, defalcation 

^Jzf- muktalis embezzler, defalcator 

,jA*- kalasa u (^^U- kulUs) to be pure, un- 
mixed, unadulterated; to belong {J to 
s.o.) ; to get, come (Jl to), arrive (Jl at); 

— (^"^- kolas) to be or become free, be 
freed, be liberated (^ from), be cleared, 
get rid (j* of); to be saved, be rescued, 
escape (j* from); to be redeemed, be 
delivered, attain salvation {Chr.) ; — • 
(coUoq.) to be finished, be done, be 
through, be over; to be all gone II to 
clear, purify, refine, purge, rectify (a; to clarify (* a situation); to 
liberate, free, save, rescue (• s.o., ^* 
from), rid (• s.o., ,> of); to redeem, 
deliver (CAr.);'to prepay the postage (J* 
on) ; to pay duty (^JLi-Ji J* on merchan- 
dise), clear (J* goods); to settle (a a bill); 
{collog.) to finish (a | *i*- A^- (haq* 
qahu) to restore one's right, secure one's 
due III to act with integrity, -with 
sincerity (.toward s.o.), treat (» s.o.) fair 
and square; to get even, become quits 
(/with b.o.) IV to dedicate (a J to s.o.; to be J^yal (J to s.o.); to be 
devoted, be faithful (J to) | ^J-l *l ,>W 
(kubba) to love s.o. dearly; «jj *3j ,j«1>-1 
(li-ll&h* dinahu) to worship God faith- 
fully and Bincerely T to rid o.s. {j* of), 
free o.s. (j- from), get rid (,y of); to be 
freed, be delivered, be Baved, be rescued, 
escape (j- from) VI to act with reciprocal 
integrity and sincerity; to be quits, be 
even X to extract (a, j* from); to 
copy, excerpt (a, ,> from); to 
abstract, take, gather, work out (a, 
as the quintessence, ^* of); to deduce, 
infer, derive (a, j- from); to dis- 
cover, make out, find out (.*; to 
select, choose (*; to demand 
payment of a sum (a) and get it (j- from 
s.o.) | ,> »Jjli 1/ aUo1 to derive profit from, 
profit, benefit from; li*j *u ^Jii.L-1 {tea'* 
dan) to exact a promise from s.o. 

^^- kalaa liberation, deliverance, 
riddance; rescue, salvation (j* from); 
redemption (Chr.); payment, settlement, 
liquidation (of a bill); receipt; placenta, 


^■^U- kvla?a pi. -a( excerpt; extract, 
essence ; quintessence, substance, gist 
(of; abstract, resume^ summary, 
epitome; synopsis \ *-JL^ i^"iU- (niha'iya) 
summation (jur.) ; iJytiUI i^^U-'l (a/- 
lahutiya) the "summa theologica" (of 
Thomas Aquinas); *j^W I^"^>- ( r i/rtya) 
perfume essence ; i™*>U^ [^ in short, briefly, 
in a word (introducing a summary of the 
basic ideas) 

l _ r oJU- kail? pi. »Uai^ fcula^a' 1 pure, 
clear, unmixed, unadulterated; sincere, 
faithful, loyal; loyal adherent 

^ji*- kvlu? clearness, purity; sincerity, 
candor, frankness 

tj+'te- kallap (magr.) tax collector 

A& rnakla? safe place ; refuge, 
escape, rescue, salvation, deliverance 

^ttJ^ taklia clearing, purification, 
refining, rectification; clarification; lib- 
eration, extrication, deliverance, rescue, 
salvation ; payment, settlement, liqui- 
dation; prepayment of postage (J* on); 
customs clearance, payment of duty 
(mLoJI J* on merchandise; also ^j^Ak- 

«**JIJ£ mukdlasa pi. -at receipt 

j^tsU- 1 ikla$ sincere devotion, loyal 
attachment, sincere affection; sincerity, 
frankness, candor; loyalty, faithfulness, 
fidelity, allegiance (J to) 

1 _ r «ijc takallu? freedom, liberation, re- 
lease, extrication, escape {<>• from) 

^■^UiiJ istikldp extraction; excerption; 
derivation, deduction ; selection ; col- 
lecting (of a sum of money) 

j^jU- kali? pi. ^^d*- JcuUa? clear; pure, 
unmixed, unadulterated; sincere, frank, 
candid, true; free, exempt (^ from) | 
*/r^' ^^ k. al-ujra post-free; ij\ ^U- 
k. ar-radd prepaid, reply paid for (tele- 

gram) ; iljiOl ,> ^ai U- (gwnrug) dutyfree ; 
i-j^^-iJI ^U- tax-exempt 

.j^i* mukaUis liberator; Savior, Re- 
deemer (Chr.) 

(4-Lp) 1 _ r al£ muJcaUa? i^alaiki) postage 

^jA£- muklis devoted; sincere, frank, 
candid ; loyal ; faithful (J to s.o., to; purehearted, virtuous, righteous; 
u *\&\ (in letters) approx. : yours truly . . ., 
sincerely yours . . . 

jfllVn- mustakla$ pi. -at extract, ex- 

.LU- kalata i (fcalf) to mix, mingle, com- 
mingle, blend (<_j a with) ; to confuse, 
confound, mix up (jo two things; j — jo with), mistake (j jo for) 

II to mix, mingle, commingle, blend (a; to cause confusion III to mix, 
mingle, blend, merge, fuse (a with; to meddle (a in), interfere (a 
with); to mix, associate (• with s.o.); 
to have to do (• with s.o.) | *~ij JaJU- 
(nafsahu) to befall, attack s.o. (pain, 
etc.); Am J ]aij>- kvlifa f\ 'aqlihi to be or 
become disordered in mind VIII to be 
mixed, mix, mingle, form a mixture or 
blend; to consist of a heterogeneous 
mixture, be motley, promiscuous ; to 
associate, be on intimate terms (i_> with) ; 
to be or become confused, get all mixed up 

U>- kal\ mixing, blending ; combination; 
mingling, commingling (i~> with) ; con- 
fusing, confounding, mistaking, mix-up, 

Li*- kttf pi- -U"iU-l akl&f component of 
a mixture ; ingredient ; pi. mixture, 
blend | jLJVl .U^l the four humors of 
the human body (blood, phlegm, yellow 
bile, and black bile); ^Ul ^> JoUl 
common people, populace, rabble, riff- 
raff, mob; i&L. J*l»- kilf m *#» fatt ***# 
motley, pell-mell, promiscuously 



iU*- jn/fa mixture, blend, medley 

iU>- fcutya company; mixture 

Jr-jU- fca&SJ and lU^U U#t pi. -df 
mixer, mixing machine 

J<J*. fcaft/ mixed, blended; motley, 
heterogeneous, promiscuous; mixture, 
blend (<> of); medley, hodgepodge; (pi. 
*UlU- Jculafa.' 3 ) associate, companion, 

Vijc totaif pi. -d< insanity; delirium 

iijljt mukalafa company, intercourse, 

V>b»J-l t&tfdj (process of) mixing, 
blending ; mingling , commingling ; con- 
fusion; mental disorder; (social) inter- 
course, association, dealings (<~> with) 

J^lk maklvj pi- -UJlJt makalif* mixture, 
blend; alloy 

Jal!£ mukaUaf confused, disordered 

JaJIJt mukdktf stricken, afflicted (v e.g., 
by a disease) 

J*U* muktalif mixed | iLL^ii £*Ut the 
mixed courts, see &£; -Uk£ <i«j coed- 

J*, £a&Ta a (£aT) to take off, put off, slip 
off (a a garment) ; to doff, take off {*ZjiJ* 
one's tarboosh); to extract, pull (a a 
tooth); to wrench, dislocate, luxate (* 
a joint); to depose, remove, dismiss, dis- 
charge (• s.o., j- from an office); to 
renounce, forgo, give up (*, with- 
draw (a from) ; to throw off, cast off (»jlae 
'%4&rahu one's restraint, one's inhibi- 
tions); to refuse (**UJI obedience); to 
disown, repudiate (cjI one's son) ; to 
divorce (U one's wife) in return for a 
compensation to be paid by her; to get 
through, have done (a with, be 
through, have gone through (a, 
e.g., a hard day); to impart (J* a 

to); to confer, bestow (J* a upon 
s.o.), grant, award (J* * to b.o.) j 
oLJ «i*i- (HySbahu) to undress; j* <ul>- 
J-j^ {'ari) to dethrone s.o. ; **U- 4-1* ^J*- 
(kiTatan) to bestow a robe of honor upon 
s.o. ; J*- <-Ju J* *U- (haqqa) to arrogate to 
o.s. the right of...; — kalu'a u (*oU 
kald'a) to be dissolute, morally depraved 

II to take away, remove, displace, dis- 
locate (a; to knock out of joint, 
take or break apart (a; pass. 
kuUi'a to fall to pieces, get out of joint 

III to divorce (Ia one's wife, in return for 
a compensation to be paid by her) V to 
go to pieces, fall apart, break; to become 
or be luxated, dislocated (joint) ; to take 
a vacation in the country (tun.) | J ^lic 
^l^iJI (SarSb) to be addicted to drinking, 
drink heavily VII to be displaced, be 
dislocated, be removed; to be divested, 
be deprived, be stripped (,y of, 
forfeit, lose (j* | Ui ^1 (qalbuhu) 
he was completely taken aback, he was 
alarmed, Btartled 

*U kal' slipping off, taking off (of 
clothes); deposition (e.g., of a ruler); 
dislocation, luxation | oU-V I A»- ex- 
traction of teeth 

mLi- kul' khula, divorce at the instance 
of the wife, who must pay a compensa- 
tion (Isl. Law) 

4*U kil'a pi. *U- kHa' robe of honor 

-J*, kali' pi. »UU- hula'd' 2 deposed, 
dismissed, discharged (from an office); 
repudiated, disowned; wanton, dissolute, 
dissipated, profligate, morally depraved 

flU. kalia' wild, unruly, wanton, 
shameless, impudent 

Sp^U- kald'a dissoluteness, dissipation, 
profligacy, wantonness, licentiousness, 
moral depravity; {tun.) recreation in the 
country, summer vacation 

J^ kaula' fool, dolt, simpleton 

^JU. MM': jliJI glU fc. a/-'»d<Ir un- 
restrained, .uninhibited, wanton; liber- 
tine, debauchee, rou6, rake 

pjjt maklu' unrestrained, uninhibited, 
wanton; wild, unruly; reckless, heedless, 
irresponsible; crazy, mad 

ijj*. kalafa 1* to be the successor (• of s.o.), 
succeed (» s.o.); to follow (• s.o.), come 
after s.o. (»); to take the place of s.o. 
(•), substitute (• for s.o.); to replace (• 
s.o., a; to lag behind s.o. (jt); to 
stay behind (^ after s.o.'s departure); 
to be detained, be held back, be kept 
away, stay away (^ from) II to appoint 
as successor (• s.o.); to leave behind, 
leave (a, ♦ s.o.,; to have descend- 
ants, have offspring III to be contra- 
dictory, contrary, opposed (> to); to 
conflict, clash, be at variance (a with); 
to contradict (• s.o., a; to be 
different, differ, diverge (a from), be 
inconsistent, incompatible, not in keep- 
ing, not to harmonize (a with); to offend 
(a against a command, a rule), break, 
violate, disobey (a a command, a rule) 
IV to leave {» offspring, children); to 
compensate, requite, recompense (J* 
s.o.; said of God); to break, fail to keep 
(aJi&j wa'dahu one's promise), go back 
on one's word; to disappoint (»U^1 ar- 
raja' a the hopes) V to stay behind; to 
lag or fall behind (j*); to stay, stay on, 
remain; to fail to appear or show up; 
to play truant; to be absent; to stay 
away (j* from), not go (^c to), not 
attend (j* | #^1 jp ijjjt (majV) 
to fail to come or arrive; »syb\ & ijiiic 
('auda) not to return VI to disagree, 
differ, be at variance; to differ in opinion, 
be of a different mind VIII to differ, be 
different, vary (j* from); to be varied, 
varying, variable, various, diverse, dis- 
similar; to vary (jju between); to dis- 
agree, differ in opinion, be at variance, 
argue, quarrel, dispute (J about); to 

come or go frequently (Jl to), frequent, 
patronize (Jl a place), visit frequently 
(Jl s.o.,, come and go (Jl at); to 
come, descend (Jp upon s.o.; said of 
afflictions ), befall, overtake (J* s.o. ) 
X to appoint as successor or vicar (* s.o.) 

kjj*. kalf back, rear, rear part or 
portion; successors; kalfu and JaLt- ,y 
min kalfu (adv.) at the back, in the 
rear; kalfa (prep.) behind, after, in the 
rear of | l^iU- ^j*- he ran after her; ,y 
,_il>- min kalft behind, in the rear of; i > 
i_il£ I from behind, from the rear ; Ja)£ I Jl 
to the rear, backward, back; » t? £]l <Jil»- Jl 
in the wake of; l _iiAM J in the rear; 
at the back, in the background 

( ^U- kolfi rear, hind, hinder, back 

._aL>. hilf pi. J»iU-l aklaf teat, nipple, 

JiU kulf dissimilarity, disparity, dif- 
ference, contrast, variance, discrepancy 

._aU- kalaf pi. J»*)Ul aklaf substitute; 
successor ; descendant, offspring, scion 

iiU hilfa dissimilarity, disparity, dif- 
ference; that which follows and 
replaces it (e.g., second growth of plants, 
day and night, etc.) 

<iA»- kalifa pi. »UU- kulafa' 3 , •Ju'^U- 
kald'ip vicar, deputy; successor; caliph; 
(formerly) senior official of the native 
administration in Tunis, assigned to a 
OjU; (formerly) title of the ruler of 
Spanish Morocco 

LiJ£ I iikll al-minfaqa al-kalifiya 
the Caliphate Zone (formerly, designation 
of Spanish Morocco) 

ii^U- kilafa viearship, deputyship ; 
succession; caliphate, office or rule of 
a caliph; (formerly) administrative de- 
partment of a <jLU- (Tun.), see above 

Jj^Ui mikldf pi. .JJLJt makalif* 
province (Yemen) 


lJ^U- fctZd/ pi. -a* difference, disparity, 
dissimilarity; divergence, deviation; con- 
trast, contrariety, incongruity, contra- 
diction, conflict; disagreement, difference 
of opinion (J* or J about); dispute, 
controversy; kilafa (prep.) beside, apart 
from, aside from | ^"iU- kilafuhu (= *j£) 
other, the like, ^i^U- others (than those 
mentioned), *i^-j and the like (after an 
enumeration) ; J* 1 ^ bi-kilaji beside, 
apart "from, aside from; contrary to, as 
opposed to, unlike; J \i"&- kildfan li 
contrary to, against, in contradiction to; 
«iili Js'sU J* unlike that, contrary to 
that, on the contrary, on the other 

jte- Jcildfi controversial, disputed 

iiiijt- mukdlafa pi. -at contrast, con- 
trariety ; contradiction , inconsistency ; 
contravention, infringement, violation; 
misdemeanor {far. ; as distinguished from 
o%j-. and *jbjr); fine (for a misdemeanor) 

LJJJt" takalluf staying away, non- 
appearance, nonattendance, nonpresence, 
absence, truancy (also jj-^-l J* *-JaJLJt) ; 
staying behind, staying on ; stopover 
(railroad); backwardness 

J»lfc^-I iktilaf pi. -at difference, dis- 
similarity, disparity; diversity, variety; 
variant, variation; difference of opinion, 
disagreement ; controversy | J* <sj\ 
*JjA]I i_-*lill <J»^>-1 {ra'lya, dvnxya) the 
subjects of every ( = irrespective of 
their) religious denomination; i_i'^-l J* 
-f-lj^-l whichever party they may belong 
to; l(i*it>-l J* 4S"|^iJl all the different 
fruits, fruits of every kind 

ojjjt makluja pi. -at camel saddle 

i_iia£ mukaUaf left, left behind; left 
over; pi. oUHt heritage, legacy, estate; 
scraps, leftovers 

.Jj lit mukalif divergent, varying, 
different ; inconsistent, incompatible, 

contradictory, contrasting, conflicting ; 
transgressor (of a command) 

ic* mutakaUif residual; left over; 
retarded, backward, underdeveloped 
(mentally, in growth, etc.); pi. -un one 
left behind; straggler; pi. oliU^u herit- 
age, legacy, estate ; leftovers; scraps, 
refuse, offal | iili^u hj\ [atriba) waste 
material, overburden, superstratum (in 
mining); iiUiill »Lil {miyah) waste water, 

tjJiit muktalif different, varying, 
divergent {^* from) ; varied, various, 
diverse; having a different opinion, dis- 
agreeing ( j or J* about) 

(«-Ip) *J iJtkJt- mujctalaf fiki {'alaihi) 
controversial, disputed 

jU- Jcalaqa u {kalq) to create, make, originate 
(a; to shape, form, mold (*; 
— Jcaliqa a and kaluqa u to be old, worn, 
shabby (garment); — kaluqa u (&$*• 
kalaqa) to be fit, suitable, suited II to 
perfume (a IV to wear out (a, 
let (a become old and shabby 
V pass, of II; to be molded, be shaped ( <-> 
by a model or pattern), change (<~> with 
a model) ; to become angry VIII to 
invent, contrive, devise (a ; to 
fabricate, concoct, think up (a; 
to attribute falsely (a J* to s.o. 

jl*- kalq creation; making; origination; which is created, a creation; crea- 
tures; people, man, mankind; physical 

jl>- hulq, kuluq pi. JhU-l aklaq innate 
peculiarity; natural disposition, charac- 
ter, temper, nature; — pi. i3"}U-l aklaq 
character (of a person); morals; morality | 
jLtl *j* su y al-k. ill nature; jUM ^> 
sayyi' al-k. ill-natured ; jU-' ! J^- sahl al-k. 
complaisant, obliging; jlAM J-^ dayyiq 
al - k. impatient, restless ; j">U- V I i* 
'Urn al-a. ethics; moral science, morals; 


J*sUVI yf sumuw aX-a. nobility of 
character; j'iUVl fjl£* noble manners, 
high moral standards; J'^U'Vt iir^ htrfat 
aha. vice squad 

Jl>- kvlq\ ethic(al), moral | LIl*. <^»- 
offenses against public morals 

jU- kalaq (m. and f.) pi. jUl>- kvXq&n, 
JlU-1 aklaq shabby, threadbare, worn 


Ul»- kilqa pi. jU> kilaq creation; innate 
peculiarity of character, natural dispo- 
sition, nature; constitution; physiogno- 
my; kilqatan by nature 

JU- kilqi natural, native, congenital, 
innate, inborn, inbred 

uk halaqa rag, tatter 

3~&>- kalaq share (of positive qualities, 
of religion) | *) j"^*- V (&a&z?a) disgrace- 
ful, ignominious, despicable; a worthless 
fellow, a good-for-nothing 

jJU- kaliq pi. .UU- fcufog-d* 3 fit, quali- 
fied, suitable, appropriate (»_>, J for, jl to do; apt (jl to do; 
in keeping with (v)> adequate (._* to), 
worthy (<-» of) | jl u^i-U- ^ it is (would 
be) only fair that we..., we should..., 
we ought to ... ; Jl j-U-^ he is apt to . . ., 
it is only natural for him that he . . . ; 
lij* Uj£> jl \Xf J_i»- (mu'liman) this is 
apt to be painful, it is only natural that 
this is painful; jtj U*X« jl UJU- Ij^j lj& 
(tuqntana) no more than a quick glance 
is apt to convince us that . . . 

Jjl>» kaluq of firm character, stead- 
fast, upright 

ji»- 1 ajdaq* more adequate, more 
appropriate, more natural 

JtA»- kalldq Creator, Maker (God) 

ULU- fcaitga the creation, the universe 
created by God; nature; natural dispo- 
sition, trait, characteristic ; creatures, 

created beings; pi. jj*&- kald'iq 2 crea- 
tures, created beings 

j-^U-l aklaqi moral; ethic(al); ethicist, 
moral philosopher | j-^U-l {j- (jurm) 
offense against public morals ; ii-XUI 
SJ^*-"^' (falaaja) moral Bcience, moral 
philosophy; ethics 

<S-£*~\ aklaqiya morality, moral practioe 

JliU- kulqani dealer in old clothes 

jJ U- kaliq creative ; Creator, Maker 

3j\£ makluq created; (pi. -at, jJli 
makaliq 2 ) creature, created being 

jLJ£ muktaliq inventor, fabricator (of 

jlijt muktalaq fabricated, trumped 
up, invented, fictitious; apocryphal; pi. 
■at lies, falsehoods, fabrications, fictions 

j^ll*- kalqin pi. jJ'iU- kalaqin* caldron, boiler, 

1 ^I>- kalanj heath, erica (bot) 

2 jU^i>- kidungan (eg.) (rhizome of) galingale 
(Polypodium Calaguala Kz.; bot.) 

{jl*-) "^U- kola u (kiUuw, »^U- kola,') to be 
empty, vacant; — (kuluw) to be free 
{^ or y> from) ; to be devoid (,>. of, 
lack, want (j*, be in need (j* of); 
to be vacant (office) ; — (#^U- kaXwa) to be 
alone (<-», Jl, ** with s.o., Jl also: with 
or in; to isolate o.s., seclude o.s.; 
to withdraw, retire (ijjljull li-l-mitddwala 
for deliberation; court, jury); to with- 
draw for spiritual communion, in order 
to take counsel (Jl with); to devote o.s., 
apply o.s., give one's attention (J to; <i *>U- to forsake, desert s.o., leave 
s.o. in the lurch; — to pass (» s.o.), go 
by s.o. (»); to pass, elapse, go by, be 
bygone, past, over (time) | jL-\ 4 *}U 
(jatvw) to have free scope, have freedom 


of action; JU; $* Jjfi V (janUU) it is 
not without a certain beauty; ,> J^ V 
«i!L, (mu&Ua£<i) it is slightly exaggerated ; 
•oJli ,> jlic V it is not quite useless; 
■»,.*; Jl ^U to be alone with o.s.; to 
commune with o.s., take counsel with 
o.s., search one's heart; £>\j— ji* i- 
cJs- munftu 'aSri sanawatin Jpalai for the 
past ten years II to vacate, evacuate 
(a; to leave, leave alone (• s.o.); 
to release, let go (« s.o., *; to desist, 
abstain, refrain (j* from), give up (^ | 4JL-. Jrf- (sabilahu) to let s.o. off, 
let s.o. go, release s.o.; j^j uSi ,jo J>. 
»,~JI to give s.o. a free hand in, let s.o. 
have his own way with or in, let s.o. 
alone with; to open the way for s.o. to; 
JjJll «o* dk* J»- Jpalli 'anka h. l-muyula 
desist from such desires! IV to empty, 
void, drain, deplete {j» * of); to 
vacate, leave uninhabited or untenanted 
(* a place); to evacuate (a a city) | J»>l 
*U- (sabilahU) to let s.o. off, let s.o. go, 
release b.o.; J JjjJI Jrf-I to open the way 
for...; *i^» jp-l (farafahu) to dismiss, 
discharge s.o., send s.o. away; to exoner- 
ate, exculpate, clear s.o.; J ***" J»-l 
(mto'o&w) to be all ears for..., listen 
intently to...; JjJL L. ^J ^ J*"' *° 
let s.o. say whatever he likes, let s.o. 
talk freely V to give up, relinquish, forgo, 
abandon (je or j-, withdraw, 
resign (j^ or j* from); to cede, leave, 
surrender (J ^ to s.o.); to lay 
down (jc an office) VIII to retire, with- 
draw, step aside, be alone (i~> or £. with) 

j\»- %ilw free (,>• from), devoid (^ of) 

_jl>- kuluw emptiness, vacuity; freedom 
(& from) 

■5U £ala and *)U- U (with foil. aco. or 
genit.) except, save, with the exception 

»:iU- feala' emptiness, vacuity; empty 
space, void, vacancy, vacuum ; open 

country | #^£l cJ- or oU-'l j under 
the open sky, outdoors, in the open air; 
oU-*1 Cm bait al-fy. toilet, water closet 

^U- kalwa pi. jcalawdt privacy, soli- 
tude; seclusion, isolation, retirement; 
place of retirement or seclusion, retreat, 
recess; secluded room; hermitage; re- 
ligious assembly hall of the Druses; 
booth, cabin | »^U- J* alone; in retire- 
ment, in seclusion ; f 1^- 1 *^U- $. al- 
hammam bathhouse 

tfj*- kalaun lonely, solitary, secluded, 
isolated, outlying; located in the open 
country, rural, rustic, country | i£j\>- Cm 
(bait) country house 

J^ jcali y pi. »U*-I a$iya' % free (j* from), 
void, devoid (j* of) | JUI J*- carefree, 
easygoing, happy-go-lucky 

JJU- kaliya pi. U"iU. kaldyd beehive ; cell 
{biol.) I O JjSfl *i^J-' <Ji^l (aZ-Aayawiya 
J-wJa) protoplasm ; IjiU- ^ from within .... 
from inside . . ., out of . . . 

*^j£ mikldk nosebag 

i-Lic tafcliya vacating, evacuation 

»">U-l *#W emptying, voiding, draining; 
clearing; vacating, evacuation | *L»— »^>-t 
*. «o6l/tAl his release 

Jit taJfaUin relinquishment, abandon- 
ment, surrender, renunciation, resigna- 
tion (j* of 

»:&»U *&iZo* privacy, solitude 

JW- fc&lin empty, void; open, vacant 
(office, position) ; free, unrestrained, 
untrammeled, unencumbered; free (^« 
from), devoid (j- of) | in numerous 
compounds corresponding to Engl, -less 
or un-, e.g., ;aJU!I j- JU- useless, j* JU- 
jK-JI {auJfeifedn) uninhabited, untenanted, 
unoccupied; jdJl JU- #aft d-doin not 
bound by, without obligation to, free 
(j* from) ; JUI JU- carefree, easygoing, 
happy-go-lucky; — (pi. Jl^- %aw&lin) 


past, bygone (time) | 3Jl£l OjjJi\ the past 
centuries; «J[j£l fl/iM j /t l-ayyami h 
kawali in the days past 

J- kamma u (kamm) to sweep (a a room) ; — 
x u (kamm, *ji- kumum) to exude a 
rotten, foul smell; to rot, putrify, decay 

ji- kumm pi. >U- 1 akmdm coop, 
chicken coop, brooder; poultry pen 

l*~ kamma putrid smell, stench 

a U- kamm stinking, rotten , putrid , 
foul-smelling; kdm look up alphabetically 

A mukimm stinking, rotten, putrid, 

£> kamija a (kamaj\ to spoil, rot, decay 

■ij~ kamada u (sji~ kumud) to go out, die 
(fire); to abate, subside, let up, calm 
down, cease, die down IV to extinguish, 
put out (a fire) ; to calm, appease, 
placate, soothe, lull, still, quiet (a; 
to suppress, quell (a; to subdue, 
soften, deaden, dull (a; to stifle, 
smother, kill (a; fig.) 

jji- kumud extinction ; decline, de- 
generation, deterioration; quietness, still- 
ness, tranquillity, calm ; immobility, 

jU-1 ikmdd extinction, putting out; 
calming, soothing, placation, appease- 
ment, lulling, stilling; subduing, soften- 
ing, dulling; settlement; suppression, 
quelling (of a riot) 

JuU- kdmid dying; abating, subsiding; 
calm, tranquil, still, quiet 

ji~ kamara u (kamr) and II to cover, hide, 
conceal (a ; to leaven, raise (a 
dough); to ferment (a, cause 
fermentation (a in) III to permeate, 
pervade (a, mix, blend (a with); 
to possess, seize, overcome {• s.o., e.g., 
an idea, a feeling) IV to leaven, raise (a 
dough); to ferment (a, cause 

fermentation (a in); to harbor, entertain 
(a; to bear a grudge, feel resent- 
ment (J against s.o.) V to ferment, be 
in a state of fermentation; to rise (dough); 
to veil the head and face (woman) VI to 
conspire, plot, collude, scheme, intrigue 
(J* against) VIII to ferment, be in a 
state of fermentation; to rise (dough); 
to become ripe, ripen (also fig.: an idea 
in s.o. 's mind) 

ji- kamr m. and f., pi. jj»- kumur 
wine; pi. alcoholic beverages, liquor 

•ji" kamra wine 

<Sj*~ kamrx golden brown, reddish 
brown , bronze-colored (actually, wine- 

Hj*~ kamrxya pi. -at wine poem, 
bacchanalian verse 

jU- kimar pi. "»Jr-\ akmira, y- kumur 
veil covering head and face of a woman 

j\J- kumar aftereffect of intoxication, 

j^- kamir leavened (dough); ripe, 
mature, mellow; leaven; leavened bread 

IjJh kamira pi. J\J- kama'ir* leaven; 
ferment; barm, yeast; enzyme (chem.); 
(fig.) starter, nucleus, basis (from which greater develops) 

jU- kammar wine merchant, keeper 
of a wineshop 

«jlr- kammdra wineshop, tavern 

jj- kimmir winebibber, drunkard, 
tippler, sot 

j**k takmir leavening, raising (of 
dough); fermenting, fermentation 

j 1^-1 iktimdr (process of) fermentation 

j_j*jt makmur drunk, intoxicated, 

j*z£- muktamir fermenting, fermented; 


j- II to quintuple, make fivefold, multiply 
by five (a B.tfa.); to make pentagonal 
(a; to divide into five parts {a 

^yj- kuma pi. ^li-l okmos one fifth | 
c-lx-1 j <*\i-\ *-*jJ> daraba akmdsahu ft 
asddsihi and ^'^"if L-li-l >-?_?* ('*" 
asddain) to rack one's brain in search 
of a way out; to be at one's wit's end; to 
scheme, intrigue 

L_i- kamsa (f. ,j-i- hams) five 
jtt. <-i- kamsata 'aSara (f. Ijl* l _ r J- 
kamsa 'aJsrata) fifteen 

iijj- kamsun fifty | ,>— J^l -^ 'id 
al-k. Whitsuntide, Pentecost; jt—UM -i~l 
ahad al-k. Whitsunday ; j**L£ ' (k) ayy&m 
al-kamasin the period of about 50 days 
between Easter and Whitsuntide; D j*-*- 
and jwli- khamsin, a hot southerly wind 
in Egypt 

J_-i- .u> 'id kamsini 50th anniver- 

l _ r xt- kamis and ,j»i*^' f_n youm ai-fc. 
Thursday | jlJ-J iJ -^- k. al-jasad Corpus 
Christi Day (Chr.); £*£ll ir tJt- k. al-fish, 
jlj-Vl ^r**- A:- al-aarSr, and JL^Jl ,_,-*** 
A:, al-dhd Maundy Thursday (Chr.) 

,^-li- kammda pi. i***U- kamamxaa 
(magr.) sharecropper receiving one fifth 
of the crop as wages 

^\j- kum&ai fivefold, quintuple; 
consisting of five consonants (gram.) \ 
UI,jJI ^.Li- (zaivaya) pentagonal, five- 

L-rf- kumaisa {www., pronounced 
fcmiao) ornament in the shape of a hand 
(worn by women and children as a 
talisman against the evil eye) 

^UM al-kamia the fifth 

( _ r *jt mukammas pentagonal, five- 
cornered; pentagon; fivefold, quintuple; 
O pentameter 

Jj- kamaSa * « (kamS) and II to scratch (a 
e.g., the face, the skin, with the nails) 

jii* teams' pi. ^j*- kumuS scratch, 
scratch mark, scar 

<2\Jt- kuma&a pi. -at scratch, scar 

^j+Jr- kamasa u and kamisa a to be empty, 
hungry (stomach) 

ij+Jh kamis, jkJI ^^Jr- k. al-bafn, 
Lii-I o-^- &■ al-haSd with an empty 
stomach, hungry 

fjj)l j^r-t akmas al-qadam pi. ,ja»1>-i 
afaimtV hollow of the sole (of the foot) | 
f.UJ1 ^aM Jl ^1^1 j- from head to toe 

*>• fcama'a a (kam* t fy- kumu') to limp, 
walk with a limp 

Ji- kamala u (Jy- kumvl) to be unknown, 
obscure, undistinguished; to be weak, 

Jj- fcaml and <Li» kamla nap, the 
rough, hairy Burface of a fabric; fibers 

Ji- bmil languid, sluggish, dull, 

Jy- kumul obscurity; weakness, las- 
situde, languor, lethargy; indolence, slug- 
gishness, inactivity; apathy, indifference; 
sleepiness, drowsiness 

iLi- kamila pi. J3li- Axwna'iJ' place 
with luxuriant tree growth ; thicket, 
brush, scrub 

J.U- kdmil unknown, obscure, un- 
distinguished, unimportant, minor ; weak, 
languid, sluggish 

JJt mukmal velvet-like fabric, velvet 

^Jfi- mukmali velvety | JJft -d»- (j$d) 
deerskin, buckskin 

aJ- II to guess, conjecture, surmise; to 

make conjectures (a as to); to assess, 
appraise, estimate (a 


<>**£ takmin appraisal, assessment, 
estimation; L~*J£ takminan and j^Jc J* 
approximately, roughly 

jje- mukammin appraiser, assessor 

1 J* m kanna * (,>i^- kanln) to speak nasally, 
nasalize; to twang, speak through the 
'•cJ- kunna nasal twang 
,>:>- kanln twanging, nasal twang 
j>-\ akann 2 , f. »L»- kanna' 2 twanging, 
speaking through the nose 

2 t y- kunn { = ->- kumm) pi. ul^-l akndn coop, 
chicken coop, brooder 

wJL>- kanita a to be soft, effeminate V to 
display effeminate manners, become or 
be effeminate 

£j^ kanit oft, effeminate 

J^- kuntd pi. l!>U>. kindt, jU>- fcandtd 

4?^ kunuta effeminacy 
£jj£ takannut effeminacy 

£jjt mukannat bisexual; effeminate; 
powerless, impotent, weak 

j*±*~ kanjar pi. >»-U»- kandjir 2 dagger 

j*^*- kankana to nasalize, speak nasally; to 
twang, speak through the nose 

J.U*- kandaqa to dig a ditch or trench (lix*-) ; 
to take up positions, prepare for battle 

Jo^- kandaq pi. jiL^ kanddiq 2 ditch; 

<j\js+- kunzuwaniya megalomania 

i_jjrU- kanzab Satan, Devil 

j'j>- kinzvr pi. _rjU»- jcanazir 2 swine, pig, 
n °g: t$-r Jf*- (barri) wild boar; yjl*- 
scrofula, scrofulosis (med.) 

*jj^- kinzlra sow 

tfj jLj^ fcanaztrt scrofulous 

,^-Ut I al-kannds epithet of the Devil (proper- 
ly speaking, he who withdraws when the 
name of God is mentioned) 

J*~\ aknas 2 , f. »L-i^ kanad' s , pi. (J Js- 
kuns pugnosed 

jLiLU- kin&dr fern (bot.) 

kinnau§ pi. (J -*Jb^- fcandnts 2 piglet 

^^^ Hrwir pi. j^~i~ kana$ir 2 little finger | 
J* (^UJ-'I) ^^J-'l -Li* to give top- 
rating because of its excellence, put, 
above everything else 

^J- kana'a a {fy»~ kunu') to yield, surrender, 
bow, stoop (J or Jl to s.o.), humble o.s 
cringe (J or Jl before s.o.) 

fy»- kanu' submissive, servile, meek, 
humble; treacherous, perfidious, dis 

fj*- kunu' submissiveness, meekness, 

<j£J- kanaf {eg.) twanging, nasal twang 

jkJ- kanfara to snuffle, snort 

jL>> kunfus and »LuL#- kunfusd* pi. (J J'L>- 
kanafia 2 dung beetle, scarab 

>- kanoqa u {kanq) to choke (» s.o.); to 
suffocate, stifle, Bmother, strangle, throttle, 
choke to death (» s.o.); to throttle down 
(techn. ; * ; to slow down, cut, check, 
suppress (* Ill to quarrel, have a 
fight (« with s.o.) VI to quarrel, dispute, 
have a fight (*• with s.o.) VII pass, of I; 
VIII to be throttled, be suppressed; to 
be tight, constricted (throat); to be 
strangled, be choked to death 

Ji*. kanq strangling, strangulation ; 
throttling, suppression j jl^Vl £± k. 
al-anwdr dim-out 

oJl Siji kanqat (kunqat) al-yad wrist 

jL>- kundq suffocation; angina {med.); 
kundq and <jyU- kdnuq quinsy, diphtheria 


(med.); pi. J>j^ kanxiniq 2 and Jj)j*- 
kaivaniq 2 do. 

t}h>- kanndq choking, throttling, stran- 

i£.i£ maknaq neck, throat [ *JLikC eJU-l 
to grab s.o. by the throat, bear down on 
s.o. ; to have power over s.o. 

JL*. kinaq strangling cord; neck, 
throat | J* jL^ I J-«* (tfayya^a) to 
tighten the grip around s.o.'s throat, 
tread on s.o.'s neck, oppress s.o., beset 
s.o. grievously; ajIjJ£ .U-l to grab s.o. by 
the throat 

Jli*t- kinaq and i*U». kinaqa quarrel, 
fight, row 

Jbj^l iktinaq suffocation, asphyxia- 
tion; constriction; asphyxia {med.) 

jjU- kdniq choking, strangling; suf- 
focating, asphyxiating, stifling, smother- 
ing; throttling, throttle- (in compounds; 
techn.); (pi. jj]y- Jcawaniq 3 ) choke coil, 
reactor {radio); gorge, ravine, canyon | 
JjU- jU asphyxiating gas; t^oiJI jjU- &. 
ad-di'b wolfsbane, monkshood, aconite 

3j£- maknuq strangled ; suffocated, 
stifled, smothered; suppressed, choking 
(voice, laughter, etc.); constricted; stran- 
gulated; throttled 

j^at muktaniq crammed, jammed, 
crowded, chock-full (<_j with) 

(j*- and J*-) b>- hand u, ^- kaniya a (^*- 
kanan) to use obscene language IV to hit 
hard, afflict grievously, wear down, ruin, 
destroy, crush (J* s.o.,; said of fate) 

^ kanan obscene language; 
indecent or obscene ; prostitution ; fornica- 

Vl>*" kawaja pi. -d( sir, Mr. (title and form 
of address, esp., for Christians and 
Westerners, used with or without the 
name of the person so addressed) 

o\y>- kuwan, kiwdn pi. ij^-l akmina, ,^jU-l 
akdtvin* table [ ij^ll jl^ k. az-zvna 
dressing table 

**rj*- kdgo, (eg.) teacher, schoolmaster 

rj»- II (eg.) to rot, decay, spoil 

rj»- kauk (coll.; n. un. I) peach (eg.); 
plum (syr.) 

~*£-j*~ kauka pi . ryi- kuwak sky - 
light, windowlike opening; wicket (of a 
canal lock, of a gate); (eg.) alley con- 
necting two streets 

I jp. kuda pi. -at, j^- kuwad helmet 

x (jj^-) jl»- kara u (j\j>- kuwdr) to low, moo 
(cattle) ; — jj± Jeawira a (jj*- kawar) and 
jU- kara u to decline in force or vigor; to 
grow weak, spiritless, languid, to languish, 
flag; to dwindle, give out (strength) 

jj± kaur pi. j]yi-\ ajcwar, jlj*»- kiran 
inlet, bay 

jy- kawar weakness, fatigue, enerva- 
tion, languor, lassitude 

j\yi~ kuw&r lowing, mooing 

j]y- kawwar weak, languid, strength- 

2 iSjj>- hurt pi. 3JjJ^>- kawarina parson, curate, 
priest; see also under jS- 

^jj*- kurus choir (of a church) 

&jj>- kauzaqa to impale (• s.o.); to corner, 
drive into a corner, get into a bad fix 
{• s.o.) 

3jj\*~ see 3j>~ 

,j£j*- J j j waraq kauSaq wrapping paper; 
blotting paper 

1 u*y i - b^ (coll.; n. un. •) pal 

~<**j>- faupa (eg.) plaitwork of palm 
leaves (resembling that of Panama hats ; 
used as a tarboosh lining) 

kiwa$a art of palm-leaf plaiting 



2 *j*- kawa§ and l _ r *>»-l see ^-y 

1 {o"j*~) u"^ hMo> » (&*«& u-*^ kiywj) t0 

wade (a into water); to plunge, dive, 
rush (* into, tackle courageously 
(a, embark boldly (a on); to 
penetrate (a or j into), become absorbed, 
engrossed (a or j in); to go into a 
subject (j), take up (j a subject), deal 
( j with) | 15^*11 ^U- (ma'ralca) to rush 
into battle; i->j±-\ jl£ ,j>U- ( gimara l-harb) 
to enter the war 

^j*- kavd plunge, rush (into); enter- 
ing, entry (into, e.g., into war, into 
negotiations) ; penetration ; search ( j 
into), examination, discussion, treat- 
ment (j of a subject) 

<*i\jz makdfa, pi. -at, ^jli- makdwid 2 

1 *\£- see Jt£- 

(lJjj^) iJ»U- kdfa (1st pers. perf. £i/Ju) a 
(kauf, 5iUt makdfa, U-*. K/a) to be 
frightened, scared; to be afraid (a, » or 
j- of), dread (a, « or ^ s.o. or; to 
fear (a, • or j* s.o.,; J* for s.o., for; jl that) II and IV to frighten, scare, 
alarm, fill with fear (» s.o.) V = I 

•-*>*- kauf fear, dread (j- of); lij>. 
kaufan for fear (^ of), fearing (J*, for) 

ii-*- K/a fear, dread (j- of) 

<J»^ katowdf, i_aj_j>- kawwif faintheart- 
ed, fearful, timid, timorous ; coward, 

Ji_j*-I akwaf 2 more timorous; more 
dreadful, more to be feared 

iiljs. makdfa fear, dread | jl iili (makd* 
jalan) for fear that ..., afraid that ... 

J»jljt makdwip (pi. zu iiLi) fears, 
apprehensions, anxieties ; horrors, dan- 
gers, perils 

»Ju^ takwlf and SiU-l t&d/a intimida- 
tion, bullying, cowing, frightening, scar 

J*y£ takawwuf fear, dread 

(JJU. jfca't/ pi. wJj>- kuwnvaf fearful, 
timid, timorous; scared, frightened, 
alarmed {,y by); afraid (^ of); anxious 
(Jp about), apprehensive (J* for) 

»_jy£ makuf feared, dreaded; danger- 
ous, perilous 

<J*~£ mukif fear-inspiring, frightful, 
dreadful, terrible, horrible 

(5"U. look up alphabetically 

<Sj>- II to grant, accord, give, concede (a » to 
s.o., also a J; esp., the right, the 
power to do, bestow, confer {a » 
upon s.o., also a J), vest, endow 
(a » s.o. with, also a J) 

JU- kal pi. i}]y-\ akwdl, JjJ^ ku'ul, 
'^j}*- ku'vla (maternal) uncle; — (pi. &ks- 
klldn) mole, birthmark (on the face); 
O patch, beauty spot 

IIU- kdla pi. -at (maternal) aunt 

Jj>- kawal chattels, property, esp., 
that consisting in livestock and slaves; 
servants; {eg.) dancer; effeminate person, 

J_^ kauli supervisor, overseer (of a 
plantation); gardener 

ty}*- ku'ula relationship of the 
maternal uncle 

Jjjt mukawwal authorized («-< to) 

(•U- look up alphabetically 

x (0j*-) jU- kdna u (kaun, iiL>- Jciydna) to 
be disloyal, faithless, false, treacherous, 
perfidious, act disloyally, treachorously, 
perfidiously (» toward s.o.); to betray 
(* so.); to cheat, dupe, gull, hoodwink 
(• s.o.), impose (» upon), deceive {<^-jj 
one's wife) ; to fool, deceive, mislead 



(• s.o.; said, e.g., of the memory); to 
forsake, let down, desert <• s.o.); to fail 
(• s.o.; e.g., the voice, and the like); to 
fail to keep (a e.g., a promise), break (1 J^e 
'ahdan a contract) II to regard as or call 
faithless, false, disloyal, treacherous, 
dishonest, unreliable (• s.o.); to distrust, 
mistrust (• s.o.) V to impair, harm, hurt, 
prejudice (a VIII to dupe, gull, 
cheat, deceive, double-cross, betray (• 
s.o.) X Oy£*\ iatakwana to distrust, mis- 
trust (« s.o.) 

4JL»- kiyana faithlessness, falseness, 
disloyalty, treachery, perfidy; breach of 
faith, betrayal; treason; deception, fool- 
ing | iiL^I *jL»- k. al-amana breach of 
faith; iJ Ji^ ijLrf- ('-uzma) high treason; 
2jcJ\ iiLst breach of promise 

Ojj>- ka'un faithless, false, disloyal, 
traitorous, treacherous, perfidious; un- 
reliable, tricky, deceptive 

o\j>- kavnvdn unreliable, faithless, 
disloyal, treacherous, perfidious; traitor 

JU kd'in pi. ul>>- kuwwan, <ij>- 
kawana disloyal, faithless, false, un- 
reliable, traitorous, treacherous, per- 
fidious; traitor 

*jU and «jU- look up alphabetically 

8 jl^ look up alphabetically 

: <£>>- kawa i (*\j>- kawa', i$yi- kawan) to be 
empty, be hungry; — kawiya a (♦!>>■ 
kawa') to be empty, bare, dreary, 
desolate, waste 

*]y- haw? and &y- kawan emptiness 
(of the stomach), hunger 

jU kawin empty, vacant ; dreary, 
waste, desolate | <cij_^- J* jl>- ('uriiSihi) 
completely devastated; ,j-»IJjJ1 tij^ h- 
l-wifad (= ^Ujil JU-) with an empty 
pouch, empty-handed, without a catch 

.jy- HI to join (• s.o.), join the company of 
(a), accompany (* s.o.) 

gj*- kuwaiy little brother 

lyi- kuwa brotherliness, fraternity 
(= 3^1 ukuwa) 

j\jt mukdwin brotherly, fraternal 

jL*- kiyar (coll.; n.un. S) cucumber | jcJ- ji*- 
k. ianbar (eg.) drumstick tree, purging 
cassia (Cassia fistula; hot.); <iS jL>- fc. 
qa&Sa (eg.) gherkins, pickles 

(<—-»-) •~ r >^>- kaba t {*—^- kaiba) to fail, mis- 
carry, be without success, be unsuccess- 
ful; to be frustrated, be dashed, be dis- 
appointed (hopes) ; to go wrong II and IV 
to cause to fail; to thwart, frustrate, 
foil, defeat (a; to disappoint, dash 
(*J L.T amatahu s.o.'s hopes) V = I 

i-_>- kaiba failure, miscarriage, defeat, 
frustration; fizzle, flop; disappointment | 
'*-*- jJj walad k., f. <~>- C-w bint k. (eg.) 
a good-for-nothing, a ne'er-do-well 

<_JU kd'ib failing; abortive, unsuccess- 
ful; disappointed 

( jj.) jU- kdra i to choose, make one's choice ; 
to prefer ( Jp * to) II to make or let 
(• s.o.) choose fa* between, j from), 
give (• s.o.) the alternative, option or 
choice (,>j between, j in); to prefer 
(J* * to) III to vie, compete (• with 
s.o.); to make or let (• s.o.) choose, give 
(• s.o.) the choice, option or alternative 
V to choose, select, pick (a, • s.o., 
VIII to choose, make one's choice; to 
choose, select, elect, pick (a, • s.o.,, 
fix upon b.o. or (a, •); to prefer 
(J* * to) | ... >j\yr Jl Zi\ j\^-\ (?'»- 
ivdrihi) approx. : the Lord has taken . . . 
unto Himself X to seek or request what 
is good or best (a) for o.s. (• from s.o.); 
to consult an oracle, cast lots |j *»1 jU»— ■! 
to ask God for proper guidance in 

jvi- kair pi. jL^- kiyar ; jLj^I akydr 
good; excellent, outstanding, superior, 
admirable ; better ; best ; — (pi. jjs»- 


kuyur) good thing, blessing ; wealth, 
property; — good, benefit, interest, 
advantage; welfare; charity | ^-Lll j*- 
the best of all people ; ^Ul jL*-», a) *UJIjL»-l 
the best people, the pick of the human 
race; iL. jf- j* he is better than you; 
ill j^- jM it is better for you ; j»AM J$* j£\ 
the very best; fLH jJ-'l ('&mm) the com- 
monweal, general welfare; fUl j%i:l SJjj 
welfare state; jJ-' for the benefit of; _^ 
-f-il K-fc. an/tt« for their own good; 
jJM Jl>l charitable deeds; jJ-'l -L*# 
pabdk al-k. and jX\j iJU-U* good morn- 
m g! j^-'tj •jS'j (daAaraAS) to retain a good 
impression of s.o. ; to speak well of s.o. 

tfj*- Jcairi charitable, beneficent, be- 
nevolent, philanthropic | <ij^- <-**: (/<*»»* 
r iya) charitable organization 

*ts*- kairiya oharity, charitableness, 
benevolence, beneficence 

Jf- kayyir generous, liberal, openhand- 
ed, munificent; charitable, beneficent, 
benevolent ; benign, gracious, kind 

•j*rf- kaira pi. -dt good deed, good 
thing; pi: olj^ resources, treasures (e.g., 
of the earth, of a country), boons, bless- 

•/*- JfcSra and kiyara the best, choice, 
prime, flower, pick, elite 

iff*- $*** gillyflower (bot.) 

joU akyar 2 , f. ^j^i- ktrd, ^jj*- kurd, 
pi. j\»-\ akdyir 2 better, superior 

jL>- fciydr choice; option, exercise of 
the power of choice (Isl. Law); refusal, 
right of withdrawal (Isl. Law); the best, 
choice, prime, flower, pick, elite; see also 

iS jW" biy&ri optional, facultative ; 

jU^-1 iktiydr choice ; election (also jx>I.; 
pl. -at); selection; preference (J* to); 
option; free will (philos.); ]j'i^>-\ iktiydran 

of one's own accord, spontaneously, 

<$jl~»-l iktiydri voluntary, facultative, 
elective (studies) 

jot mukayyar having the choice or 

jl=J£ muktdr free to choose, having the 
choice or option (J in), volunteering, 
ljUic muktdran (adv.) voluntarily, spon- 
taneously, of one's own accord ; choice, se- 
lect, exquisite ; chosen, preferred, favorite ; 
a favorite; oljli selection, selected writ- 
ings, anthology; (pl. jrulji makatir*) vil- 
lage chief, mayor of a village (Syr., Leb., 

o[)j**- see jjV 

(u-i* 1 -) c^~ & 5 * * O-i*- ^ ct **» oL-x»- kayasdn) 
to break (._> an agreement, a promise) 

u t i *- JcaiS sackcloth, sacking, canvas 

iliii- kaih. piece of sackcloth; (pl. -at, 
^i**- kiyai) sack; straw mattress, pallet; 
Bedouin tent 

m ■ * » » ■ see *i»- 

(ic-j^) J»U- kdfa i (Jcaif) and II to sew, stitch 

jLU->- Hf£n thread; twine, cord; pack- 
thread, string; fiber | JJ i^- &. amal a 
spark of hope, a thread of hope 

1 _ 5 l« = >" &>#* threadlike; fibrous 

^L»- &tya£ needle 

U»U*- fct y^a sewing; needlework, tailor- 
ing, dressmaking | 1LLJ-' I 3jT sewing 

J»L>- kayydf pl. -un tailor 

5UL*. Jcayydfa pl. -at dressmaker; seam- 

iaJt mikyaf needle 
JuU- Aa'tf tailor 



x (Js*-) ^^ ^^ a to i^ag" 1 ^, fancy, think, 
believe, suppose (<l)l that); to consider, 
deem, think (» * s.o. to be ..., a * 
to be ...), regard (•* s.o. ob, a* as) 
II to make (Jl s.o.) believe (Ol that), 
suggest (Jl to s.o., a, give s.o. (Jl) 
the impression that (*) | jl (<J) *JI J^ 
(#uyy»&0 he imagined, fancied, thought 
that..., it seemed, it appeared to him 
that...; ci-*- *- J* ibayyateti l/-^ 1 
being understood) as the heart dictates, 
i.e., as chance will have it, at random, 
unhesitatingly IT to be dubious, doubt- 
ful, uncertain, intricate V to imagine, 
fancy (*; to present itself, reveal 
itself (J to s.o.'s mind), become the 
object of imagination, appear ( = II 
kuyyUa; J to s.o.) | j*J-'l v J-* (jcaira) 
to suspect good qualities in 8.0., have 
an inkling of s.o.'s good qualities, think, 
well of s.o., have a good opinion of b.o. 
VI to pretend (^ J to 8.0., that ...), 
act (J toward s.o., ^ as if); to feel self- 
important, be conceited; to behave in a 
pompous manner, swagger, strut about; 
to conceive eccentric ideas, get all kinds 
of fantastic notions, have a bee in one's 
bonnet; to appear dimly, in shadowy 
outlines; to appear, show (J» on), hover 
(J* about; e.g., a smile about s.o.'s 
lips), flit (J* across, e.g., a shadow 
across s.o.'b face, etc.) VIII to feel self- 
important, be conceited; to behave in a 
pompous manner, swagger, strut about 

JL*- kaySl pi. SJL».I akyila disembodied 
spirit, ghost, specter; imagination; phan- 
tom, apparition; phantasm, fantasy, 
chimera, vision ; shadow, trace, dim 
reflection | dU JL*- k. ktkk slightest 
doubt; *\j*m^\ JL*-$ahra* scarecrow; 
Jlill JL*- k. az-zill shadow play 

iJL.^ kayala pi. -at ghost, spirit, 
speoter; phantom; phantasm, fantasy, 

JL*- Jpay&li imaginary, unreal; ideal, 
ideational, conceptual; Utopian 

J-*.! akyaP more conceited, haughtier, 

J-*-l akyal pi. J-»- kil, JjU-l akayiV 
green woodpecker 

»"5L*- knyald'* (f.) conceit, conceitedness, 

haughtiness, pride; »*iL£l al-kuyaWa 
haughtily, proudly 

*J>L*- kailala conceit, conceitedness, 
snobbery, arrogance, haughtiness 

UJft makila conceit, conceitedness, 
snobbery, arrogance, haughtiness; (pi. 
Jilit makdyiP) indication, sign, symptom, 
characteristic; pi. Jjlifr visions, mental 
images, imagery 

J-Jt takyxl play acting | J^^-iN ,ji fann 
at-t. dramatic art 

JJfi takayytU pi. -at imagination, 
phantasy; delusion, hallucination, fancy, 
whim, fantastic notion 

JJc takayytUi fantastic, fanciful, 

JL=*-I iktiyal pride; arrogance, haughti- 

*LJt mukayyila imagination, phantasy 

JJt mukil dubious, doubtful, uncer- 
tain, intricate, tangled, confused ; confus- 
ing, bewildering 

JLit muktdl conceited, haughty, ar- 

'Jj*. II to gallop (on horseback) 

J-*. kail (coll.) pi. J_>-*- kuyul horses; 
horsepower, H.P. | JJM JL*. horse rac- 
ing, horse race 

JL*. kayyal pi. •, -tin horseman, rider 

yU- kayyala cavalry (Ir.; Eg. 1939) 

'*} L*. *j j- mrlya kayyala cavalry 
squadron {Eg. 1939) 


8 JU- see Jy- 

l ^*- II to pitch one's tent, to camp; to settle 
down; to stay, linger, reBt, lie down, lie 
(J* on, j or t-> at a place); (fig.) to reign 
(e.g., calm, silence, peace, etc.; j ory 
at, in), settle (J* over) V to pitch one's 
tent; to camp 

<♦-»■ kaima pi. -at, >U»- kiyam, ->- 
Jfiyam tent ; tarpaulin ; arbor, bower ; 

f L»- kayyam tentmaker 
gfi- mukayyam pi. -at camping ground, 
camp, encampment 

'-*^ Hm natural disposition, nature, temper, 
character; inclination, bent, tendency | 
■u-*. JU-I (eg.) to feel s.o.'s pulse, sound 
s.o. out 

8 |*U- look up alphabetically 

G V^ kayya pi. -<K noose 

<-»U da'aba a (da'b, da'ab, i-»jji du'tt&J to 
persist, persevere, be indefatigable, un- 
tiring, tireless (j or J* in; to go 
in for (J*), apply o.s., devote o.s. 
(J* to), practice eagerly (Jp 

J.> do'6 pi. tjjjil (wT«6 habit 

i_j!a aV6, eia'afc and <-jjj-> aVuft 
persistence, perseverance, tirelessness, 
indefatigability, assiduity, eagerness 

<_J.i da' ib and t_J b (fa' »6 addicted, 
devoted, persistent, assiduouB, eager, 
indefatigable, untiring, tireless ( J» in) 

, VJ° <&*'w& untiring, tireless, indefati- 
gable, persevering, persistent 

<-»U I od'ofi 1 more persistent, more 

•jti doda governess, dry nurse, nurse 

£ji dap pi. -at brand (made on cattle, etc.) 

Jb do/ name of the letter j 

Uli daliya dahlia(s) (bot.) 

Ltli ddma checkers | Llo)l i*-jj lauhat ad-d. 

otrflj see i'l^j 

tA-uli (Fr. dentelle) dantiUa lace 

ji ti dona//, ddn»9 pi. ^j l^j a*awant^ a an ancient 
coin, = Vb dirham; small coin; a Bquare 
measure (Eg.; = 4 eahm = 29.17 m a ) 

iijU'U dan-mark Denmark 

iSjU'Ij danmarH Danish 

i_^jlaJI ad-d&nub the Danube 

ijlj ddya pi. -& wet nurse; midwife 

t«o daftfca i (da66, <_^j.i dafttft) to creep, crawl 
(reptile); to proceed, advance, or move 
slowly; to go on all fours; to enter (j, come (j into) ; to steal, creep 
(<-Ju J into s.o.'s heart; of a feeling, e.g., 
doubt); to spread (j over, in, through), 
fill, pervade, invade ( j ; to 
gain ground ; to gain ascendancy ( j 
in s.o.; of a condition, an idea, a sensa- 
tion); to stream in, rush in (of sensations, 
j upon s.o.) | ;LJ-i ^ui o ._« (d. 
al-hayah) to gain vitality II to sharpen, 
point, taper (* 

i_jj ditbb pi. vk- 3 ' adbdb, i-jj dibaba 
bear | jL+)}\ <~>jS\ (aegar) Little Bear, 
Ursa Minor (astron.); jjTV' v 4 " (o-hbar) 
Great Bear, Ursa Major (aatron.) 


ji dvbbl ursine 

In dabba sand hill, mound 

^i dabib creeping, crawling; in- 
filtration; influx, inflow, flow (e.g., of 
sensations, of life, of vigor) ; reptile 

..jIjj dabbab creeping, crawling, repent, 

'a\j> dabbaba pi. -at tank, armored car 

.^.u madabb: <~m* Jl J^l v** O* 
(mofabbihi) from the lower Nile to its 

lj\i dabba pi. vl*-* datoabb* animal, 
beast; riding animal (horse, mule, don- 

ijji duwaibba tiny animal, animalcule; 

^A. mudabbab pointed, tapered 

4ti II to embellish, decorate, adorn, ornament 
(a; to put in good style, formulate, 
compose, write down, put down in 

writing (a 

r-Lji dibdj pi. mrf^J dababij 2 silk 

ij-Lji dibaja (n. un. of rW) brocade; 
introductory verses or lines, proem, 
preamble; face, visage; style, elegance 
of style; renown, repute, standing, 

pwjOj tadblj embellishment, adornment, 
ornamentation; composition, writing (of 
a book) 

•lA^-Xt mudabbajat embellishments of 
speech, fine figures of speech 

ujJjj dabdaba to tread, tap 

ijjji dabdaba sound of footsteps, foot- 
fall , pitapat ; pattering or clattering 
noise; snapping, flapping noise 

oj-bi dabduba pi. (_-jjIj.s dabadib* point, 
tip, tapered end 

^/i dabara u (jy* dubur) to turn one's 
back; to elapse, pass, go by (time) II to 
make arrangements, make plans (a for), 
prepare, plan, organize, design, frame, 
devise, concert, arrange, get up, bring 
about (a; to hatch (a a plot, etc.); 
to contrive, work up (a a ruse) ; to 
direct, conduct, manage, run, engineer, 
steer, marshal, regulate (a be in 
charge (a of); to manage well, economize 
(a | *U>- j a {kiftatan) to devise a 
plan ; jj_pJl j J to conduct the course of 
business, be in charge IV to turn one's 
back (,y- or Jp on s.o.); to flee, run 
away; to escape, dodge; to slip away 
V to be prepared, planned, organized, 
managed; to reflect, ponder (j or a on); 
to consider, weigh, contemplate (j or 
a; to treat or handle with care, 
with circumspection (J VI to 
face in opposite directions, stand back to 
back; to be contrary, opposite, opposed; 
to be inconsistent, incompatible X to 
turn the back (• on s.o.) 

ji dvbr, dvbur pi. jlol adbdr rump 
backside, buttocks, posteriors; rear part, 
rear, hindpart; back; last part, end, tail | 
jo ,> behind, at the back, in the rear; 
from behind, from the rear ; *j a Jj 
waUd dvbwahU to turn one's back; to 
flee, run away 

^jyj dabart trailing behind, belated, 

ijo dabra turn (of fate) 
jji* dabur west wind 
jyi dabbur pi. jwlii dabdbir* hornet; 

juJS iadbxr pi. -at planning, organiza- 
tion; direction, management, disposal, 
regulation; economy, economization; — 
(pi. joIjU tadabir*) measure, move, step | 
JjU.1 jujJ t. al-manzil housekeeping, 
household management; JjU jo4j (man- 
zili) do.; Uj^li j^^ f^ and jjjljdl iiH 


C J 

iy*>UI (ittakada) to take the necessary 

jbil idbar flight, retreat 

jjG tadabbur reflection, meditation (j 
on), thinking (j about); consideration, 
contemplation (j of) 

j\j3 taddbur disparity, dissimilarity, 

j-li dd&ir past, bygone (time); the 
ultimate, utmost, extremity, end; root | 
*^ti\ j- 1 j -Li (dd&ira &-$ai*) to eradicate, 
root out, suppress radically; 
j-UI ,_ r -Vlj (amsi) sometime in the past; 
_/ 1 Jl .j—lT ._-*i (fca-aww» d-dd&ir*) to 
vanish into thin air, disappear without 
leaving a trace (actually: like yesterday 
gone by) 

j x» mvdabbir manager, director ; ruler, 
disposer; leader; ringleader | -iJ&il jX» 
schemer, intriguer, intrigant 

jX» mvdbir: "^La-y \jX» mudbiran wa- 
muqbilan from the rear and from in front 

a »jLj dubara (= »j\jja) packthread, string, 
twine, cord, rope; thread 

l ,j~i* dibs simp, molasses, treacle, esp. of 

t <j\s dabbus pi. ^-wlo dabdbus 1 pin; Bafety 
pin | ^jJ&l (J-jjj safety pin 

^j dahak junk, rubbish, trash; — dabS 
rubblestone, rubble; crushed rock (used 
as substratum in macadamizing) 

io dabaga a i u (dabg) to tan (* a hide) 

iibj dibdga tanning, tanner's trade 

j-Li dabbdg tanner 

**iX* madbaga pi. «jIj- madabig 2 tan- 

^i dobw/a a (daitwf) to stick, adhere (<_> to) ; 
to cleave, cling (l-> to) II to catch with 
birdlime (a a bird) 

jji dibq birdlime 

Jjj dafiig sticky, gluey, limy 

ALj dabaka u (dabk) to stamp the feet; to 
dance the dabka (see below) 

i£jj dabka (syr.) a group dance in 
which the dancers, lined up with locked 
arms or holding hands, stamp out the 
rhythm and sing 

<Lj dibla pi. Jo dibal ring 

A^Li dibl&m and *->lo dtbldma pi. -di diploma 

^lyLj dtfelflmiwi diplomatic; diplomat 

L-LjLo diblSmdsiya diplomacy 

^.i datara u (j_yi du|wr) to fall into oblivion, 
be forgotten, become obsolete, anti- 
quated, extinct; to be blotted out, 
wiped out, effaced, obliterated (track by 
the wind) II to cover, envelop (• s.o.); to 
destroy, annihilate (* V to wrap 
0.8. ( j in), cover o.s. (j with) VII to be 
or become wiped out, blotted out, ef- 
faced, obliterated; to be old; to be for- 
gotten , have fallen into oblivion , be 
obsolete VIII iddatara to wrap o.s. (<_* in), 
cover o.s. (<-> with) 

jU* ditar pi. J* dviur blanket, cover 

jyX* madtuT past, bygone, ancient 

£i dajja i (dajj, ^-»-3 dajij) to walk slowly 
II ^-tAJl; *»-*-■> to arm s.o. to the teeth 

pi dujj (syr.) thrush (zool.) 

i*-^ dujja intense darkness, pitch- 

£-Uo dajdj (coll.) chickens; fowl (as a 
generic designation) 

U-Uo dajdja (n. un.) hen; chicken | 
jtji-l «*-L*o d. al-habaS guinea fowl 

-*>LJIj £*-u mudajjaj bi-a-silah heavily 
armed, bristling with arms 


j>-± dajira a (dajar) to be embarrassed, be at 
a loss 

jjf* daijur pi. j^-bi day&jir* gloom, 
darkness, dark 

iSjjf* daijuri dark, gloomy 

1 Jj r i dajala u to deceive, dupe, oheat, take in 
(J* s.o.) ; to be a swindler, a charlatan, 
a quack II to coat, smear (*; to 
gild (a; to deceive, dupe, cheat, 
take in (Jp b.o.), impose (J* on) 

Jj^i dajl deceit, trickery, humbug, 

JUo dajjdl pi. -un, <l*-U-i dajdjUa 
swindler, cheat, imposter; quack, charla- 
tan (fern. «Jl*-.>); Antichrist 

J-»-Jj tad;'iZ imposture, humbug; ohar- 
latanry, quackery 

**U-i dt?to a the Tigris river 

j»o dopana u (da/n, j^-i dujun) to be dusky, 
murky, gloomy (day); — (dujUn) to 
remain, stay; to get used, become ac- 
customed, become habituated; to become 
tame, be domesticated II to tame; to 
domesticate (a an animal) | o^i <*■& <*■* 
{li-kidmati /.) to put or s.o. to use 
for s.o., make or s.o. of service to 
b.o. Ill to flatter, cajole, coax, wheedle, 
try to win or entice by gentle courtesy 
(• b.o.) IV to be murky, gloomy, over- 
cast (day) ; to be dark (night) 

4j»o dujna, dujunna darkness, gloomi- 
ness, gloom 

y^i\ adjan 2 dark 

j^-lj dajin tame, tamed, domesticated 
(animal); dark, gloomy | fc»-la oUlj-»- 
(hayawdndt) domestic animals 

j*-ljj dawdjiri* poultry 

Or*) ^r J ^J 5 u to be dark, gloomy, dusky; 
to overshadow, cover, veil, shroud, 
blanket (a, Bpread (a over) III to 

play the hypocrite, pose as a friend (• of 

s.o.); to cajole, flatter (» s.o.) 

*o dujan gloom, darkness, duskiness 
JJJI j^Ij^ dayaji l-lail dark of night 
•U-I.U muddjah hypocrisy; flattery, 

adulation, sycophancy 
g\s dajin dark, gloomy 

rJ>-j II tadahdaha to waddle 

pi»o dahdah and ^-*»-i dahddh dumpy, 
squat, stocky 

j*-i dahara a (dahr, jj*-> duhur) to drive 
away, chase away {• s.o.); to dislodge, 
remove (• s.o.); to defeat (a an army) 
VIIX to be driven away, be routed, be 
repelled, be thrown back; to be defeated 
(army) ; to go under, go to ruin, succumb, 
break down, collapse 

jU-Ul indihdr banishment, rejection; 
(pi. -at) defeat (mil.); nun, fall, break- 
down, collapse; catastrophe] Oj&l jU-Jjl 
ind. al-kaun end of the world 

jj»-x> madhur routed, repelled ; ex- 
pelled, cast out; ostracized, banished 

£_^o dahraja to roll (a II tadahraja to 
roll, roll along ; to roll down 

^^b ddhia pi. ,j-*-l>» daw&his whitlow, felon 

J±-s daha&a a (dahS) to insert, thrust in, 
shove in, foist in, smuggle in VII to 
interfere, meddle ; to mix 

iJ i*~* dahada a to be invalid, void, untenable 
(argument); to disprove, refute, inval- 
idate (* an argument) II and IV to dis- 
prove, refute, invalidate (a an argument) 
,-i>-j dakd refutation, disproof 
u*y* duhftd invalidity, shakiness, 
weakness, refutability (of an argument 
or a claim) 

^Ujl* midb&d: ,>Ua« jj*j (<to't«J) an 
invalid, unjustified olaim 



(j»-i) U-i daha u (dahw) to Bpread out, 
flatten, level, unroll 

O j^-** midkan pi. ^l-u moioAin 
roller, steamroller 

_^ol iddakara, »_^-ju muddakira see j»o 

(j-»-i dukas dolphin 

J*o dakala u (Jyo rfufcuZ) to enter {*, less 
frequently j, also Jl,, go, step, 
walk, move, come, get (a, j, J( into); to 
penetrate, pierce (a, j, Jl; to take 
possession of s.o. (•), befall, seize (• 
s.o.; e.g., doubt); to take up (<*-u- a 
post), start at a job; to enter s.o.'s (Jp) 
room or house, drop in on s.o. (J*), come 
to see s.o. (J*); to call on s.o. (J*); to 
consummate the marriage, cohabit, sleep 
(i~> or J* with a woman); to come (J* 
over s.o.; e.g., joy); (gram.) to be added 
(J* *°); to supervene, enter as a new 
factor, aspect, element, etc. (J* upon, be newly introduced (Jp into; to make one's own, acquire (J*; to join, enter (a or j e.g., a 
religious community); to participate, 
take part (a in); to set in, begin (time, 
event); to be included (j in; also jb* 
$imna), fall, come (j, j**, c* under), 
belong, pertain (j, ,yf f c^ to), be 
within (j, jc*, c*4); pass.: dukila 
to be sickly, diseased, abnormal j J* J»o 
Jj-UJ j*y\ (ta'dllun) the matter has 
undergone modification; <oi-*l J>o (A:kJ- 
ma) to take up one's post, start at a job, 
report for work; o-jOil J^j (madrasa) 
to enter school; »b-il J^j (mina') to 
enter the harbor, put in; £>-i>ll j J*o 
to come to the point; (**_*- j) *L2* j J>o 
dukila fi 'aqlihi (ft jismihi) to suffer from 
a mental (physical) disturbance II to 
make or let enter, bring in, let in (a, • 
s.o.,; to enter, insert, include (a, j or * in) III to come over s.o! (*), 
befall, seize (» s.o.; e.g., doubt, suspicion, 
despair) IV to make or let enter, bring in, 

let in, admit, lead in, Bhow in (» s.o.); to 
move, take, haul (J* or j a into); 
to incorporate, include, embody, insert 
(j or a a in); to cause to set in, 
bring about, produce, set off, trigger 
(J*, a in); to introduce (a, e.g., 
an innovation, an improvement, J* in 
or on | i-jjdl .tLol (madrasa) to 
send s.o. to school; J* IjwJ J*ol to bring 
about a change in ...; O^Jjo <d* d>-s\ 
(udkilat) the matter was subjected to 
modifications V to meddle (j in), in- 
terfere (j in, with); to interpose, inter- 
vene (j in); to invade (J, in- 
trude, obtrude (j on), disturb (j; 
to interlock, mesh, gear VI to meddle 
(j in, e.g., *yj^ j in s.o.'s affairs), butt 
in (ijoi-l J on a conversation); to 
interfere (j in, with), interpose, inter- 
vene (j in); to interlock, mesh, gear; to 
be superimposed; to intergrade, shade, 
blend ( iJ **-i or ^j+m j cw one into the 
other) ; to come over s.o. (»), befall, strike, 
seize (• s.o.; e.g., doubt, grief) 

J*o dakl income; revenues, receipts, 
returns, takings (as opposed to ^j*- 
karj); interference, intervention; doubt, 
misgiving | J^aJI v.y* income tax; ^-J 
V J>o t$l *J (ayyu daklin) and J^i V 
w or j J (dakla) he should not meddle 
in . . ., he has nothing to do with . . ., it is 
none of his business 

J^j dakal disturbance, derangement, 
disorder, imbalance, or defect of the 
mind; defect, infirmity 

iU- j dikla intrinsic nature, essence ; 
inner self, innermost, heart, soul (of a 
person) ; secret intention | *iU- j «*- \j 
raja'a diklatahu to commune with o.s., 
search one's soul 

IU-j dukla; iU-jJI UJ lailat ad-d. wed- 
ding night 

iU-i dukkala a variety of warbler 



J-»ii daJnl inner, inward, internal; 
inner self, heart, core; — (pi. »"iUo 
dukald' 3 ) extraneous ; foreign, alien ; 
exotic; foreigner, alien, stranger; not 
genuine, false, spurious; newly added 
(J» to); novice; (new) convert; guest; 
protege*, charge, ward | *L>-i iJS (fax* 
lima), Jj-a JiiJ (to/?) foreign word or 
expression; (syr.-pal.) <,*3L/-2 {dakilak) 
please, if you please 

<L*o dahlia pi. JjU-j dakd'il 1 inner self, 
inmost being, intrinsic nature, essence; 
heart, soul | *~JC *Lj-* j inwardly, in- 
side, in his heart; U-jii JJUo our inmost 
being; _>jW JSUo the underlying nature 
of things, the factors at the bottom of 
things ; «y_p JJUo d- £u*finifc» his private 
affairs, (of a country, etc.) its internal 

Jj>-i dufcfiJ entry, entrance, admis- 
sion; entering, ingress; beginning, setting 
in ; penetration ; intrusion, invasion ; 
first coition in marriage (Isl. Law) | J>»o 
^tji- 1 d. al-karb entry into war 

5Jj*o <£u£uKya octroi, city toll 

J*-U madkal pi. J^-1ju mad&kiP en- 
trance; hallway, vestibule, anteroom; 
entrance hall, lobby, foyer; mouth (of a 
port, of a canal); O anode (el.); intro- 
duction (to a field of learning); behavior, 
conduct | oljl—Jl J*** (sayySrSt) drive- 
way; jjiUJI i-ljjJ J*-u introduction to 
the study of law; J*t.41 j_*- Auan ol-m. 
good manners, good conduct 

UU-lx. mvdakala interference, inter- 
vention; participation, interest (j in) 

jUol u2HZ leading in, showing in, 
bringing in, taking in, hauling in; in- 
volvement, implication; insertion, inter- 
polation, incorporation, inclusion; intro- 
duction (e.g., of a constitution; of an 
improvement, J* on an apparatus, or 
the like) 

J*.jtf tadahhul entry, entrance; in- 
vasion; interference (j with, in), inter- 
vention; intrusion, obtrusion | J*-u)l *o* 
'adam at-t. noninterference, noninter- 
vention (pol.) 

JaIJj tadakvl interference, interven- 
tion; interlock, meshing, gearing; super- 
imposition; intergradation; permeation, 
pervasion; O interference {phys.) 

J»-lj d&kil belonging, pertaining (j to), 
falling (j under), included <j in); inner, 
inward, inside, interior, internal; inside, 
interior (of; d&kila (prep.) within, 
inside, in; ^*-la dakUan inside (adv.) | 
J*-UI ,>. from within; from the inside 

iUb ddfcila pi. J^lji (Jawd&iP interior, 
inside, inmost, hidden part; *1»-UI the 
Dakhla oasis (in central Egypt) 

J^li d&Jfili inner, inward; internal; 
interior, inside; domestic, home, inland 
(as opposed to ^rjU k&riji external, 
foreign ; pol.) ; indigenous, native ; private ; 
belonging to the house; UU-b ddkiliyan 
inside (adv.) | J-U-U JLoU boarding stu- 
dents (aB opposed to VtjU- day students) ; 
*-U-li i-jj*- (Aor6) civil war; 3JU-U 3-yX. 
(marfnwa) boarding school; S-U-ta ^j-j^* 
underwear; 3J».l,a i»-^. inland navigation 

LU-L ddfciliya interior | y$J\ SJU-la the 
interior of the country, the inland; 
4_1>-Ui lj\jj ministry of the interior; jjj 
*J>-IjUI minister of the interior 

J^JU madfyul sickly, diseased, ab- 
normal; (mentally) disordered; of weak 
character, spineless; (pi. J^l-u mad&kil*) 
revenue, receipts, takings, returns 

^j-j-j dakmasa (i-j-a dakmasa) to fool (J* 
s.o.) about one's real intentions, pull the 
wool over s.o.'s (Jp) eyes; to cheat; to 
be sly, crafty, artful 

5_jo dakmasa deception, fooling, 
trickery; cunning, craft, Blyness 



j*-i dakina a to be smoky; to taste or smell 
of smoke; — dakana a u to Bmoke, 
emit smoke (fire) II to fumigate, fume 
(a; to smoke, cure with smoke (a 
foodstuffs) ; to smoke (a a cigarette, 
tobacco, a pipe) IV to smoke, emit 
smoke (fire) V to be smoked, be cured 
with smoke; to be fumigated 
^i dukn pearl millet, dukhn 
j^a dakan smoke, fume, vapor 

uUo dukan (dukk&n) pi. L»->l adkina 
smoke, fume, vapor; tobacco 

ij^i dukna smoke color; a kind of 
incense (Calamus aromaticus) 

O 4L»° dakina cigarette 

J»>Uo dakdkint (eg., tun.) tobacconist 

*i»- A. madkana pi. ^- 1 X* madakin* 
chimney, smokestack, funnel 

j-ji-Xi tadkin fumigation; smoking 
(e.g., of fish); (tobacoo) smoking 

~<S-\s dakina pi. j*-jp daw&kin* chim- 
ney, smokestack, funnel 

j»-x* mudakkin smoker 

oU-b-i look up alphabetically 

j-io daidan habit, practice 

^ja III to pamper, spoil (• a child) 

ji darra * u (darr) tc flow copiously; to 
stream, flow, well; to accrue (J* to s.o.; 
profit, wealth); to be abundant, plentiful 
IV to cause to flow; to bestow lavishly, 
heap (J* a upon s.o. ), shower, 
overwhelm (J* a with s.o.); to 
yield (a a profit, J* to s.o.) X to stream, 
flow; to be abundant; to cauBe or try to 
bring about the abundant flow of {*); to 
cause (a) to yield in abundance; to 
be out for (a), seek to gain (a a 
profit), try to make (a a living) 

ja darr milk; achievement, accomplish- 
ment | «ja 4> li-tidhi darruhu (literally: his 

achievement is due to God) how capable, 
how good, how excellent he is! 

ja durr (coll.) pearls 

*p durra (n. un.) pi. -at, jja durar 
pearl; — a variety of parrot (Psittacus 
Alexandri L.) 

jji durri glittering, twinkling, bril- 
liant (star) 

•jj dirra, darra pi. jja dirar teat; 

j\j-Xa midrar showering abundant rain 
(sky, cloud) ; spouting, pouring forth, 
welling out 

jlj darr flowing copiously; productive, 
rich, lucrative; profitable 

jJu mudirr: JjJ jA* {haul) diuretic(al), 
pi. J>J1 o[;X. diuretics; iSyJJ jX. ('araq) 

Ija dara'a (dar') to reject (a; to avert, 
ward off (a, e.g., [fa- kafaran a 
danger, ^ from) VI idddra'a to contend 
(J for) 

#ja dar' repulsion, prevention, avert- 
ing; warding off, parrying 

& ja darVa pi. -at target 

,j j\j* darabazin railing, parapet, banisters, 

g\j* Durres (It. Durazzo, seaport in W 

J!; a durrdq (syr.) peach 

t/[p dardmi dramatic 

!_jjj dariba a (darab, *jja rfwrfto) to be ac- 
customed, be used (<_> to), be practiced, 
trained, skilled (<_> in) II to habituate, 
accustom (a, » s.o.,, j or u or J» 
to); to practice, drill (• s.o., J. v or J* 
in); to school, train, coach, tutor (» s.o., 
J, <_> or J* in) V to be accustomed, be 
used (J* or j to); to be or become 



practiced, skilled, trained, drilled, school- 
ed (J* or j in); to train (athkt.) 

i_^ja darb pi. VJ-J* durvb narrow 
mountain pass; path, trail, track; road; 
alley, lane | iiUJl vj* **. <**-toW**° tno 
Milky Way 

li ji dw&a habituation, habitude, habit ; 
familiarity (with, experience; skill, 

<j ji dartba court of first instance 

^ij-ij tadrib habituation, accustoming; 
practice; drill; schooling, training, coach- 
ing, tutoring | j_£-JI s^jj^I {'aakari) 
military training 

..jjX. mudarrib pi. -un instructor, drill 
instructor; trainer, coach (athlet.); tamer 
(of wild animals) 

^jX. mudarrab experienced; practiced, 
skilled; trained; schooled 

j.>lji dardbazln and j>_/ji darbazin railing, 
parapet, banisters, balustrade 

tj^jA darbaaa to bolt (a a door) 

^Uji tftr&fia pi. u -i>}j> darcibUP bolt, 

i&jj darabukka (eg.), dirbahka (tyr.) pi. -at 
darabukka, a conical, one-headed hand 
drum, open at the small end 

iSo jj darbaka banging or rattling noise, 
din, uproar, turmoil 

pji daraja u (rjj* dwrvj) to go, walk, move 
proceed, advance (slowly); to approach 
gradually, step by step (Jl; to 
follow a course (J*), proceed along the 
lines of (Jp), proceed in suoh and such 
a manner ( J*) ; to go away, leave, depart ; 
to outgrow (,y a nest, a habitation); to 
be past, bygone, over (time); to have 
passed away, be extinct; to circulate, be 
in circulation, be current, have currency ; 
to grow up (child); — (darj) to roll up, 

roll together (a; to wrap, wind, 
twist (J* * around); — dairija a to 
rise or advance step by step | J* jjjl jyj 
daraja l-'urfv 'old it has become the 
general practioe to ... II to make (» s.o.) 
rise or advance by steps, promote (• 
s.o.) by degrees; to move or bring (a gradually closer (Jl to); to ap- 
proximate (Jl * to}; to roll up, fold 
up (a; to circulate, put into circu- 
lation (*, give currency (a to, 
make (a the general practice; to 
divide into degrees, steps or grades, 
graduate, grade, gradate (a; to 
insert, include, enter (j a in) III to 
go, keep up (a with, e.g., with the 
time, with a fashion) IV to insert, include, 
incorporate, embody (j a in); to 
enter, register (j a, e.g., in a list), 
book (a V to progress by steps, 
advance gradually; to proceed step by 
step (Jl to); to make progress (J in); to 
graduate, grade, be graded, graduated, 
gradated VII to be inserted, entered, 
incorporated, embodied, included (j 
in) ; to be classified ( j in, c* under) X to 
make (• s.o.) advance or rise gradually, 
promote (• s.o.) by degrees; to lead (• 
s.o.) gradually (Jl to), bring (• s.o.) 
around to (Jl, J); to bait, allure (• s.o.); 
to entice, tempt, lure into destruction 
(» s.o.) 

£ji darj entry, entering, registering, 
registration, recording ; a rolled or folded 
paper; roll, soroll | «_>U£Ji r J J J in * ne 
book; f^CJI £j* J f% d. il-lcal&m. in the 
course of the talk 

*-jj durj pi. rL> J ' adrSj drawer (of a 
table, desk, etc.); desk (e.g., for pupils in 

£.p daraj pi. g\ja\ adrdj way, route, 
course; flight of steps, stairs, staircase | 
**-L 3 ' w rayi'a adrajahu (also **-Ij 3 ' J ^*) 
to retrace one's steps, go back the way 
one came; to go back, turn back; <_-*S 


A±J\ rb-*' (adrdja r-riyak) to go the 
ways of the winds, i.e., to jmwb unnoticed, 
without leaving a trace ; to end in smoke, 
come to nothing, be futile, be in vain 

i»-ji daraja pi. -at step, Btair; flight of 
steps, stairs, staircase; degree, step, tone 
(of a scale; mus.); degree (math., geogr.; 
of temperature) ; grade, rate ; degree, 
order, rank; class (also, e.g., in trains, 
of a decoration) ; phase, state, stage (of a 
development); mark, grade (in school) | 
: jLA' Vj- 5 &' al-har&ra (degree of) 
temperature; UU1I CjU-j-OI ('ulya) the 
maximal temperatures; JiJl oUjjJl 
(sufla) the minimal temperatures; i»-ji 
JjUl d. af-ful degree of longitude (geogr.); 
(i-jwU-) ^LJ* l^-j3 ('ilmiya, jdmi'iya) 
academic degree; J5JI Ij-jj d. al-'aql 
level of intelligence, IQ ; iU-j -01 Ji* report 
card (in school); JjVl *»-jall (j) &, (via) 
first-rate, first-class; "o^i ji of superior 
quality, high-grade, high-class; ul **-j-d 
(li-darajati) to the extent that...; to 
such an extent that ..., so much that ... 

^b-i durrdj pi. £jb-> dardrif francolin 
(zool); see also alphabetically 

£_>4j tadruj*, *»-jAj tadruja pheasant 

**■[)} darrdja pi. -at bicycle | ajjIj *>■[>* 

pjX* madraj pi. ^jl-u madarif way 
that one follows or pursues; course, route; 
road, path; starting point, outset, rise, 
growth, birth, dawn, beginning(s) ; tar- 
mac, runway (of an airfield); (as also 
mudarraj) amphitheater; (amphitheater- 
ed) auditorium or lecture room; grand- 
stand, bleachers | *>-j-u -L. since its 
beginnings; oLiJ rj-U m - naS'atihl the 
place where he grew up; j_JI £jl-U j jL- 
(m. ir-ruqiy) to travel the road of 

£,j-£ tadrlj graduation; classification, 
categorization; gradation | £jJsJI J*, 

£.j-dl ( «, £jJsJL gradually, by and by, 
by degrees, by steps, step by step, more 
and more 

j£j-£ iadrljl gradual, gradatory, pro- 
gressive; U*i_jJj tadrijiyan gradually, by 
and by, by steps, by degrees, in stages 

grb^' idraj insertion, interpolation, in- 
corporation; entry, registration, record- 
ing (J in a list) 

£j£> tadarruj gradual advance or 
progress; gradation, graduation | tj-^JLj 
gradually, by and by; jjUJjI rj£ t. 
irtiqd'ihi his gradual rise 

^b-fc-*' istidrdj capability of gradually 
winning s.o. over, persuasiveness, art of 

£jlj ddrij current, prevalent, wide- 
spread, popular, common, in vogue, 
circulating, in circulation | rjUt *^JI 
(kaldm) and ij-jUl iilil (luga) the popular 
language, colloquial language 

£j.u mudarraj graded, graduated; — 
(pi. -dt) open staircase, open-air stairs, 
fliers, stoop; grandstand, bleachers; 
amphitheater ; (amphitheatered) audi- 
torium or lecture room 

£j.u mudraj inserted, interpolated, 
incorporated ; entered, registered ; con- 
tained, included (j, ^ in), comprised 
(J. v by) 

jjj darida a (darad) to become toothless, 
lose one's teeth 

jjil adrad 2 toothless 

ijjjj durdi sediment, dregs, lees 

^-jjjji dardabis ugly old woman, hag 

•jjjj dardara roar, rush (of water) ; idle talk, 
prattle, chatter 

jljji darddr elm (hot) 

jjsj* durdur eddy, whirlpool, vortex 

iijjj dardaia idle talk, prattle, chatter 


^ji daraza u to sew, Btitch 

jji darz pi. jjj-s durua seam, hem; 

Vjj j durzi pl- JJJ J duruz Druse | j jjOll J-»- 
jabal ad-d. the Jebel ed Druz, the 
mountainous homeland of the Druses in 

S Syria 

^-p darasa u (dars) to wipe out, blot out, 
obliterate, efface, extinguish (a; 
to thresh (a grain); to learn, study (a, J* under s.o.), J* jWI ,_r*p {'Urn) 
to study under (a teacher, a professor); 
— u (u-jj-i durua) to be effaced, obliterat- 
ed, blotted out, extinguished II to teach; 
to instruct (« s.o., * in; Ill to 
study (• together with s.o.) VI to study 
(a carefully together VII to become 
or be wiped out, blotted out, effaced, 
obliterated, extinguished 

^ji dars effacement, obliteration, 
extinction; — (pi. ^jja durua) study, 
studies; lesson, chapter (of a textbook); 
class, class hour, period; lecture; lesson 
(taught by experience, etc.) | jp Uj j> JJI 
(olgd) to lecture on ...; Ujja Jt\ (a'fd) 
to give lessons; *JjU <j*jj* (manzillya) 
homework (of a pupil or student) 

^Ip dirda threshing (of grain) 

Julp dirdsa pi. -at studies; study | *--[)•* 
Ule ('dJt'ya) collegiate studies; o jilj *-!p 
(toTiowiyo) attendance of a secondary 
school, secondary education, high-school 
education; &^i* <*!p (mutaioaasifa) 
secondary education, high-school edu- 
cation (Syr.) 

^-Ip dtrdai of or pertaining to study 
or studies; scholastic, school; instruction- 
al, educational, teaching, tuitional | p-j 
i~-!p tuition fees; v-lp *— ■ t*"" 1 ) 
academic year; scholastic year, school 

,j-jp darts dried clover 

4— jjjjl JU 1 'ummal ad-darisa (eg.) 
railroad section gang, gandy dancers 

^Ip darras pi. -un (eager) student 

O *-!p dar«S*a flail; threshing ma- 
chine | O *•*!;■* ••aU**- (haaaada) combine 
^jji dirwas mastiff 

L-jA. madrasa pi. .j-y'-U madaris 2 
madrasah (a religious boarding school 
associated with a mosque) ; school j i-.j.u 
ylo^l («6fuZa*»ya) the lower grades of a 
secondary school, approx. = junior 
high Bchool; *Jj\ <*-j-u (awwaliya) 
elementary school, grade school; i*-j.u 
*ijj\j (tanavnya) secondary school, high 
Bchool; ojLf" i-jJ* (/ijdfiyo) commercial 
college or school; *-j^*- i-j-i* (harblya) 
military academy; y»-b L*j-L (d&kiliya) 
boarding school; (LJ*) yi* i-jA« fdZtyu, 
'vlyd) college; *Jli**Jlj j^iiJt *-<j-u school 
of industrial arts, school of applied art 
and handicraft; ^jS" i-jJU (kubra) col- 
lege; iciSJl *-*jull the old "school" 
(= intellectual or artistic movement) 

(j-j-U madraai scholastic, Bchool 

^-jjOl tadrw teaching, instruction, 
tuition | ^j-isll *— * Aat'o* at-t. teaching 
staff; faculty, professoriate (of an aca- 
demic institution) 

^jli ddria pi. ^j*ji dautfrta 1 effaced, 
obliterated; old, dilapidated, crumbling | 
*^jli jarfi tajoddoda ddrisuhu to rise 
from one's ashes 

ifj-x* mudarria pi. -un teacher, in- 
structor; lecturer | -L*L«* ^jA. (muaa'id) 
assistant professor 

fp II to arm; to armor, equip with armor 
(a V and VIII iddara'a to arm o.s., 
take up arms, put on armor 

f-ji dir' m. and f., pi. £jp duru*, £pl 
adru', plpl adrS coat of mail, hauberk; 
(suit of) plate armor ; armor plate ; 
armor; armature; (pi. J-Jp' adra') chemise 




ipljj darra'a pi. -d( armored cruiser 

«-[)j durra'a pi. a>j!jJ dardri' 2 loose 
outer garment with sleeves, slit in front 

9-jli rfdri* armored, armor-clad, iron- 

<*jlj ddri'a pi. fylp daxvdri' 2 armored 

f- jX. mudarra' armored ; armadillo 
(zool.) I ipj-U !y (guwa) tank corps; 
ipj-U JjL- (aayyara) armored car; elJL. 
OfCjX, (muSah) armored infantry (mil.) 

*pjX. mudarra'a pi. -a* armored cruiser 

<_J,o darf side, flank, wing; protection 

*ip tfar/a pi. <J»j.i <2ira/ leaf (of a 
double door or window) 

J-ijj darfil dolphin 

s oj j daraqa (leather) shield 

O 3j> daraq thyroid gland 

jj j daraqi shield-shaped ; thyroid | 
ijjojl aJUll (gitdda) thyroid gland 

2 3\j* look up alphabetically 

] ilp II to last, continue, keep up (rains) 

III to reach, get, catch, overtake, out- 
distance, outrun (a, « s.o.,, catch 
up, come up (a, » with); to keep up, 
continue without interruption (a 

IV to attain, reach (a, arrive (a 
at); to get, catch, overtake (« s.o., a, catch up, come up (a, • with); to 
come suddenly, unexpectedly (» upon 
s.o.), overtake (» s.o.; death); to obtain 
(a; to grasp, comprehend (a; 
to perceive, discern, notice (a; to 
realize, understand (a, become 
aware, become conscious (a of; to 
mature, ripen (e.g., a fruit); to attain 
puberty, reach sexual maturity (boy) 

V ■_~iil Jl (j-fciJI c-TjJu (Sams, magib) the 
sun prepared to set VI to reach and seize 

one another; to continue without inter- 
ruption, go on incessantly; to face, meet, 
obviate, take steps to prevent (a; 
to put in order, set right, correct (a, 
make amends (a for), provide compen- 
sation or indemnity (a for a loss, or the 
like) X to correct, rectify, emend (a; to set right, put in order, straight- 
en out (a; to make good, repair, 
redress (a a damage, a mistake, etc), 
make up (a for); to supplement, supply 
(a that which is missing); to anticipate, 
forestall, obviate (a an event) 

iJji darak attainment, achievement, 
accomplishment ; overtaking, catching 
up; police; (pi. iJJpl adrdk) bottom, 
lowest level 

$j* darakl policeman 

iTj^ daraka lowest level ; pi. -at 
descending steps (as opposed to oU-ji; 
cf. Ojll oBjij »U-1 oU-jj darajdt al- 
hayah wa-d. al-maut) 

iJlp darrak much- accomplishing, ef- 
ficient, successful 

iJjl-u maddrik 2 mental faculties, men- 
tal powers, intelligence, intellectual ca- 
pacities, perception, discernment j ijjl-dl 
fJ ^tX I the five senses 

5" L) j dirakan (adv. ) constantly, in- 
cessantly, without interruption 

ii |p I idrak reaching, attainment, 
achievement, accomplishment; realiza- 
tion, perception, discernment, awareness, 
consciousness (ii!p"iM Aii jaqd al-i. un- 
consciousness); comprehension, under- 
standing, grasp; reason, intelligence; 
sexual maturity, puberty; age of maturi 
ty | illjjVI j- sinn al-i. age of dis 
cretion (Isl. Law) 

iljJj tadarruk gradual decline 

iJljXi-1 istidrak redress, reparation; 
correction, emendation, rectification 



iJj-L. mudrik rational, reasonable, en- 
dowed with reason, intelligent; (sexually) 
mature, pubescent, at the age of puberty 

oSj-U mudrakdt realizations ; cogni- 
tions; fixed notions, established concepts 

a £]p (Engl.) derrick, derrick crane 

j»jj darima a to fall out (teeth) II to clip, 
trim (a nails) 

0j3 darina a (damn) to be dirty, filthy 
IV do. V to suffer from tuberculosis 

jp damn pi. u[pl adrdn dirt, filth; 
tubercles; tuberculosis | gyj up (ri'awi) 
pulmonary tuberculosis 

<jp darana (n. un.) pi. -at tubercle; 
small tumor, outgrowth, excrescence, 
tubercule, nodule 

tip darani tubercular, tuberculous 

OjOl tadarrun tuberculosis | ^yj jj-J 
(H'awx) and *5J\ Jj-C t. ar-rta pulmonary 

jjOj tadarruni tuberculous 

OjOi* mutadarrin affected with tu- 
bercles, tuberculated 

y-L. midrah pi. ojl-u madarih* spokesman 

.Ajj dirkam pi. Jbjjj darahim* dirhem, 
drachma (Ir. — coin of 50 ^-ii) ; a weight 
{#?• *= V12 VjI = oa. 3.12 g); f\,A 
money, cash 

iUj-jj duraihimdt (dimin. with a 
derogatory sense; approx.:) pennies 

j.) protecting screen or 

Ijji dirwa pi. -at ( 
wall; parapet 

^jj* dinvds mastiff 

^Ij jj> darwiS pi. ^jlp daraw&S* dervish 

\s_p data, i (*j|p dirdya) to know (»-> or * or of; to be aware, be cogni- 
zant (<-» or a of); to understand, com- 
prehend (<_> or * | . . . j VI ^jOj ly 

all of a sudden there was ... Ill to flatter, 
treat with flattery or gentle courtesy, ca- 
jole, coax (e s.o.) ; to deceive, fool, mislead 
(♦ s.o.); to dissemble; to conceal, hide, 
mask, disguise (a IV to let (• s.o.) 
know (<~< or about, inform, 
notify, advise (^ • s.o. of) | ... L. ii[pl Ly 
(adraka), also <-> iJIpl '-y do you realize 
what ... is? you don't even know what . . . 
means! VI to hide, conceal o.s. 

3j lp dir&ya knowledge, cognizance , 

t$_pl adm more knowledgeable, better 
informed, knowing better (<_j s.o.,, 
better acquainted (<-* with) 

^jjl V la-adri a skeptic 

1\j\Xa mudarah sociability, affability, 
companion ableness 

j I j ddrin knowing, aware, cognizant 
(i_j of 

2 iSJ Ju> midmn, «j-U midra (= ^y mirdan), 
olj-L. midrah pi. jl.u maddrin pole (eep. 
one for punting boats) 

3Uji dirydq ( = jby) theriaca; antidote 

o jj (It. dozzina) dazzina dozen 

^j dassa u (doss) to put, get, slip, shove, 
thrust, insert (j a into); to bury 
(j * in the ground); to instill, 
infuse (j ■->, a hi); to administer 
surreptitiously (*Jl as-aamma poison, J 
to s.o.); to foist (j * into); to 
smuggle (j a into, <>_ •> s.o. among); 
to interpolate (a; to intrigue, 
scheme, plot (J*, J against s.o.) | ^-j 
^'U-Ji to engage in secret machinations, 
intrigue, scheme II to put in, get in, slip in, 
shore in, thrust in, insert (a; to 
bide, conceal (a T to engage (se- 
cretly, Jl in); to be hidden (,_$ in) VII to 
slip (^u between or among, j into), 
creep, steal, sneak (jw among, j into). 


infiltrate (j; to ingratiate o.s., in- 
sinuate o.s. (j or Jf to s.o., into s.o.'s 
confidence); to be hidden 

S-j-o dasisa pi. ^'Lo das&'ia 2 intrigue, 
machination, scheme, plot j j-JUaJl ^j 
dass ad-d. machinations, intrigues, schem- 
ing, plotting (x*i against) ; plot, conspira- 

^Lo daaaaa pi. -un intrigant, intri- 
guer, schemer, plotter, conspirator; sand 
snake (Eryx jaculus) 

1 C~o dast pi. Cjj-j dusut place of honor, 
seat of honor; seat of office; counoil | 
5^- 1 c— o d. al-hukm (a ruler *s) throne 

2 .1— o dial pi. Cjy> dusut kettle, boiler, cal- 
dron made of copper (eg., ayr.) 

3 i^o dasta dozen; pack, packet, package 

jf*** dustur pi. j^Lo dasatir* statute; 
regulations; by-laws; (basio) constitu- 
tional law; constitution (pol.); — (coUoq.) 
dastur permission 

^jy^i duaturi constitutional | flkJl 
( _jj_ > i-.4jl constitutional form of govern- 

*jj_>^o duaturiya constitutionality | 
4j jjl* oJl *J& 'adam ad-d. unconstitu- 

^j dasara u (dasr) to push, shove, push off 

O j~-\* ddsir propeller, airscrew 
e^^S^o daskara pi. ^ Lo daadkir 2 village 
«o doaam fatness (of meat) ; fat, grease 

-*a daaim fat; fatty, greasy, grimy, 
grubby ; rich, abundant, substantial ; 
meaty, pithy, full of thoughts (e.g., read- 
ing material) 

~ol odaam*, f. »Lc"i daamd' 2 , pi. -^a 
dusm very fat ; fatty, greasy, grimy, 
grubby; — richer, more substantial, 

<*Lo daadma fattiness, greasiness, 
griminess, grubbiness 

iy-o dusuma fatness; richness, sub- 

l»Lo diadm plug, stopper 

*-ji daisam amaranth (6of.) 

j^r"i dtsem&*Y, diaambir December 

j*s II to introduce, bring in (a V to 
be hidden, concealed; to penetrate (Jf 

,jJ.i {Fr. douche) du$ shower, douche 

(ji*-j daMi and iJL^ij a kind of porridge 
made of crushed wheat and butter 

C-ij daSt junk, trash, rubbish, refuse 

,j2>* II to hand over, present (a; to 
consecrate, dedicate, inaugurate (a 

jt&Xi taMin consecration, dedication, 
inauguration | i-^53l ^Ji-J consecration 
of the church 

ytj V to belch, burp, eruct 

5pi da' a see 9*j 

9-> da"a to rebuff, turn down (contemp- 
tuously, « the poor, an orphan) 

!_-pj da'aba a (LUj du'dba) to joke, jest, 
make fun (• with s.o.) Ill to play, toy 
{», a with, with s.o.); to joke, jest, 
make fun (* with s.o.); to give (» s.o.) a 
good-natured slap or smack {<-») ; to 
flirt(U with a woman) ; to dally, philander, 
play around (U with a woman); to play 
(• about s.o.; e.g., waves); to stroke 
gently, caress, fondle (a; to beguile, 
tempt, delude (• s.o.; said of hopes); to 
play (a a musical instrument) j jJLJI t-#b 
to play on the piano VI to make fun, 
have fun together, have a good time 

i_-*o da'ib joking, jocose, playful, jolly, 
gay, funny 


LUj dudba pi. -at joking, jesting, fun- 
making, fun; joke, jest 

k-»Ui da"db jocose, playful, jolly, gay 

ks. \ -u mudd'aba pi. -at play, fun- 
making, fun; joke, jest; pleasantry; dal- 
liance, flirtation, philandery 

■^Ij d&'ib joking, jocose, playful, jolly, 
gay, funny 

i_-pIa. muda'ib joking, jesting 
J-pi di'6*7 frog spawn, frog's egga 

J-*o. muda'bal indisposed, out of 
sorts ; round, ball-shaped 

«ftil atTaj 2 , f. »l£j da'ja* 2 , pi. ^*j dw'; black- 
eyed; deep-black and large (eye) 

jts da'ira a (da'ar) to be immoral 

jts da'ar immorality, indecency 

jts da'ir unchaste, lewd, licentious, dis- 
solute, obscene, bawdy, immoral, in- 

iyl*j da'ara, di'ara indecency, im- 
morality, licentiousness, debauchery | 
#)Uo)l c-w bait ad-d. brothel 

jt\* dd'ir pi. jU> du"ar unchaste, 
lewd, licentious, dissolute, obscene, 
bawdy, indecent, immoral 

^i da'asa a (da's) to tread underfoot, 
trample down, crush (a; to knock 
down, run over {» s.o. ; automobile) 
VII pass, of I 

■iJ*.i da'aka a (da'k) to rub (a; to scrub, 
scour (a; to scrub on a washboard 
(a laundry); to crush, squash, mash (a; to crumple (a paper) 

.ci da'ama a (da'm) and II to support, hold 
up (a; to prop, shore up, stay, 
buttress, underpin (a; to cement, 
consolidate, strengthen (a 8-th.) VIII *jl 
idda'ama to be supported; to rest, be 
based (J* on) 

4>i di'ma pi. *s di'am support, prop 

i.Uj di'ama pi. -at, ***Ua da'a'im* sup- 
port, prop, stay, shore; pier; buttress; 
pillar (esp. fig., e.g., SaLJI fUi pillars of 

-e-tf tatTim support, strengthening, 
reinforcement, consolidation, underpin- 

(^aj and ^o) Uj da r 5 u {.l*i du'd') to call 
(• s.o.); to summon (*_* or * s.o.), call or 
send for s.o. (t-> or »); to call up (• s.o., Jl, 
J for); to call upon s.o. (•), appeal to s.o. 
{*) for or to do (J, Jl), invite, 
urge (J, Jl • s.o. to do; to invite, 
ask to come (J! • s.o. to; e.g., to a ban- 
quet); to move, induce, prompt (J, Jl * 
s.o. to do, prevail (J, Jl • on s.o. 
to do; to call (<-», * « s.o. by a 
name), name (o>, a a s.o. so and so), pass. : 
*■* du'iya to be called, be named; to 
invoke (<il God = to pray to); to wish 
(J s.o.) well, bless (J s.o.; properly: to 
invoke God in favor of b.o.), invoke a 
blessing (._j) upon s.o. (J), pray (i_> for, J on behalf of s.o.), implore (<-» J 
for s.o.; to curse (J* s.o.; properly: 
to invoke God against s.o.), call down 
evil, invoke evil {J* upon s.o.); to 
propagate, propagandize (J, make 
propaganda, make publicity (J for); to 
demand, require (Jl, call for (Jl); 
to call forth, bring about, cause, provoke, 
occasion (Jl, give rise (Jl to) | ^s 
f £*-*>U (du'iya) to be summoned, be 
called into session (parliament); Jl ^a 
■r">LJl J*- du'iya ila hamli s-ailah to be 
called up for military service, be called to 
the colors; ... ^A. J>-j (yud'd) a man 
called..., a man by the name of...; 
j**JI Jjltj <J Ui (}uli l-'umr) he wished 
him a long life III to challenge (a s.o.) ; 
to pick a quarrel (a with); to proceed 
judicially (* against), prosecute (» s.o.) 
VI to challenge each other, call each 



other forth or out, summon each other; to 
evoke one another (thoughts, reminis- 
cences, sentiments); to be dilapidated, 
be tumble-down, threaten to fall (walls) ; 
to sink, subside, cave in; to fall down, 
sink to the ground (person) ; to collapse, 
break down, decline, degenerate (fig., 
of a cultural phenomenon); to flock 
together, rally VIII ^al ittda'd to allege, 
claim, maintain (a, ul that); to 
lay claim (a to demand, claim 
(a ; to make undue claims (* 
to, arrogate (to o.s.), assume 
unduly or presumptuously (a; to 
affect, feign, simulate, pretend, purport 
(c->; to testify (in court); to accuse 
(u or a j# s.o. of), charge (o or a J* s.o. 
with), blame (i_* or a J* s.o. for), hold (i_* or a) against s.o. (J*) X to call 
or send (• for s.o.), summon (• s.o.); to 
cite, summon for examination or trial 
(« s.o.; court, police); to reoall (• s.o., 
e.g., a diplomatic envoy); to call, ap- 
point (• s.o., e.g., a professor to a chair); 
to invoke (» s.o.); to invite, urge (Jl • 
s.o. to do, suggest (Jl • to b.o. or to do, call upon s.o. (») to 
do (Jl), appeal (Jl » to s.o. for 
or to do; to call for (a), require, 
demand, necessitate, make necessary or 
requisite (a 

f_j* j da'wa call ; appeal ; bidding, 
demand, request; call, convocation, sum- 
mons (Jl to), calling up, summoning; 
(official) summons, citation; invitation; 
claim, demand, plea; missionary activity, 
missionary work (also ;_jpo)1 ^ nasr 
ad-d.), propaganda; — (pi. o{j*-i da'a* 
wat) invocation, imploration , supplica- 
tion, prayer; good wish | oli-U» o{^j 
good wishes; jliL iyn (Sarr) imprecation, 
curse; S^cjJI i_-*-L* host 

^jpj da'wa pi. jjl^i da'awa, jUj 
da' awn allegation , pretension ; claim ; 
lawsuit, case, action, legal proceedings 

(I si. Law) | ul (Sy-b on the pretext 


^a da'iy pi. .Leal ad'iya'* adopted 
son; bastard; braggart, bigmouth, show- 
off; pretender; swindler, impostor 

»Uj du r a* pi. 5-Pil ad'iya call; invocation 
of God, supplication, prayer; request, 
plea; good wish (J for s.o.); imprecation, 
curse ( Jp against s.o.) 

^jl ad"a more conducive, more stim- 
ulating, of greater incentive (Jl, J to), 
causing or provoking to a greater extent 

(Jl, J 

•jUi da'auxt, di'awa pi. -at propa- 
ganda (pol.) ; publicity ( Jl for) 

jjUj da'aioi, di'dwi propagandists 

LUj di'aya propaganda (pol.) 

jLta di r d'% propagandistio 

SLe-u mad* ah determining factor, de- 
cisive motive or incentive, cause, oc- 

p-loJ tadd'in imminent collapse, impend- 
ing breakdown; mutual summoning | 
JUll (jfr'-Aj tada'% l-ma'ani association of 

»Uii iddi'a' pi. -at claim; arrogation, 
undue assumption, presumption ; al- 
legation ; pretension, pretense ; accu- 
sation, charge; »UaVI the prosecution (in 
a court of justice) 

»IpO^-I iatid'a* summons, summoning; 
recall, calling back; official summons, 

flj dd'in pi. 3lcj du'ah one who invites, 
inviter ; propagandist ; host ; motive, 
reason, cause | ^la V (dd'iya) it is not 
necessary, there is no need, there is no 
cause (J for) 

3-eb dd'iya one who calls for 
(Jl), invites to (Jl); propagandist 
(with foil, genit. or Jl: of, herald; 



(pi. f \j* dawa'in) motive, reason, cause, 
occasion ; pi. f lp requirements, exi- 
gencies | i^j*. 3-cU warmonger; Xj* f\jd 
li-davxfin pikhiya for reasons of health ; 
\$jjj* ^ip j* it gives me great pleas- 
ure ... 

jc-X* mad'uw one invited, guest; call- 
ed, named, by the name of 

pl-fcu mutada'in evoking one another, 
one leading to the other (reminiscences, 
thoughts); frail, shaky (constitution); 
dilapidated, tumble-down; ready to fall, 
threatened with collapse; declining, in 
a stage of decline, on the downgrade 

f-A. mudda'in one who makes an al- 
legation or pretension, alleger, pretender; 
claimer, claimant; plaintiff; prosecutor 
(jur.) ; arrogant, presumptuous, bump- 
tious | i/j**N ^oll ('umumi) the public 
prosecutor; >»UI ^oil ( f &mm) do. (Jfor.) 

^x* mvdda'an claimed; 4-U ^oll the 
defendant (jur.); pi. oL&jl. mudda'ay&t 
claims, pretensions 

f Ji— mwtad'in applicant, petitioner 

£JIm dagdag'a to tickle (• s.o.); to crush; to 
chew, munch (* 

^i dafiara a (dagr, ^ji* dagrS) to attack ( J* 
s.o.), fall upon s.o. (J*) 
^co dajr attack, assault 
j^*.i tfa^frd attack, assault 

■tfjpA du^rl (e^., jyr.) direct, straight; 
straight ahead 

J£s IV Lloll cJLiil adga&at id-dunyd it 
became dark, twilight fell 

jipi dagai darkness, dusk, twilight 
*±i*j dagiSa darkness, dusk 

j*«Pi dagipa a (daga§) to be chock-full, on 
the point of bursting 

!u**l.a dagi$a pi. ^^pIjJ dawag~i{P knee- 
pan, kneeoap, patella 

Jpj da^al pi. JUjI ch^oZ, JUo d*j;aZ place 
with luxuriant tree growth; thicket, 
bush, jungle; — defectiveness, faultiness, 

J*i dagil covered with dense under- 
growth (place); impenetrable; corrupted 

JeO- mvdgil covered with dense under- 
growth (place) ; false, perfidious, insidious 

(in character) 

>i IV and VIII ijl iddagama to put (J * into), insert, incorporate, embody 
(j a in); (gram.) to contract (J a 
one letter into another), assimilate (j * to) VII to be incorporated, embodied, 
merged, amalgamated; to be assimilated, 

JJ dajfa i (•JaJ* dafif) to flap the wings 
(bird) II to hurry, rush 

J>a doff pi. Jtj* dufuf side; lateral 

»jj duff, doff pi. uj^o dw/u/ tambourine 

lii daj^o side ; leaf (of a double door or 
window); cover (of a book), JtiJI the 
two covers of a book; rudder, helm | 
«i-UI jJU or iijJI _r-L. mudir ad-d. steers- 
man, helmsman ; -Li^Jl lii J* ^^iJ to take 
the helm, make o.s. the leader; SioJl 4j yad 
add. tiller; Sj_>jUJ] *iaJI j,. (ej.) all to- 
gether, one and all, all without exception 

IJi difflya (eg.) loose woolen cloak 

'ji dafi'a a and J*a dafu'a u to be warm; to 
feel warm II and IV to warm, heat (a V, VIII tiil iddafaa and X to 
warm o.s. 

#ij»i d»/' warmth, warmness, heat 

*ijj daji' and »ji da/i* warm 

oTm daf'an*, f. ^Uj do/*a warm 
»L»i difd* heating 

mUa dafa'a warmth, warmness, heat 
D ijlii daffSya pi. -of stove 



ti-u midfa' and ilia* mid fa' a pi. *jl.u 
madajV 2 stove, heating stove 

&jJ tod^'a heating, generation of heat 

_^ii daftar pi. j-'Uj dafdtir* booklet; notebook, 
copybook ; daybook, journal ; ledger 
(com.); roster, register, official register | 
jLj- J^si (hisdbi) account book; bank- 
book, passbook; oUUJ^I Ji*^^db&t 
letter file, letter book, folder, portfolio; 
iy^l ji* publication setting forth the 
terms of a purchase, the conditions of a 
lease, the stipulations of a contract, or 
the like; IJIjliVl JZh subscription booklet; 
Jj .i' -fl l J^si d.a^-^; 
**-LJ.I jUi cadastre, land register; j^j 
L^jJl diary, journal; til— • 
j-'UJl mcwfc ad-d. bookkeeping 

aJU-j^j daflarkana archives, public rec- 
ords office (Eg.) | ijliJl iH**lM *jUJSa 
d. al-amlak al-'aqdriya land-registry office 

L j\i*j difteriyd diphtheria 

J* dafara to push, push back (• s.o.); — 
dafira a (dajar) to stink 

jis dafar stench 

jii dafir stinking, fetid 

^Jj dafasa to hide (a; to push 

J j dafa'a a (daf) to push; to push away, 
shove away, push back, drive back, repel, 
remove, dislodge, drive away (j* a, » 
s.o. , from); LiU- 4*»j (janiban) to 
push, shove, or elbow, s.o. aside; to rid 
<4~jii ^ o.s., a of, get rid of; 
to get the better (a, » of s.o., of, 
conquer, master control (• s.o., *; 
to fight (t-j a with); to reject, 
repudiate (a; to rebut, refute, 
disprove (a; to propel, drive (a; to move, cause, urge, impel, egg 
on, goad (• or »-> s.o., Jl or J to do, 
induce, incite, force, compel, oblige (• 

or v ■•<>•» J' or J to)» make s.o. (l-» or •) 
do (Jl or J); to hand over, present, 
turn over {J or Jl a to s.o.); to pay 
(\lc tamanan a price, Jl or J to s.o.) | 
Jl »\L»- «jj (fatt&hu) to wend one's way 
to III to resist, withstand (• s.o., a, 
offer resistance (a, • to); to contradict, 
oppose (• s.o., j* so as to make him 
abstain from, dissuade (• s.o., jc 
from); to suppresfl {a; to defend 
(j* s.o.,, uphold <j*; to be 
entrusted with the defense (j* of, 
of s.o., also jur.) Y to dash forward; to 
dart off, rush off; to pour forth, flow, 
stream, gush forth (water) ; to spring up, 
make itself felt {an idea, a social tend- 
ency, and the like) VI to shove or push 
one another; to push or shove one an- 
other away or aside; to push off, shove 
off (^ from); to issue in intermittent 
bursts, gush forth intermittently; to 
burst forth, rush out, sally (,> from); to 
be propelled, be driven forward ; to 
storm forward VII to dart oft*, rush off; 
to proceed rashly, blindly, without 
forethought; to be too impetuous, be 
too hotheaded; to plunge headlong (j 
into; to rush, dart, make (Jl at, pounce (Jl on; to rush off, 
hurry off, go quickly (Jl to; with foil. 
imperf.: to do; to give o.s. (J to 
s.o.); to burst forth, gush out, pour 
forth, spurt, spout, flow, run (j- from; 
water); to let o.s. be carried away or be 
overcome (»|jj by, e.g., *j|_j+- »ljj 
Sahatodtihi by one's bodily appetites, 
<oy^ »bj by one's feelings, *J*-UI *jjj by 
worldly things) ; to proceed, Bet out, begin 
(with foil, imperf.: to do X to try 
to ward off or stave off (a, u-» by) 

-jj daf* pushing back, shoving aside; 
repulsion, driving away, driving off; dis- 
pelling; parrying, warding off, staving off; 
repulse, rejection, repudiation; rebuttal; 
handing over, turning in; payment 



i**j daf'a (n. vie.) pi. dafa'dt shove, 
push, thrust; impetus, impact, momen- 
tum, forceful impulse, drive ; ejaculation ; 
payment; deposit; disbursement; pi. 
issues (stock market) 

l*ij duf'a pi. dufu'al, dufa'dt that 
which issues at any one time, a burst, a 
gush, a spurt, and the like; time, in- 
stance | aJ*-\j i*ii (duf'atan) all at one 
time, all at once, in one stroke, in one 
fell swoop; i«iaJl »-u this time; oLii c— 
six times; *yUu oLjj J* (mutafdwita) at 
different times 

£jij dqffa' propelling, impelling, giv- 
ing impetus; O piston (teckn.) 

£».U midfa' pi. g\j* madaji' 2 gun, 
cannon | Q \jj.\ I-l-j *il.u (ba'idat al- 
inarmd) long-range guns; ^iU; «j.u 
(ra$$d$) machine gun; O <^ «*i1 jl* 
(dakma) heavy artillery; SaLill -»1oll 
oiyiUI (mudadda) or ol/LU iyUJLl *»UI 
(mtt^du^ma) anti-aircraft guns; J->U *j.u 
O ol_r*UJ j Li. (*Wa/i, mudadd) three-bar- 
reled anti-aircraft gun (mil.) ; jjU a*.u m. 
haumn mortar; ^Ul Jju «_^ aarft m. 
az-zuhr marking of exact noon by cannon 

,j*i.u midfa'i gun-, cannon-, artillery- 
tin compounds); artilleryman, gunner, 

i~>jj- midfa'iya artillery 

£Ui di/(f protection; defense (j* of,ofs.o., alsoj'ur.} | Mioll i^- Jsaftad-d. 
line of defense; halfbacks (soccer); ( _ r l* 
^li-UI ma;'fo ad-d. defense council; \j\j 3 
£tfjjl ministry of defense, war ministry; 
jyll ^LioJI (t#HM") national defense; 
ol/lU jLiil ^UJI (mudadd) anti-aircraft 
defense; ^^i £Jii legitimate self-defense 
^lij d*/o'» defensive, protective 
3*il-u mud&fa'a defense (j* of 

£\*£\ indifd' pi. -of rush(ing), plunging, 
plunge (j into); outburst, outbreak, 

eruption; &an, dash, impetuosity, rash- 
ness, hotheadedness, fire, exuberance, 
efFusiveness; self-abandon; l*U.U. in* 
difd'an spontaneously 

ipljjjl indifd'a (n. vie.) sudden out- 
burst, outbreak (e.g., of wailing) 

£»Ij dafi* repellent, expellant; driving, 
pushing, giving impetus, incentive, im 
pellent, propelling, propulsive, etc.; re 
peUer; payer, e.g., i_Jl^iJ| _^| A the tax 
payers; (pi. ^Ip dawafi' 2 ) incentive, 
impulse, impetus, spur, motive; »iU 
(with foil, genit.) motivated by..., by 
reason of . . ., on the strength of . . . 

oUjio* madfu'at payments 

„ ^il-U mudqfi' defender (j* of s.o., of 

Jij dafaqa u i (dafq) to pour out, pour 
forth (a; — u (dafq, j^ij dufuq) to 
be shed; to flow, well out, spout, gush 
forth; to overflow (* with V to 
pour forth, spout forth, gush forth; to 
rush in; to break forth, break out, burst 
out; to go off (shot); to plunge blindly 
Or Jl into; to rush (Jp against); 
to crowd (J* into) VII = V 

ji> dafq pouring out, effusion 
Uij dufqa pi. dufuqat, dufaqdt, dufqdt 
= <*ii duf'a | So*-!, Uijj (dufqatan) = 
ii*-\j <a»j; £j\ tiiUij d. ar-rih gusts; 
•U.I j- Um gush of water 

JUj daffdq bursting forth, darting 
out, rushing out 

jijj tadaffuq outpour, outflow, issue, 
effluence, efflux, effusion; influx, run, 
rush, inrush, inpour; outbreak, outburst; 
impulsiveness; exuberance, effusiveness 

jilj d&fiq pi. jt\j} dawafiq* bursting 
forth, breaking out, erupting; gushing, 

^iJ^. mutadaffiq impulsive; exuberant, 


Jm dijla oleander (Nerium oleander L. ; hot.) 

jo dafana i (dafn) to bury, inter, inhume 
{» s.o.); to bide, conceal, keep secret (* 

j^j dafn burial, interment, inhumation 

,>ii dafin pi. »Uij dufand' 2 buried, 
interred; hidden, secret 

i-ii daflna pi. JUa dafd'in 2 hidden 
treasure, treasure -trove 

^-U madfan, ii-U madfana pi. jjiij- 
maddfin 2 burying place, burial ground, 

Jj do^gw i (*Ji dtgga) to be thin, fine, fragile, 
frail; to be little, small, tiny, minute; 
to be subtle, delicate; to be insignificant, 
unimportant, trifling, inconsiderable; to 
be too fine, too subtle (/^ for perception) ; 

— u (dagq) to crush, bruise, bray (a; to grind, pulverize, powder (*; to pound (a, e.g., meat); to 
strike (clock); to beat, throb (heart); to 
hammer, throb (engine); to knock, rap, 
bang (vV al-bdba on the door); to 
bump (JajU-b -ufj ra'sahu bi-l-hd'if one's 
head against the wall); to drive (a a 
nail); to ram in, drive in {constr. eng.); 
to beat, strum, play (Jp a musical in- 
strument); to type (J* on a typewriter); 

— to sound, resound, ring out (said of 
musical instruments) | ( _ r - / aUl jj (jarasa) 
to ring the bell; J^\ ^sr 0.1 (j. al-kafar) 
to sound the alarm; J* ,j-/U J J to call 
s.o. up, give s.o. a ring; \j*jV< 3* (jarasu) 
the bell rang; ipUl cJ* the clock struck 
II to triturate, pulverize, reduce to 
powder (*; to be precise, exact, 
Btrict, meticulous, painstaking, proceed 
with utmost accuracy or care (j in ; to scrutinize, examine closely, 
determine exactly (*; to do (a carefully, with precision j d*JI jii 

(bahta) to investigate carefully; _^iJI j« 
(nazara) to watch attentively or carefully, 
scrutinize, examine closely (j; J« 
*I*»-}U.I (muldhazata) to observe closely 
III to deal scrupulously (• with s.o.) IV to 
make fine, make thin (a VII to be 
crushed, brayed, pounded; to be broken | 
*&p j-Gl {'unquhu) he broke his neck 
X to be or become thin or fine 

cii daqq crushing, bruising, braying, 
pounding; pulverization, trituration; 
grinding (down); beat(ing), throb(bing); 
bang(ing), knook(ing), rap(ping) ; tat- 
tooing) I cr^' J-* &• al-jaraa peal, ring- 
ing, sound of a bell; c±JLi-l jj d. al-hanak 
chatter, prattle 

3 J diqq fine, thin; little, small, tiny, 
minute; delicate, fragile, frail | ji j£ 
(aajar) shrubbery, brush, scrub; j-UI t J- 
hummd d-d. hectic fever 

*m daqqa (n. vie.) pi. -at bang, knock, 
rap; beat, throb; stroke, striking (of a 
elock) ; hammer, hammering sound; 
thumping, thump { ^JJaJI dtiz d. al-qalb 
heartbeats; ^j^ *« d. al-jaraa peal, or 
ring, of a bell; telephone call, ring 

15i diqqa thinness; fineness; smallness, 
tininess, minuteness ; triviality, petti- 
ness, paltriness ; subtlety, subtleness, 
finesse ; critical or precarious state, 
delicate situation; accuracy, exactness, 
exactitude, precision | 5*-b exactly, ac- 
curately, precisely, minutely, pains- 
takingly, meticulously, sharply; jj*i)l *i* 
acuteness of feeling, sensitivity, sen- 
sitiveness, sensibility 

iij dugqa pi. jjj duqaq fine dust; 

jlij duqaq crushed, brayed, or pulver- 
ized, substance; powder; flour of lupine 

Jjj daqlq pi. jUi diqdq, *i*\ adiqqa 
fine, thin; deUcate, frail, fragile; little, 
small, tiny, puny, minute; subtle; 



paltry, petty, trifling, trivial; precise, ac 
curate, exact; painstaking, scrupulous, 
meticulous; inexorable, relentless, strict, 
rigorous; delicate (situation), critical, 
trying, serious, precarious ; — flour, meal 
i_jL-A-I jJi keeping strict account, strict, 
relentless, inexorable; j_^wJl jJi sensi- 
tive; v-aJI Jjj d. a$-$ari finely worked; 
of delicate workmanship; JaA\ jJj d. 
an-nazar clear-sighted, penetrating, dis 
cerning, sensitive; J-Sj ji\ abu d. butter- 
fly; iiJoJI »Ufl*"^l (a'da') the genitals 

iijj daqiqa pi. jpUb do^d'ig 3 particle; 
nicety ; intricacy ; detail, particular ; 
minute (time unit) | j_j*^l JjISj the nice- 
ties, intricacies, or secret implications of 

JUj daqqaq grinder, crusher ; flour 
merchant; frequently or constantly beat- 
ing, striking, etc.; player of an instru- 
ment j iSl*.i itl— repeater (watch) 

4jL*j daqqdqa knocker, rapper (of a 

Oil adaqq 2 finer; more delicate; smaller, 
tinier; more accurate, preciser; stricter 

Jju midaqq beetle; pounder, pestle; 
{eg.} trail, footpath 

jj.u midaqqa pi. <5l-U madaqq 2 pound- 
er, pestle; beetle; clapper, tongue (of a 
bell) tadqiq accuracy, precision, exact- 
ness, exactitude I jJ-fcj exactly, precisely, 
accurately, minutely 

JJ.U mudaqqiq exact, accurate (scholar), 
thorough (investigator), painstaking, me- 
ticulous, strict, relentless 

ji-U mudaqqaq precise, exact (data) 

SiU daqira pi. J$\j* dawdqir 2 olay vessel 
(tun.) ; — stipend for underprivileged 
students (tun.) 

*j&> daqSum (eg.) rubblestone, crushed 
rock; brickbats, gravel 

*Si daqi'a a (daqd t ) to grovel, cringe; to be 
miserable, wretched, humble, abject; to 
live in poverty IV do. ; to make miserable 
(» s.o.; poverty) 

f-Uol idqa' mass poverty 
*#-U mudqi* miserable, wretched; de- 
grading, abasing (poverty) 

JJj daqal mast (of a ship); mainmast; (coll.; 
n. un. «) a brand of dates of good quality 

1 lSj dakka u (dakk) to make fiat, level or 
even, to smooth, level, ram, stamp, tamp 
(a earth, the ground, a road); to press 
down, weigh down ; to beat down ; to dev- 
astate, demolish, destroy, ruin (* 
II to mix, mingle (* VII to be 
crushed; to be leveled 

i!i dakk pi. i^i dukuk level ground; — 
devastation, demolition, destruction 

<S*j dakka pi, -at rubblestone, crushed 
rock; ballast 

i£"j dikka pi. •i.JS'.i dikak bench 

06*j dukkdn pi. {/S'&i dakakin 2 bench; 
store, shop 

^Sj dukkanji storekeeper, shop- 
keeper, retailer 

ii-u midakk pi. -at ramrod; O tamper 

2 £jj II to provide (* trousers) with a waist- 
band (dikka or tikka) 

SSj dikka (= *£j tikka) waistband (in 
the upper seam of trousers) 

ijjjl^a diktdtiiriya dictatorship 
tfjji^* diktdturi dictatorial 

jV^j duktur pi. SylTi dakatira doctor | 
3yi-\ j j_>=Tj> doctor of laws, LL.D. ; j>3i 
Jul j (pibb) doctor of medicine, M.D. 
i[iyS"i dukturdh doctorate, doctorship, 
doctor's degree, title of doctor | '»\jj£jS\ 
i_^i!i (/oiriya) honorary doctorate 


jf iddakara see _^"i 

yi^> (It. decreto) dilcritd pi. ob^Tj decree 

^1 ctdfcan 2 , f. #LSa daJbuT 1 pi. ^ dwfcn 
blackish, dark (color) 

jTb e2d/:«n dark, dark-colored | j***-\ 
^Tb dark green; ^ Ij ^^i-"' yellowish, of 
a dingy yellow, mud-colored 

■ulTi see 1 iij 

Ja doMa « (JJV-i daWa) to show, demonstrate, 
point out (J* ♦ to s.o.; to lead, 
guide, direct, conduct (Jl or J* » s.o. to), 
show s.o. (•) the way (Jl or J* to); to 
show, indicate, mark (J*; to point 
(Jp to, evince, indicate, denote, 
imply, bespeak, suggest (J*, be 
indicative, be suggestive (J* of); to 
furnish evidence (Jc for, prove 
(J*; — (1st pers. perf. dalaltu) i 
(JVi dalal) to be coquettish, flirt, dally 
(of a woman; J* with s.o.) II to prove 
(Jc, furnish the proof (J* for), 
confirm, corroborate (<-> J* with); 
to sell or put up at auction, auction off 
(J*; to pamper, coddle, spoil (* 
s.o.); to fondle, caress, pet (• a child) 
IV to make free, take liberties (J* with 
s.o.); to pride o.s. (<_j on), be conceited 
(«_j of ) V to be coquettish, flirt, dally (of 
a woman ; Jt with s.o. ) ; to be coy, 
behave affectedly; to take liberties (J* 
with s.o.); to pamper, coddle (J* s.o.) 
X to ask to be shown (J*; to seek 
information, inform o.s. (Jp about); to 
obtain information; to be informed (J* 
about) ; to be guided (^ by), act or proceed 
in accordance with (^) ; to conclude , 
gather, infer (J*, w or ,}* from), 
draw conclusions (i_j or ^ from, J* with 
regard to), judge (J*, <-* or ,> by) 

J j doll proper, dignified conduct ; 
coquetry, flirtation 

'*S> dalla pi. J^j dilcU pot with long 
curved spout and handle used for making 

coffee (among Syrian nomads and in 
some parts of Saudi Arabia) 

JVa dalal coquetry, coquettishness ; 
pampering, coddling, spoiling 

JJj dalxl pi. Ibl adilla, J^.> dal&'U*, 
»*ibl adiUd' 2 (the latter of persons) 
indication (J* of) ; sign, token ; symptom ; 
proof, evidence (J* of); guide; tourist 
guide, cicerone; pilot (of a ship, of an 
airplane) ; guidebook, guide manual, 
handbook ; directory, telephone directory ; 
railroad guide, timetable; guide rail 
(techn.); roller path (in steel construc- 
tion) | J* JJaJI fUl to furnish the proof 
for, demonstrate, prove; j^U JJa 
(zarfi) circumstantial evidence; *Uti JJj 
cogent proof, conclusive evidence 

JV.J daUal auctioneer; broker, jobber, 
middleman, agent, commission mer- 
chant; hawker 

iJVi daldla pi. -at pointing; guidance; 
leading, leadership; indication (J» of); 
sign, token; sense, meaning 

*} V a dildla auction, public sale ; 
business of a broker or middleman ; 
brokerage commission; trade of a dealer, 
jobber or agent 

UVa dalldla middlewoman, woman 

J j I adaW proving more cogently (J*, more indicative or Buggestive (J* 
°f) I J* J^ 3 ^ (dalxlin) the surest 
evidence of, the best proof of 

JJju tadlxl reasoning, argumentation, 
demonstration; proving (J* of), furnish- 
ing of proof or evidence (J* for); cor- 
roboration, substantiation, confirmation; 
pampering, coddling, spoiling; fondling, 
petting, caressing ; pet form (of a name) | 
JJ.dl —.1 pet name; j- >U oj as a pet 
form of . . . 

JJOj tadaUul coquetry, coquettishness; 
pampering, coddling, spoiling 


iJV-A=— I istidlM reasoning, argumenta- 
tion, demonstration ; conclusion, infer- 
ence, deduction; proof, evidence (Je of) 

<1 1 i ddlla familiarity, chumminess ; 
liberty (that one takes with s.o.); 
audacity, boldness 

J^Ja* madlul proven; (pi. -at) mean- 
ing, sense | oUSJl £/S/jJju m. alkalimdt 
lexical meanings 

JJ.U mudaUal pampered, spoiled (child) 

Ja- mvdill presumptuous, arrogant | 
*-uLj Jx. (bi-nafsihl) conceited, self- 

, « T Ji dutb plane tree, sycamore (bot.) 

VVji pi. <_- Jjp look up alphabetically 

LJi Nile Delta, Lower Egypt 

£o IV to set out at nightfall 

rj)* daluh pi. lj duluk moisture-laden cloud 

JjJi daldala to set into a swinging motion, 
dangle II tadaldala to hang loosely, 

JjJj ditidvl and JjOJi duldul porcupine 

,jJj II to Bwindle, cheat; to counterfeit, 
forge, falsify (a Ill to deceive, 
defraud (. s.o.), impose (• on) 

^-JaI tadUs deceit, fraud; swindle 

t^-fl-Ll tadlisi fraudulent 

(jJ-U mudaOas forged, counterfeit | 
i-Jx. i^Ju counterfeit money; 5-Ja. r-jl-*-* 
forged keys 

gb dafa'a a (daT) with *SU lisdnahu: to 
stiok out one'» tongue; to loll, let the 
tongue hang out II to pamper, spoil (• 
a child); to caress, fondle, pet (« s.o.) 
IV (j^&JI gl-b »^i (ey.) a nauseating, dis- 
gusting thing VII to stick out, be stuck 

out, hang out, loll (tongue); to dart out, 
lick out, leap out, flare up (flame), break 
out (fire) ; to be pampered, spoiled 

gb daT: gtjjl -J ism ad-d. pet name 

9-")}* daUa' (coll.; n. un. •) watermelon 

jLJj dilgdn clay 

.Jjj dalafa i (dalf, J^b duluf, uUli dalajan) 
to walk with short steps, toddle; to go 
or walk slowly, saunter, stroll (Jl to); 
to advance (Je toward); to approach 
step by step (Jl s.o. or; to pene- 
trate, reach (Jl as far as); to grope (Jl 
for, of the hand); to leak, drip, trickle 

O <Jdb ddlif pi. jA\ji dawalif 2 ricochet 

^kii dulfin pi. ^JVj daldfin 7 dolphin 

jjj dalaqa u to spill, pour out (a a liquid) 
VII to be spilled (liquid) 

JJi dalaka u (dalk) to rub (*; to stroke 
(a, pass the hand (a over; to 
knead (J**«JI the dough); — u (&J* 
duluk) to set, go down (sun) II to rub (a, * s.o. ), embrocate (a; to 
knead; to massage (» s.o.) 

dibs dalk rubbing; grazing, brushing, 
touching, touch 

iljii daluh liniment 

iljii duluk, ) _ r *UI ilji d. aS-Sams 

dLlij tadlik embrocation; massage 

i£j-u mudaUika pi. -at masseuse 

*Ij II to rob s.o. (•) of his senses, drive (• s.o.) 
crazy (love) V to go out of one's mind, 
go crazy (with love) | «u>- J c-^Aj" (hubbihi) 
she has fallen in love with him 

*J-U mudallah madly in love 



J>s IT idlahamma to be dark, gloomy; to be 

1* dalham dark, gloomy; deep-black 
.►Lao I idlihm&m a deep black 
Jk.u mucUahimm dark, gloomy; deep- 

^Jj II to let hang, dangle (a; to hang, 
suspend (a; to lower (a; to 
drop, let down, let fall down (a 
IV = II; to cast down (a glances, Jl on 
s.o.) ; to let one's glance {«jU«SIj bi-anzarihi) 
Bweep down; to express, utter, voice (<-», e.g., *Aj bi-ra*yihi one's opinion) ; 
to deliver, make (^^^ a statement; 
pol.); to adduce, present, advance, offer 
{'***£■ bi-hujjatin an argument); to 
inform, notify, advise (»-» Jl s.o. of), let 
(Jf s.o.) know (i^ about); to offer, 
present (lj Jl to s.o.; to grant, give 
(J w-j-** 1 an interview to s.o.); to slander, 
defame, asperse (j s.o.) | »*iUI Ju »J* Jal 
(daiwahu, dild*) or »^jJI j «>J.b JjI to make 
one's contribution {together with others), 
add one's touch, put in one's two bits 1 
worth V to hang down, be suspended, 
dangle (t> from); to be lowered, be let 
down; to be or become low; to sink, de- 
scend | J^aJU Jij to threaten to fall down, 
be ready to fall 

_jJi dalw usually f., pi. JjI adlin, /ifj 
dila", »1/jI adlS leather bucket; bucket, 
pail; Aquarius (astron.) 
<>V-> daUdya pendant 

•VjI idla' delivery (of a statement); 
utterance, statement presentation; grant- 

LJIi ddliya pi. Jljj daivalin water- 
wheel {for irrigation); trellis, espalier on 
which grapevines are trained ; varix , 
varicose vein 

Joi. mutadallin pendent, suspended, 
hanging, dangling ; projecting, over- 
hanging, ready to fall down 

Ub look up alphabetically 

■jo dam pi. »U> dimd' blood; »L*i homioide 
cases (jur.) \ ^/j*-^ r* d. al-akawain 
dragon's blood (a dark-red, resinous 
substance derived from the dragon tree, 
Dracaena draco) 

t/i damx blood- (in compounds), 


jj-i daman* blood- (in compounds), 
sanguine; sanguinary, bloody 

**} damma u (damm) to coat, smear, besmear 
(t-i a with); to paint, daub, color, 
dye, tinge, tint (<-» a with) XI to rub, 
embrocate, anoint (<_> a with) 

pa damm ointment, unguent, salve, 
liniment, embrocation; paint; pigment, 
dye, dyestuff ; rouge 

l>lo dim&m ointment, unguent, salve, 
liniment, embrocation; paint; pigment, 
dye, dyestuff; rouge 

~o damim pi. aLo dim&m ugly; de- 
formed, misshapen | iilU^I *o d. ahkUqa 
ugly to look at, of repulsive appearance 

Ulo damama ugliness; ugly appear- 
ance; abominableness, monstrosity 

*L-iJI ad-dammam Dammam (seaport 
in E Saudi Arabia, on the Persian Gulf) 

ivi damuta u (iJLi damdfa) to be gentle, 
mild (character) II to soften, mellow {a 

,i».j damit pi. ^lo dimdt: j^'lfl d-o 
gentle, mild-tempered 

ijlo damata mildness, gentleness, 
tenderness (of character) 

*■* damaja u (jr>o dumuj) to enter (j, go or come into (j), be inserted, 
incorporated (j in) II to write short- 
hand IV to twist tightly, twine firmly 
(a; to enter, insert, include, in- 
corporate, embody (j a in); to 




introduoe, interpolate, intercalate (j * in) ; to annex ( j * to) VH to "be 
inserted, be incorporated (j in); to be 
annexed (j to); to merge (j with), be 
ewallowed up, be absorbed (j by); to 
be fused, fuse, amalgamate 

g^jj tadmij shorthand, stenography 
*-lo I idm&j insertion , incorporation , 
interpolation; inclusion (j in); assim- 

j-L.Jjl indim&j incorporation, insertion 
(j in); amalgamation, merger, merging 
(j with); absorption (j by); annexation 
(j to); fusion; assimilation 

#:u mudmaj firm, compact 

*x^ mundamij firm, compact, tight 

ti\jt j damajdna (also *il*b) pi. -# demijohn, 

*-lo damdarm to mutter, grumble, growl, 

***** damdama pi. -<B growl, snarl; 
rumbling noise, rumble 

l j»* damara « to perish, be ruined, be de- 
stroyed II to annihilate, destroy, ruin, 
demolish, wreck (a V to be de- 
stroyed, demolished, ruined, wreoked 
VII to be destroyed, be annihilated 

jLj dam&r ruin, destruction 

j^aS tadmlr annihilation, destruction, 

jUail indimar utter defeat, rout, de- 
struction, annihilation 

»j»Aa mudammira pi. -&t destroyer 

*jj»> damm&r (eg.) a coarse calico-like 

i$jj»* dammuri {eg.) made of dammur 
(see above) 

■»jwi damira (eg.) flood season of the Nile 

*□ jij^ji V Id dumari ( = j^-Jj V) nobody, 
no one, not a living soul 

^.Oj tadmur*, usually pronounced tvdmur, 
Palmyra (ancient city in Syria, now a 
small village) 

iSj*Xi tadmuri, usually pronounced 
tvdmuri, someone, somebody; <Sj*-& V 
nobody, no one, not a living soul 

Lr *a damaea u to hide, conceal, disguise (a; to bury (^jVI J • s.o. in the 
ground) II do. 

^jkO dims (eg.) cinders, ashes 

L-Lj dam&sa darkness 

^lol admds (pi.) hovels, shanties, 

,^-^.j ddrnmu* pi. (j-fUa dam&mis 3 
cave, cavern 

^Lci daimas, dimas, ^yj daimua pi. 
,^-x.Lj day&mis* dungeon; vault 

Lr wlj ddmw pitch-dark; dark, gloomy, 
tr ^x. (J>* /^ mvdammaa stewed beans 

j±*i dimoSg*, dimiiq* Damascus (capital of 

JJL.-U mttdamSaq damascened, dam- 
asked; (*yr.) having adopted a sophis- 
ticated style of living (imitating that of 
Damascus), urbanized 

*a* dama'a a to water (eye) IV to cause to 
weep, evoke tears, make (the eyes) water 

*o dam" pi. fy*s dumu' tears 
Uo dam'a (n. un.) tear, teardrop; 
(eg.) dim'a gravy 

jmj dam'\; l*<^ <JLi (qunbula) tear- 
gas bomb 

«*o domi'a and £-*.> dam*' pi. ^i 
darn'S, wUi damd't" 1 readily inclined to 
weep, frequently weeping, tearful, lach- 
rymose (woman) 

YjaS damu' and flo damma' watering, 
watery, tearful (eyes) 

**-u madma* pi. **\x» madami' 2 lach- 
rymal canal 

**..i damaga a to refute, invalidate (a a 
falsehood, an error, a false accusation); 
to triumph (a over falsehood; said of 

p-Lo dimag pi. Uol admiga brain 

iiJi iit Awj'7'a d&miga cogent argu- 
ment; **- 1 i Jol^i (£aAada) irrefutable 

2 ^.i damaga u {damg) to stamp, provide or 
mark with a stamp (*; to hallmark 
(a gold and silver articles); to brand (* 
an animal) 

kj.i damg stamping j c-U^ail «j ti. 
al-masugat hallmarking of gold and 
silver articles 

4jL.j damga stamp; hallmark (on gold 
and silver articles) j ***i 3jj waraq d. 
stamped paper 

•r_yX» madmug stamped, bearing a 

^>\jA** dimuqrdti democratic; democrat 

Ual^j dimuqrafiya democracy; demo- 
cratic attitude or conviction 

(j-i-j dimaqa raw silk 

~JLo dimaqsi silken, silky 

ii^.-U madmuk and iL-L. mudmak firm, tight, 

J*j damala u (daml, j^-i damaldn) to 
fertilize, manure, dung (* the soil); — 
damila a {damal) to heal, heal up, scar 
over, cicatrize (wound) VII to heal, heal 
up, scar over, cicatrize (wound); to 
fester, suppurate (sore) 

Jo durhmal (n. un. *) pi. J*Uj damd* 
mil*, J^L-^ damdmil* abscess, boil, sore, 

tumor, ulcer ; furuncle ; bubo, plague 
boil ; inveterate evil 

J- j uy. LU fa'un dummaU bubonic 

«Li dumluj pi. £Lo damalif bracelet, bangle 

l j*> damana u (damn) to fertilize, manure, 
dung (a the soil) IV to give o.s. up, 
devote o.s., apply o.s. (J* or * to), go in 
for (Jp or *); to be addicted (J* e.g., to 

^.i dimn (coll. ; n. un. •) pi. j-j diman 
fertilizer, manure, dung 

4L.J dimno pi. j-i dtman vestiges or 
remnants of a dwelling, ruins 

jlo damdn fertilizer, manure, dung 

jlol idm&n addiction; excess; mania; 
dipsomania j OJ^S—J.1 JLjI *. al-muskirdt 

j^-u mvdmin addicted, given up (J* 
e.g., to wine); an addict (J* of) 

2 jL.j dumdn see ulyj 

j j^*j damanhur 2 Damanhur (city in N Egypt) 

iSj*z see 1 |-j 

: ^j damiya a to bleed II and IV to cause to 

flj ddmin bleeding, bloody, gory 

<jx* mudamman, f. oLa* bloody; blood- 

2 i~*} dumya pi. ^j duman statue, statuette; 
image, effigy; dummy; doll 

J»Lo dimydt 2 Damietta (city in N Egypt) 

ji danna u (dann, i>J.s dantn) to buzz, hum 
(insect) ; to drone 

ji dann and ,>Jj damn buzz(ing), 
hum(ming), droning, drone 

jj aann pi. olii dinan earthen wine jug 



\ji dana'a a and Jo danu'a u (»yj duntfa, 
•#lo dana'a) to be low, mean, base, vile, 
contemptible, despicable 

»Jj dani pi. •LjjI adniya' 2 , »lol adnd' 
low, base, mean, vile, despicable, con- 
temptible; inferior, second-rate, of poor 

lb I adna' 3 lower, viler, meaner; more 
inferior, of poorer quality 

».Lb dana'a lowness, baseness, mean- 
ness, vileness; inferiority 

^Ub, «Jbb (Fr. dentelle) dantilla lace, lace- 

Jjtj dim;i£ («;.) pi. J>-lb danajil 2 axle, axle- 

4-j-Uj (Turk, dondurma) dandurma ice cream 

i-ijlb danddi£a common people, people of no 

Oao dandana to buzz, hum; to drone; to 
hum softly, croon (a song); to murmur 

tS-ib dindi (eg.) turkey 

^Lo pl._^jlb look up alphabetically 

^j danisa a (danas) to be soiled, sullied, 
defiled, polluted II to stain, soil, dirty, 
befoul, sully, pollute, contaminate (a; to dishonor, disgrace f*; to 
desecrate (* V pass, of II 

^i danas pi. j-lbl adnaa uncleanness, 
dirt, filth, squalor; stain, blemish, fault 

^i danis pi. ( _ J -U jl adnaa, »LJi dunoad' 2 
unclean, soiled, sullied, foul, polluted, 
defiled, stained 

L/ -wAJ tadnis pollution, defilement, soil- 
ing, sullying, contamination; dishonor- 
ing, disgracing; desecration, profanation 

*Juj danifa a (danaf) to be seriously ill 
IV do. 

Jms danif pi. Jjlbl adnaf seriously ill 

<J»b danaf long illness; Q cachexia, 
marasmus (med.) 

xJaJx* mvdnif, mudnaf emaciated, 
haggard, weak 

jjli look up alphabetically 

<Ub dunqula Dongola (town in N Sudan, 
on the Nile) 

jfc* = J** 

iiji'j danmark 2 Denmark 

(yi and (j^) lb doTia u {^b dunuw, ytb dand- 
tw) to be near, be close; to come or go 
near s.o. or (j* or Jl or J), approach 
(,>. J'i J s.o. ,; to come close, get 
close (j*, Jl, J to), approximate (j., Jl, 
J; to draw near, be imminent (time, 
event); ^ <u Lb to bring s.o. close to ...; 
— jj daniya a (Lb (to»an, Sjlb danaya) 
to be low, lowly; to be or become mean, 
base, vile, despicable, contemptible II to 
bring close (a, • s.o., j- to), bring, 
take or move {*, • s.o.) near (,>.), 
approximate (a, ^ to) ; to apply 
o.s. (j to, busy o.s. (j with, delve (j into); <-JJ Jj (nafsahu) 
to lower o.s., abase o.s., humble o.s. Ill to 
approach (« s.o., a, come or get 
near s.o. or («, a), come or get close 
(«, a to); to approximate (a; to 
measure up (a, • to) j jl-u V »^ (y«' 
dana) an unequaled thing IV to be 
near, be close; to approach (^ or Jl or J 
s.o. or, come, go or draw near s.o. 
or (j*, Jl, J), come close, get close 
(<>> J'» J to); to bring close (• s.o., a, ^ to), bring, take or move (• s.o., 
a near (j-), approximate (a, 
,y to); to lower, drop (a, e.g., the 
veil) V to approach gradually (Jl 
or s.o.); to be debased, sink low, sink, 
decline; to lower o.s., abase o.s., humble 
o.s. VI to come near each other, get close 
to each other, approach one another; to 



be close together; to approach, approxi- 
mate (> Till Jil iddand to be 
near, be close, come or draw near, ap- 
proach X to wish to be nearer or closer, 
try to come nearer or cloeer; to seek to 
fetch or bring closer (a, Jl to, to 
0.8.), reach out (* for» wish (Ul * 

y j dunuw advent, approach ; proximity, 
nearness, imminence (of an event) 

ji daniy pi. »Uj1 adniyti?* near, close; 
low, lowly; mean, base, vile, despicable, 
contemptible, inferior, infamous, deprav- 

*j> daniya pi. -#, LUi dandyd a base 
quality or habit; disgraceful, in- 
famy, vile action 

jil adnd, f. Li* dunyd pi. m. obi 
addnin, adnauna> pi. f. Ji dunan 
nearer, closer; situated lower down, 
nether; lower, inferior; lowlier; smaller, 
of less significance; more appropriate, 
better suited, more suitable | J^l j>i)l 
(Sarq) the Near East; JjNI v>^ 1 ("wtf* 
r»6) Algeria; ij^l J^ ,> J3I (AoM* 
ol-uwrld) very near or close, imminent; 
Oy*y\ *-jjI»*V1 the closest relatives; tl^l ^ 
•Liil Jl (aqf&hn) from one end to the 
other; wholly, entirely, completely, al- 
together; JiVI -U-l (ftadd) the minimum; 
•Uil hereinafter, below (in writings, doc- 
uments, etc.) e.g., •Ual ityijk\ {muioaq* 
gi'Hn) those signed below, the under- 
signed; JjI V (with foil, genit.) not the 
least, not a single, not one 

LJj dunyi (f. of JjI wind) world; 
earth; this world (as opposed to 5>-T); 
life in this world, worldly existence; 
worldly, temporal things or possessions; 
earthly things or concerns | iJ-dl 3U-I 
life in this world; LioJI pi umm ad-d. 
Cairo; \*J*i\j LjjJI pttl aqama d-d. wa- 
aq'adahd approx.: to kick up a dust, 
make a stir, move heaven and earth 

tf^Jj dunyawi, ^jUj duny&wi worldly, 
mundane, secular; earthly, temporal, 
transitory, transient 

ajljj dan&iva nearness, closeness, prox- 
imity, propinquity; lowness, lowliness; 
meanness, baseness, vileness 

iiUi dandyd lowness, lowliness; mean- 
ness, baseness, vileness 

d-tf tadannin sinking, decline ; low 
level, nadir (fig.) | J-^U-Vl JoJI (dktoqi) 
the low level of morality, the moral 

jla ddnin low; near, close 

o\xu muiaddnin close together 

j*i dahr pi. jj*s duMr, ^*jl adhitr time; 
long time, age, epoch; lifetime; eter- 
nity; fate, destiny | j»JI ob 6an# 
*f-d. blows of fate, trials, affliotions, mis- 
fortune; j*j$\ JuJLtS and y-ill *J*s-* 
vicissitudes of fate, changes of fortune; 
adversities, adverse circumstances; jM 
{sj*\jS\ dahra d-ddhirin for all eternity, 
forever and ever; ^uJI _^T Jl ild dfciri d-d. 
do.; *lf j*o)l ... V (od-ttoAra JHxAA) 
never in all one's life 

j!j»i drikrt an adherent of the dahnya, 
a materialistic, atheistio doctrine in 
Islam; atheist, freethinker 

,£j»i tiuAri very old, far advanced in 

^i dahasa a (= ^b) to trample under- 
foot, trample down, crush (*, 
tread (* on; to run over (• 


^i dahiSa a and pass, duki&a to be astonish- 
ed, amazed, surprised (^* or J at); to 
wonder, marvel (j* at); to be baffled, 
startled, puzzled, perplexed, taken aback 
((>. or J by) II and IV to astonish, amaze, 
surprise, baffle, puzzle, perplex, startle 
(. s.o.) VII = dahiSa 



Jits dahaS perplexity, surprise, con- 
sternation, alarm, dismay 

,ji*j dahiS astonished, amazed, sur- 
prised; baffled, puzzled, nonplused, per- 
plexed, startled, disconcerted, alarmed, 
upset; dazed, stunned 

<L*i dahSa astonishment, amazement, 
surprise, wonder; perplexity, consterna- 
tion, bafflement, bewilderment, dismay, 

^UoJl indihdS astonishment, amaze- 
ment; perplexity, consternation, baffle- 
ment, bewilderment 

^Xt mudhiS astonishing, amazing, 
surprising, marvelous; pi. -at amazing 
things, marvels, wonders 

( _ r t > *x. madhUs and ^i*x^ mundahU 
astonished, amazed, surprised; perplexed, 
baffled, puzzled, nonplused, startled; 

\j*i dahaq stocks (to hold the feet of an 
offender by way of punishment) 

JUi dihdg full (cup), brimful 

*0Uaj dihqdn, pi. iJU-s dahdqina, ,>jI*a 
dahaqiri 2 man of importance, one who 
plays an important role, leading person- 
ality; grandee (in ancient Persia) | ^jIa-s 
i-LJI d. as-aiydsa the political leaders 

«£ljo dahaka a (dahk) to crush; to mash (a 

jl*i II tadahlaza to stroll about, walk about 
(in a hall) 

>i*i dihliz pi. jrJUi dahaltz* anteroom, 
vestibule, lobby, foyer ; corridor, hall- 
way | >UaJl ^.1 ibn ad-d. pi. ^JU-dl »LjI 

Jaj dihll Delhi 

*aj dahama a (dahm) and dahima a (daham) 
to come or descend (* upon s.o.) suddenly; 
to surprise, take unawares, take by sur- 

prise (* s.o. ), come unexpectedly (* to 
s.o.); to enter suddenly, raid, invade (a II to blacken (a Ill to befall, 
seize, grip, attack (« s.o.), come over s.o. 
(*; e.g., sickness, despair); to surprise, 
take unawares, catch red-handed (* s.o.); 
to attack suddenly (» s.o.), fall upon s.o. 
(e), invade, raid (a e.g., a house); to 
overtake (» s.o.; fate), catch up with (») 
IX to be black 

5-*i dukma blackness 

f*\ adham 2 , f. »1>a dahma' 2 , pi. j»a 
duAm black, deep-black | »L*i LaIj 
(dahiya) disaster, catastrophe 

»L*-UI ad-dahmd' the masses, the com- 
mon people, the populace, also ^Ul »lAs 

1<*Iju mudaAama police raid; house 

>o* mttdhamm very dark, pitch-dark 

^j <2aAana « (doAn) to oil (», a, s.o., <_j 
with); to anoint (», a, s.o., ^ with); 
to grease, smear (», a, s.o., ^ with) ; 
to rub, embrocate (•, a, s.o., <_j 
with); to paint, daub (a; to varnish 
(a II do. Ill to treat with gentleness 
(» s.o.); to cajole, flatter (* s.o.), fawn (a 
on s.o.) ; to cheat, dupe, gull, take in, 
outsmart (* s.o.) V pass, of I 

^yo dahn oiling, greasing; painting, 

^j dtthn pi. adkan, o^i duhun, 
-at, oIaj dihan oil (edible, lubricating, 
for the skin) ; fat, grease 

^aj duhnx oily, oil, oleic, oleo- (in 
compounds); fatty, greasy 

oLlaj duhnlydt fats, oils; fatty sub- 

»L»j dahnd' 2 desert 

jIm dakhctn house painter, painter 

c-aj dahina pomade 


jl*j dihdnjji. -at, ool adhina cosmetic 
cream, cold cream, salve, ointment, 
unguent; consecrated oil, anointing oil; 
paint, varnish; hypocrisy, dissimulation, 
deceit; — (without pi.) painting, daub- 
ing; whitewashing | oUoli XZjj {warm) 

~kj.\a* mudahana flattery, adulation, 
sycophancy, fawning; hypocrisy, dis- 
simulation; deceit, trickery 

j* I a. mvdahin flatterer, adulator, syc- 
ophant; hypocrite 

j>x> mudhin oily; fatty, greasy 

j_j*i dahwara to hurl down (*; to tear 
down, topple, overthrow (* II ta* 
dahwara pass, of I; to fall, tumble; to 
slump, flink; to be dragged down, sink to 
the lowest level 

j 4*jJ iadahwur fall, downfall; decline, 

jo dahiya a (»Uj dahd') to be clever, smart, 
cunning, artful, wily; — dakd a to befall, 
overtake, hit, strike (■ s.o.), come over 
s.o. (a; misfortune) II = dahd VI to 
pretend to be smart or cunning 

.Uj dahd' smartness, slyness, shrewd- 
ness, subtlety, cunning, craft 

jsjl adha smarter, shrewder; craftier, 
wilier; more skillful, subtler, more 
resourceful; worse, more calamitous 

Jj ddhin pi. :l*3 duhdh smart, sly, 
shrewd, subtle, cunning, wily, artful; 
resourceful person 

Lftijt dahiya smart fellow, old fox, sly 

La I j dahiya pi. *\ji dawdhin calamity, 
disaster, catastrophe | »L*o <j»Ij {dahya) 
and »l>^ * r * I ■> (dahmd' ) disaster, ca- 
tastrophe; <j*l.s j k-*-Ui (fal-yadhab) let 
him go to hell! 

(»ji) >b da' pi. »[pl adivd' disease, malady | 
^LcJl .b d. at-ta'lab alopecia, loss of the 
hair; O >j^J\ ''- 1 ^- ar-raq^ St. Vitus's 
dance; O J-*ll ''■* &' a ^ li elephantiasis; 
O iikil *\i d. al-minfaqa shingles, herpes 
zoster {med.) 

• Ijj see ^jj 

^jji II to wear out, wear off (> 

SjLijj dubara packthread, string, twine, cord, 
rope : thread 

C-wj^ diibait a rhymed poem consisting of 
four hemistichs 

rj* VII to spread 

t-js dauh branching trees, branches 

i>-jj dauha tall tree with many 
branches; family tree, genealogical table 

Z*-\s ciaAa top (child's toy) 

(rj>) r}* ddka u {dauk) to conquer, subjugate 
(a a country); to resign o.s., humble o.s.; 
to be or become dizzy, have a feeling of 
dizziness; to feel ill, be sick, feel nausea 
II to conquer, subjugate (* a people); to 
make submissive, subdue, humble, hu- 
miliate, degrade (• s.o.); to make (• s.o.) 
dizzy; to molest, bother, trouble (• s.o.); 
to daze, stun (• s.o.) | <J\j jya (ra'aahu) 
to make s.o.'s head go round, make s.o. 

ii-ji dauka vertigo, dizziness; coma; 

fli da'ik dizzy 

£jX> tadunk subjugation, conquest 

1 i J i II to be or become worm-eaten 

^ dud (coll.; n. un. S) pi. oljji dldan 
worm; maggot; larva; caterpillar | oj-i 
j ji-\ and _>aJl »*ji d. al-qazz silkworm; 
f-yW i>s d. al-qar', j^ji Jp (qar'i) ascarids; 
_^iJI ijj d. al-qirmtz cochineal; ^iH *j± 


d. al-miiS oheese maggots; •±^-J\ IjjaJI 

iS^ji dudi wormlike, worm-shaped, 

jj-l* madiid, mudawwid wormy, worm- 

a D ij-U mu2uxuj = iji, 

( J ->*) jli <Wn» « (daur, jl; jj dawarSn) to turn, 
revolve, rotate, move in a circle (J\», *_*, 
Jj»- around or s.o.), circle ( Ja, ^j, &y or s.o.); to begin to turn or rotate; 
to circulate; to go round, spread, be 
ourrent, make the rounds (of rumors, 
etc.); to run, be in operation (of a ma- 
chine or engine); to start running, start 
up (engine); to walk or go about, run 
around; to roam, rove, move about, 
wander about, gad about; to make the 
rounds (J» among people), turn suc- 
cessively (J* to several people); to turn, 
turn one's face, wheel around; to veer, 
shift, change its direction; to change, 
take a different turn, become different; 
to turn (J# against s.o.); to have to do, 
deal ( Ay- or J* with), treat ( Jj»- or J* of), 
refer (Jj»- or J» to), bear (J^ or J» on), 
concern (J>~ or J»; to take place, 
be going on, be in progress, be under 
way; to be discussed, be talked about (,>j 
among); to circulate, pass around (o; to lead, guide or show around (y 
s.o.); to let roam, let wander («^>, ■> ■ n r 
bi-nazarihi, At-'atnat'At one's eyes, one's 
glance, j over) | jj durl about face! 
(oommand; nil.); ctj jlj (ra'tuhu) to be 
or become dizzy, giddy; ^jii\ — jlj 
(furaf) to trim sail, adapt o.s. to the 
situation; v >! ^TJ ^j'a (ralbd l-harb) 
war broke out; ,^1 UU-j Ojlj Jll £j_,UI 
the battles that raged yesterday; * ••• J* 
{bi-nafaihi) it passed through his mind; 
Jr-MJ* j' j (oleun) to be much-discussed, 
be on everyone's lips; o-jUj .lyVI J» _,lj 

ftflll (aftoSh, oaolot al-oqlSm) to be 
current in both the spoken and written 
language, be in general use, be generally 
accepted (e.g., words); bUI JTIj \i-b _,lj 
(biladan, a'ySdan) he had been around in 
the world and had seen a lot; (coHoj.) jlj 
«JL (MZoifi) to pay attention (Jl, J, to), 
be careful (Jl, J» with); lj\ji\ ^J* o,li 
calamity overtook them n to turn in a 
circle, spin, whirl, rotate, revolve {•->, t; to turn, turn around (t-s a; 
to invert, reverse (._., a; to make 
round, to round (a; to circulate, 
pass around (a; to set going, set in 
motion, start (a; to wind (a a 
watch, a clock); to look, search (J* for | «Jj jji (ra'sahu) to turn s.o.'s 
head, persuade s.o., bring s.o. round 
III to go or walk around (. with s.o.) ; to 
try to bring (. s.o.) round; to ensnare, 
inveigle (. s.o.); to try to ensnare (. s.o.); 
to try to deceive (> s.o.); to cheat, trick 
(J* or jc . s.o. out of; to get 
away, escape, dodge, duck out IV to 
turn, revolve, rotate, spin, whirl (a; 
to turn around, turn (a, u,, Jl <*\, 
one's head toward); to direct (J* or Jl * to, toward), aim (Jp or Jl a at); 
to circulate, pass around (a; to 
set in operation, set going, set in motion 
(a a machine, an apparatus); to start, 
start up (£j&\ al-mttharrik the motor); 
to play, play back (a e.g., ULU U\J. 
tapes); to act upon (a), drive (a; to get under way (a a job, a 
project); to take up (a; to initiate 
(a; to divert, turn away (ja a, . 
s.o., from); to direct, conduct, steer, 
manage, head, run (a, be in charge 
(a of); to revolve in one's mind, think 
over, ponder (a, jl that) | Jl i^-j, J J 
{bi-imjhihi) to turn around to s.o., 
look back at s.o.; »Jj jljl (ra'tahu) to 
turn s.o.'s head, persuade s.o., bring 
s.o. round; £j-»,U j i^jil jljl to bring 


conversation around to a topic, broaoh or 
discuss a subjeot V to be or become round; 
to be circular X do.; to circle, rotate, 
revolve, spin, turn; to turn (Jl to), face 
(Jl s.o.); to turn around; to turn one's 
head, look baok; to cirole (Jy- 
walk around (iiy) 

Ji d&r {., pi. jji dur, jUj diyir, oljba 
diy&rit, ij* diyara house; building, 
struoture, edifioe; habitation, dwelling, 
abode; residenoe, home; seat, side, 
locality; area, region; land, country (esp. 
pi. jU, see below) | jU^I jb museum (of 
antiquities); JbjJI jb post office ; »LiJI jb 
d. al-baqtf the eternal abode, the here- 
after; yyi j |j " (Ww) do -i j'-* 1 ^ 

5JUI to pass away, die; »L^-JI jUI 
(bauja') Casablanca (seaport in W Mo- 
rocco); the White House (in Wash- 
ington); !jU>dl jb commercial house, 
business house; «yjJ-l jb d. al-harb war 
zone, enemy territory (Isl. Law: non- 
Muslim countries); i-ljjll jb seat of 
the chief exeoutive of a country; jb 
SjUJI d. at-riUda Constantinople; jb 
iUUI d. as-salfoiu Constantinople (des- 
ignation before World War I); f^JI jb 
d. aa-talSm paradise, heaven; epithet 
of Baghdad; Dar es Salaam (seaport 
and capital of Tanganyika Territory); 
^*JI jji cinemas, movie houses; jb 
ilyill d. ai-htrfa police station; jb 
ic_JI or «*U_«JI jb arsenal; J_» jb 
(finC) cinnamon; ^jJI jb d. ad-darb and 
BUI jb d. o»-siit» mint (building); 

«ji^!i jiiJii ('>f««»yo) ii»q; (■>" ->' 3 

name of a college in Cairo; «L«II jb d. 
al-j<m&' (as opposed to .lill jb see 
above) the temporal world, this world; 
.Lull jb d. ahjadS court of justice, tribu- 
nal; ^^-11 jb d. aZ-hdui public library; 
_^)ll jjj d. al-lahw amusement centers; 
night olubs; ^Sj\ jb theater, playhouse; 
dill jb d. almulk (royal) residence; 
i_^J.I jbJI (mifriyu) Egypt; !y»il jb d. 

oJ-Wjro Medina; fb^l jb d. oZ-aifdm 
orphanage, orphans' home 

ijb d&ra pi. -A halo (of the moon); 
circle; O (^O circuit; O villa 

ijjb din domestic, native 

jjjj diiri domestic (animal); jji-»e 
jjjj ('utfSr) and ^jjj house sparrow 

jjj daur pi. j'jjl adtalr round (of a 
patrol; in sports); role, part (played by 
s.o. or; film role, stage role; 
periodio ohange, rotation, alternation; 
crop rotation; period; (one's) turn; 
phase, stage, step, degree, station; epoch, 
age, era; fit, attack, paroxysm (of a 
disease); floor, story; musical compo- 
sition; number, single performance 
(within a program) | J-l-if jjJ (««»• 
Uualaul) vioious oirole, droulus vitiosus; 
Jlr JJ> (nflWri) final round, finals 
(alhki.); >\Ju?i\ jjJ d. al-in'iqad session, 
term (pari); JjVI jjJI (.awwal) or jjj 
»yjl d. al-bvtiia leading role, starring 
role; jjM (li or bj* y" 1 («***») *o P^y 
a part or role; ^jl jjj {ardi) ground 
floor, first floor; .j ji OS" it was his turn; 
J jjjl it is his turn; ^ jjJb (Ul) I for one,' 
(I) for my part, tjjii (_>») he in turn, (he) 
for his part; jjJl; alternately, by turns 
ijjj dauro pi. -» turn, revolution, 
gyration, rotation; circulation; cyole; 
cirouit; round, patrol; procession (Car.); 
round trip; tour (in general, of an artist 
or performer); detour; period (O also 
eZ.); Bession (of parliament); course (of 
instruction) (v., »yr.) | «>.all hj^ (da* 
mawiija) blood oiroulation; SjjJ-.l Jjj-01 
(jawwiya) air circulation; jL>-l Sjjj 
Lyi (jjl*:) d. ijUyb (lajdwuz) ar-rulba 
officers' training course {mU. r Syr.); 
«s»!)j •-»>" (»ro"lyo) crop rotation; !jjj 
^o^i; ((ofrTlyo) legislative period; Sjji 
.'II il l d. al-falak revolution of oelestial 
bodies; SjUJI Sjji (iW/d/tya) flanking 
maneuver (mil.); «Jl» Sjja (mdttyo) 



financial period, fiscal year; »LLl Ijji d. 
al-miydh lavatory (with running water), 
toilet, water closet 

(jjj* dauri patrolling, patrol- (in 
compounds); periodic, occurring at reg- 
ular stated times, recurring, inter- 
mittent ; circulatory, cyclic, etc. , see 
jj.> and ijjt; series (atfilet.) | ^jjoJI JL+J-! 
(jah&z) the circulatory system 

4jjji dauriya pi. -dt patrol, round; 
patrol, reconnaissance squad | oLjji 
.J»USo-VI reconnaissance squads, patrols 

D *dJj^ J dawiriya = <tjji dauriya 

jo dair pi. jbil adyar, Sjol adyira, 
•j_jj j duyura monastery, convent, cloister 

ti ji dairi monastic, monasterial, clois- 
tral " 

•jo dim region, area, land, homeland 

j \ja duwar, dawar vertigo, dizziness, 
giddiness; seasickness 

j \j* dawwar rapidly or constantly 
turning, whirling, spinning, rotating, 
circling, circulating; revolving, rotary, 
rotatory; whirlpool, eddy, vortex; itin- 
erant, ambulant, roving ; {eg. ) farm 
building, farm | jljj ^L revolving door; 
j\j* /JIj peddler, hawker; jlp j*. jL^. 
{jahaz hajr) rotary drilling rig; ^«JJI j lp 
tf. aS-Sams sunflower 

jUj dayyar monastic, friar, monk 
J Ij-j dairdni monastic, friar, monk 
SjIjj davnvdra whirlpool, eddy, vortex; 
compass, pair of dividers {ayr.) | 3_,l,j 
O »|>A1 d. ai-Aawd' weather vane 
^jLi diyari domestic; native 
o\jji daxoardn turn(ing), rotation, 
revolution, gyration; circulation, cir- 
cling, circuiting; round trip, tour 

jji\ adwar 2 (elative): j-J^I J* jjil 
{alaun) more talked about, more fre- 
quently expressed or discussed 

jl-U maddr pi. -at orbit; circling, cir- 
cuiting, circuit, revolution; axis; pivot; 
(fig.) that upon which turns or 
depends, the central, cardinal, or crucial 
factor, the pivot; center; subject, topic, 
theme (of a conversation, of negotiations) ; 
scope, range, extent, sphere; tropic 
igeogr.); O steering wheel | ult-JI jLu 
m. as-sara{dn Tropic of Cancer, ^-U-l _, \x* 
m. al-jady Tropic of Capricorn; J* «,I.u jf 
it (i.e., the dispute, or the like) was 
about..., it hinged on...; ^_JI jl.u J* 
(m. is-sana) throughout the year, all 
year round 

_/ jOl tadwxr recitation of the Koran at 
medium speed (between tartll and hadr; 
a technical term of tajwld) 

*jj!o- muddtvara pi. -at cheating, 
humbug, trickery; outwitting; attempted 
evasion or circumvention, shift, dodge; 
persuasion, inveigling, ensnaring 

Sjljl iddra turning; turning around or 
over, reverting, reversion, inversion ; 
starting, setting in operation; operation; 
drive {techn.); direction, management; 
administration ; administrative agency, 
department, office, bureau | ^'1 Sjijl 
t. al-amn the police; i_j> •j'-*' {'urflya) 
military administration; lj^\ .^ su 
al-i. mismanagement, maladministration ; 
Sjla^/I Lr lf majlia al-i. board of directors, 
administrative board, committee of man- 
agement; IjIjVI jS^. markaz al-i. ad- 
ministration center, headquarters 

tSjIj! iddri administrative, depart- 
mental; administrative officer; manager 
{athtet.); bjW iddriyan through ad- 
ministrative channels, administratively, 

Sjl.U-1 istiddra roundness, rotundity, 

_/b dd'ir turning, revolving, spinning; 
circulating; current (e.g., expression), 
common; ambulant, itinerant; in prog- 



ress, under way; working, in operation; 
running (machine, engine); round 

lj\i da'ira pi. J\j* dawa'ir 1 circle 
(also math.); ring; circumference, perim- 
eter, periphery; sphere, scope, range, 
compass, extent, circuit; field, domain 
(fig.); official agency, department (esp. 
Ir., Syr., Leb.); office, bureau; depart- 
ment of a court of justice {Eg., Tun.); 
farm, country estate (eg.); misfortune, 
calamity, affliction | . . . 5/b j within the 
framework of...; »^b t_i-*J J£-i J* 'aid 
iaHi niafi d. semicircular; »J\il\ *iuu nuq* 
tat ad-d. essential factor, pivot, crucial 
point, crux; O vkjlf •-/'* (kahrab&'iya) 
electric circuit; O •s r a> »j\* short 
circuit (el.); J»jLU J/b encyclopedia; 
<*_jSU-l J\j* government circles, J\j-d\ 
(* ij SLjJl,4 s -.LJI)4 s Cjil (ra8mlya,siyasiya, 
'askariya) official (political, military) 
circles or quarters (journ.); ^La^^\ *yb 
jurisdiction (of an official agency, esp., 
of a court of justice); «-iJi »/IjJI (&a* 
niya) civil list; iJL£L-l v'-> (isti'ndfiya) 
appellate court (Eg.; jur.); i-jUol S/b 
(inh'fca&iya) electoral district; <yU Ojb 
yijoJI to suffer adversities 

jj-'b da'trt circular, ring-shaped, an- 

jjA* mudawwar round, circular 
j--u mudlr head, chief, director; ad- 
ministrator ; manager ; intendant, su- 
perintendent; rector (of a university); 
mudir, chief officer of a mudiria, approx. 
= governor (Eg.); (pi. »lj-u mudara' 3 } 
administrative officer at the head of a 
county (Syr., Leb., Ir., Saudi Ar.) \ jX* 
J_ji-I m. al-jauq bandleader, conductor of 
an orchestra 

I j Aa mudira directress ; administratress 
ajjX* mudirlya direction; administra- 
tion; management; — (pi. -dt) mudiria, 
province (Eg.) ; approx. : main depart- 
ment of a ministry (Ir.) 

jJcl~a mustadir round; circular | y'j* 
ij .\-..\ \ UJUI (mu'tamar al-m.) round- 
table conference 

jjji dauraq pi. 3j\j> daivdriq 1 (eg.) bulging 
vessel with a long, slender neck, carafe 

jjji dauzana to tune (a musical instrument) ; 
O to tune in (radio) 

Oljjj duzan and iijji dauzana tuning 
(of a musical instrument); *Jjj* O tun- 
ing (radio) 

o jji (It. dozzina) dSztna dozen 

(ufJ 3 ) ^b data u (daus, ^La diyds) to 
tread, step (* on); to tread (*; to 
tread down, trample down, trample 
underfoot, crush (a; to thresh 
(grain); to treat with disdain, humiliate 
(• b.o.); to run over (• s.o.; automobile) 
VII pass, of I 

^yj daw treading, trampling, tread, 

i-jj dim dense forest, jungle, thioket 
Uji datvw&sa pedal 
^Ixi madds shoe, aandal 

^•jXt modus, is \ -U mudae trodden , 
trampled down; crushed; run over 

Ljjlk-ji dusint&riyd, \jj\£*j* dysentery 

4-t-yj (Fr. dossier) dosye, 4--yj dSsS pi. -at 
dossier, file 

l irJ* («?■) d awaa ' to irritate {• s.o.) or drive 
s.o. crazy by noise 

iijj dauia (eg.) din, noise, clamor, up- 
roar, hubbub, hullabaloo 

2 J.ji (Fr. douche) duS pi. -at shower, douche 

^■yj. (It. dote) dOfa dowry 

fjs II to imprint a mark, to brand 

9\i dag pi. -at brand (on cattle). 



(u>_>a) \Jt\i d&fa ti (dauj) to mix, mingle 
(j * with); to add, admix (j « to) 

Jjj {Hi? duke 

•ip daqa ducheBa 

jj* dvqi ducal 

SjjJ dtqlya dukedom, duchy 
iJji II to chatter, prattle 

SSjj daulca din, row, hubbub, tumult, 

Hiifi) Jb iSJa u (JJjj daula) to change 
periodically, take turns, alternate, rotate: 
to change, turn (time, fortune) | JJjj cJb 
1I.U-VI the time of absolutism is over, 
belongs to the past; «J_,ill <l cJlj fortune 
has turned in his favor (<ul* against him) 
III to alternate, rotate (», . s.o.,; 
to cause to succeed by turns or to follow 
one another (>UVI al-ayySma the days; 
God); to alternate (jy between); to 
confer, talk (. with s.o., J about), 
discuss (j • with s.o. IT to give 
ascendancy, afford superiority, give the 
upper hand (,>• • to s.o. over); to make 
victorious, let triumph (J» • s.o. over), 
grant viotory (J» . to s.o. over); to 
replace (v » or ,>. with), exchange, 
substitute (v » or ,>. for | Jjjl 
V 1 Jf o" irV ip «<"&• Jt-ionJ l-'abban 
mtn Jan! umayyata the rule passed from 
the Ommaiads to the Abbasides TI to 
alternate, take turns (a with or in, 
e.g., in some work); to hand each other (»), pass (*) alternately between 
themselves; to handle alternately (1 
different things), take now this, now 
that; to exchange (^yi ar-ra'y views); 
to make frequent use (» of; to 
confer, have a discussion, take counsel, 
deliberate; to parley, negotiate; to 
circulate, be in circulation, be current, 
have currency | ^.Vl k)j\jS ladiwalathu 
l-aidl it passed from hand to hand, it 

made the rounds, it circulated ;j-J VI «djl4j 
(ajnin) it passed from mouth to mouth, 
it was the talk of the town, it was on 
everybody's lips 

«!p davia pi. Jp duutU alternation, 
rotation, change; change of time, torn 
of fortune; dynasty; state, country; 
power, empire | Ujjll ^L. title of the 
Prime Minister; i.j£i.l ^j «Jp daulat 
r. oi-J. His Excellency, the Prime 
Minister; y,jjl «,UJ fab&mat ad-d. title 
of the President of the Republic {Syr., 
1*4.); UJI .Jjill ('oBya) name of the 
ancient Ottoman Empire; jjiSJI JjJI 
(jJiJI or) (kubri, 'vx ma) the big powers; 
oJSj «Jjj (muntadaba) mandatory power 

•iji (dam., pronounced dele = yfj 
rakwa) metal vessel with long curved 
handle used for making coffee 

Up davli state (adj.); duwalf inter- 

«Jji duwaKya intemationality; inter- 
nationalism; the International 

O^jjj dmmilat petty states, small 

dUlp dawilaika alternately, by turns; 
successively, one by one, one after the 
other I iLllp liSoy (wa-h&kadi) and so 
forth, and so on 

JijJj taiwil internationalization 

UjIju mvd&unla pi. -di parley, ne- 
gotiation; deliberation, consultation; dis- 
cussion; muddwalatan alternately, one 
after the other, one at a time 

Jjlj; tadamd alternation, rotation; 
circulation, currency; circulation of mon- 
ey I t}j\jci\j alternately, by turns, one by 

Jjl.u» mutad&wal current, circulating, 
in circulation; valid; common, in com- 
mon use, prevailing | JjlHI ,•&/> (hu 
l&m) the colloquial language 



■Ji/a daw&lin see j}s 

i-»Vji duW6 pi. ti-Jl;i dawaltb* wheel; tire; 
gearing, gears, wheels, mechanism, ma* 
chine, machinery; closet, looker, cabinet, 
cupboard | ^h^UI vV>* wardrobe 

jVp dfl&Zr pi. -<K dollar 

'(fj*) f'-> ddma u (tZaum, ^i rfautfm) to last, 
continue, go on; to persevere, persist | 
»b U m& ddma as long as; (the more so) 
since, inasmuch as, as, because; while 
he is . . ., when he is ... ; L»- aIj L. (hayyan) 
as long as he is alive; til*. £*** U {dumtu) 
so long as (or while) I am with you II to 
move in a circle, turn, spin, revolve, 
rotate, gyrate, circle; to turn, revolve, 
spin, twirl (* Ill to persevere, 
persist (J* in), apply o.s. diligently and 
steadily (J* to), pursue with diligence 
and perseverance (J*; to continue 
IV to cause to last or continue, perpetuate, 
make lasting, make permanent (* 
X to make (* last or continue; to 
continue, go on (» with 

fjj daum continuance, permanence, 
duration; 1*ja dawnan constantly, at all 
times, ever, always; — doom palm (60*.) 

u: dima pi. fj diyam, fji* duyUm 
continuous rain 

^i daw&m duration, continuance, 
permanence, perpetuity ; uninterrupted 
succession ; endurance, perseverance ; 
abiding, stay (of s.o., j at a place); Uljj 
daw&man and A-iJI J* permanently, 
perpetually, at all times, ever, always | 
f IjuJl cSj r ^IjaJl c>\ij\, *\jJl\ dUU working 
hours, office hours (Ir., Syr.) 

i+jjc* daimuma = r[t± 

i»!p duwwama top (child's toy) ; 
whirlpool, eddy, vortex 

iyl.u mudawama perseverance, endur- 
ance, persistence; continuance, duration; 

rU dd'im lasting, enduring; endless, 
eternal, perpetual, everlasting; perennial; 
continued, continuous, continual, inces- 
sant, unceasing, constant ; permanent, 
standing, established; durable | fXcN fb 
j^S\j d. attaqaddum uo-n-numfite in a 
state of constant progress and growth 

\I\> d&'iman always | Ui I Lx*b (abadan) 
always and ever 

fj?\* daimi — f la 

*l.u mnd&m wine 

f-v;,™- mustadim constant, continuous, 
continual, incessant, uninterrupted 

•jUji dum&n rudder, helm 

^lyj dumdnji steersman, helmsman 

! jji II to record, write down, set down, put 
down in writing (a; to enter, list, 
register, book (*; to collect (* 
poems) I IL^J Ujj (tartan) to stipulate 
a condition V to be recorded, be written 
down, be put down in writing 

o\j>i diwtin pi. (jlj'j* daw&win* ac- 
count books of the treasury (in the older 
Islamic administration) ; divan, collection 
of poems written by one author; govern- 
mental office, administrative office; chan- 
cellery, office, bureau, secretariat; coun- 
cil of state, cabinet; council, consultative 
assembly, board of advisers, executive 
committee ; government ; court of justice, 
tribunal; hall; davenport, divan; (rail- 
way) compartment | j- jlj-UI *JJ Ingot ad-d. 
official jargon, officialese; j^'Jill o\j>* in- 
quisitional court; the Inquisition 

Jljjj ditv&ni administrative, adminis- 
trational, official ; an Ottoman style of cur- 
sive (used by the secretaries of the State 
Chancellery for treaties, diplomas, fir- 
mans, etc.) 

j-jXi tadwxn recording, writing down; 
entry, listing, booking; registering, reg- 



*1jXa mudawwana pi. -at record, note; 
entry; body of laws; pi. CjUjA* writings, 
literature (on a given subject) 

*Oj* dun low ( lowly; bad, poor, inferior; 
meager, inadequate | jjjJU <IuU ('dma' 
toAu) he snubbed him 

jji duno (prep.) below, beneath, under 
(in rank, value, etc.); this side of, short of; 
before ; without ; more than ; with the ex- 
clusion of, leaving... aside, disregard- 
ing . . . ; and not by any means, but not | 
tills Ujj (with foil, nominative) on the way 
to that, there is ..., before accomplishing 
that one must ..., jliSJl J^- tiilS jjj 
(karf al-qatad) before one can do that, 
one must strip the tragacanth of its 
leaves, i.e., accomplish the impossible; 
o>Jj, jjj ^* (duni) without; with the 
exclusion of, excluding ; o I Oj-b and 
b\ bji ,> without (-f foil, gerund in 
Engl.); tiilji dunalea (with foil, ace.) here 
you are! take...! watch out (a for)! 
beware (a of) ! ajjj j* he is below him, 
he doesn't measure up to him; *jjs otT 
L>l (ahammiyatan) to be of less im- 
portance than...; s\ ^f *jjs *■! itmun 
dunahu kuUu tfmin a Bin to end all sins; 
ij^fSLJI jJI up > ^ jjl («inn, 'cwiariya) 
those below the age for military service; 
Jl Jiu L. jjj (nazartn) regardless of, ir- 
respective of; iOJU I* Oji with no benefit 
at all; completely useless; u-U-j jl ^tic 
Ljyj (tofcio an yas'adna) she is afraid 
they will be happier than she is ; i_-iCJI jJU 
{*rf Ojj (httub, gairihd) those books and no 
others; tii.U oji tiJLii ^ ■— t^l. Ul (mtc 
ta'ajjib, fadlika, 'ilmilca) I admire your 
virtue, but not your knowledge, or, I 
admire your virtue more than your 
knowledge; jjSliJ[, j*Jd\ jjj *J>jVI f* 
(Jeamma, tadammur, Bakiod) he stopped 
their mouths to keep them from mutter- 
ing and complaining; dji j-**)l u5"lSl 
*i*^ L (jjupnu, yaAtamiiuAw) if the branch 
is not strong enough to carry him; 

SjUJI Jl ffj* J^y it was he, not they, 
who reached the goal; AJp l+frj* ti^-UI 
(aSdhat bi-wajhiha) she averted her face 
so that he could not see her; .^IJI Oj* JU- 
to prevent ; »[ r i-l jjj i*i^l (oi»"a, 
hamrd') the infrared rays; jjj CjU^II 
S^wtaJI (mau;'o() ultra-short waves (radio) 

pji dunum a square measure (Ir. = about 
2500 m a ; Pal. = roughly, 900 m 1 ) 

l (jj* dawa and II to sound, resound, ring out; 
to drone ; to echo, reverberate III to treat 
(• a patient, * a disease) VI to treat o.s. 
(with a medicine) ; to be cured 

gjs dawan pi. *jpl adwd' sickness, ill- 
neBS, disease, malady 

tfjz dawiy sound, noise, ring, clang, 
roar, thunder, drone; echo, reverberation 

i\j* daw&h (□ ilp dawaya) pi. ^jj 
duwiy, ditviy, oUjj dawaydt inkwell 

•Iji dawa pi. Sjjil adwiya remedy, 
medicament, medication, medicine, drug 

ijlj.! tiawa't medicinal, medicative, 

•li see »jj 

»lji dtuxj' treatment, therapy (med.) 

I \j I J- muddwdh treatment, therapy 

jl-tf taddwin cure 
*jji (Fr. douiWc) <2«y socket (of a light bulb) 
rjk* diyafcH? (Eg. spelling) pi. -<K dialogue 

ijji dayyui (Q .j^d-i) cuckold; procurer, 
pimp; a variety of warbler (zool.) 

jjf* see j*-z 

OjJj£-jA\ ad-digdliy&n (Eg. spelling) the Gaul- 


Oi J 

ob-bj daidabdn, daidub&n pi. -at, IjjLjJ aayd- 
di6o guard, sentry; sentinel | ^[^ ob-ui 
ship's pilot 

JOjj Bee ojj 

_/J, 8jO, jljil, 'J-il ifjj** jk A » J0. J s^ jj- 1 

^i aw diss (Ampelode8ma tenax ; 60*.) 

*-ji see *-j 

i-jj see ^jj 

( _ r yj j see *i-*_jjJ 

^*- Ji rfi»e?7iWr, dwam&tr December 

iLi dtjfc pi. *Soi dJifca, iijji duyuifc, iiL jl odydi 
cock, rooster | ,jiji- 1 ibi d. al-habaS 
turkey, turkey cock; i/jj liLi (rilmi) do.; 
dLaJI Ojj wazn od-d. bantamweight 

JoJI JL-JI aa-su'&l ad-diki whooping 

j_jSoi (Fr. decor) pi. -St dicor, stage deco- 

^Ici daim&s, dimds, ,j*y:s daimus pi. ^^Li 
daydmis 1 dungeon, vault 

«j, *\a, ojjcj see pjj 

JJ^r i dtmu/Cgi demotic (writing) 

^Jyi^jci, J*\j*£ * dimuqrdfi democratic; dem- 

LUIy^o, 5-tl^ici dimuqrdfiya pi. -di 
democracy; democratic attitude or con- 

Hit*) ^* dana * to borrow, take up a loan; 
to be a debtor, be indebted; to owe (<-* J 
s.o., also, e.g., ^SjJU *j jlj (fatkr) d. 
lahu bi-S-Sukr to owe s.o. one's thanks; 
L_>, e.g., ;LJ.Lj bi-l-hayah one's 
life, J to or s.o.); to be indebted 
(i-» J to s.o. for); to be subject, subject 
o.s. t bow, yield, (J to s.o. or, be 
under s.o.'s (J) power, owe allegiance 

(J to s.o.), obey (J s.o.); to grant a loan, 
lend money (» to s.o.); to subject, 
subjugate (• s.o.); to requite, repay (• 
s.o.); to condemn (• s.o.), pass judgment 
(» on s.o.) HI to have a debt (• with s.o.), 
be indebted (« to s.o.); to be the creditor 
(» of s.o.), have a money claim {« on 
s.o.) I isjj* *-*- Mr* *-i' J (bi-mabla§ 
kammt g.) he had a claim of five piasters 
on him IV to lend money (• to s.o.); to 
sell on credit (• to s.o.); to convict, find 
guilty, pronounce guilty {* s.o.) V to be 
indebted, have debts; to subject o.s. (J 
to) VI j-Jj lyjl-tf (dain) to contract a 
mutual loan, borrow money from each 
other X to make or incur debts, take up 
a loan 

^j dain pi. j^o duyun debt; pecuni- 
ary obligation, liability; obligation (7*1. 
Law); claim {Isl. Law), financial claim | 
j.-dL on credit; ^jJI <->j rabb ad-d. 
creditor; ^~>^-\ Oyj> d. al-harb war debts; 
J^fc^M jo bonded, or funded, debt; jo 
Jbt (mumtdz) preferred, or privileged, 
debt; -b-j* jo (muwahhad) consolidated 
debt; jlk. j. j (muflaq) debt not bound to 
the physical person of the debtor, but 
outliving him (Isl. Law) ; j^is— • j o 
(miwtayrwj') claims against an estate 
which exceed or equal the assets (Isl. Law) 

Zj^jj dainuna judgment; Last Judgment 

ulj-di ad-dayydn the Judge (attribute 
of God) 

ijX. madina pi. ^I.u mada'in*, j-U 
mudun town, city; ijoU Medina (city 
in W Saudi Arabia); see o-u 

ijli! iddna verdict of guilty; convio- 
tion j ol-sb &U j-U> poaoro Z-fcuifemu 
6i-taana/tAt he was convicted 

ijlai-1 istidana incurrence of debts 

Jli dd'tn creditor 

u^j-u madyun indebted, in debt; ob- 
ligated, under obligation 

Oi J 


«j£<u mady&niya indebtedness, obli- 

^ x. madin owing; indebted, obligated, 
under obligation; debtor | J*£±\> jfA* 
(Juir) owing gratitude, much obliged; 
J UjA, IX to be indebted to ».o., stand 
in s.o.'s debt 

ji* mudin moneylender, creditor 

jlx, mudin convicted, found guilty; 
guilty; judged, oondemned 

'(;,*) ub dina i to profess (v » religion, a 
conviction, eto.) | f^UI/l; OIj to profess 
Islam; ubUj jb (W-'ddSKAl) to adhere to 
one's customs T to profess (vj a religion) 

ji din pi. JUI odydn religion, creed, 
faith, belief | ^Jl (ji yo«"> ad-"*, the 
Say of Judgment 

Jjj dfnl religious; spiritual | ^jjII ir- 
religious; O Ji- 1 " iW C am ) sownoe of 

j> dayyin religious, pious, godly, 

<>lj diy&na pi. -dt religion; com- 
munion, confession, denomination, sect | 
iit Jl v**L" founder of a religion 

OLj dayyin pious, godly, devout, 

^jj tadayyun piety, godliness, devout- 
ness, religiousness, religiosity 

^e. mulodayyin pious, godly, devout, 

ii-c. mutadayyina religious community 

jUji dindr pi. juUj dandnir* dinar, a mone- 
tary unit (Jr., /ord.); pi. joUj money 

tfjba dindrl diamonds (of a deck of 

>*Ujj dindmd' dynamo, generator 

> dindmtt dynamite 

O *i* dainam pi. **Uj doydnim* dynamo, 

« j see <£»j 

Jl^i pi. ^ j!>a and J\jt» see Vp 

li dd (demonstr. pron.) pi. .Njl tdd"» this one, 
this; li bi-ds by this, by this means, 
thereby; lil J»'-dd therefore; Ijf J»-dd so, 
thus, in this manner; so and so, so and 
so much; li£* M-to-id so, thus, in this 
manner; serves as intensifier after inter- 
rogative pronouns (roughly correspond- 
ing in English to such phrases as: ... on 
earth, ...then, or the like): lil> what on 
earth? liU. why then! why in heaven's 
name? — li j» Auuw dd, f. ji J Aiya d< 
that one; look at that one! why, that 
is..., now if that isn't...!; U.U Wono- 

$A behold, it is I, here I am, pi. >%\ j* l» 
M noAnu «4T»; — used as an accusative 
in the construct state: master, owner, or 
possessor of, with ji nominative (q.v.), 
ji as genitive; — illi dtka, f. ill! Idfaj, 
kiiJ ftfu, pi. dLiVjl idd'iia this, this one; 
iili il (»d) then, at that time; in those 
days; — Ji'i iilika, f. dlL' tilka, pi. iUVjl 
uii'ifcj that, that one; .iili bi-diWta by 
that, by that means, in that manner; 
dUI ti-dditio therefore; jii Au oa'da 
ddlubi after that, upon that, thereafter, 
thereupon; ili »• mo'o ddltia yet, still, 



nevertheless, for all that; 61 ilij (anna) 
that is (to say), namely, to wit; Ml dii> 
(K-otibo) and that is beoauss . . ., for the 
one reason that...; o\j ili (W-<wnia) 
this is due to the fact that ...; ilif ka- 
galika so, thus, in that manner; equally, 
likewise, in the same manner; — ^Ji 
fclikum, f. fH tiUnun, pi. pVjl uUtihm 
that one; — lj» hitf, f. <j» AdO/iM, tfi» 
hdfi, pi. .^J» WuM*», dual m. oli* 
M4dni, f. olJU Adidiu this, this one, an 
li» (alphabetically) 

v 1i X to be wolf like, be fieroe or cruel like a 

oJi (fi'6 pi. ^\3i ii'Sb, jliji ju'Mn 
dieb (Canis anthus), jackal; wolf | 
jr"i\ wSill ^ij. marai orf-rf. ai-ahmar 
name of a noncontagious skm disease 

ijjj iu'Uba pi. ^Jlji 4au>&W look, 
strand (of hair); tuft, wisp 

olj, jlS and *J\* see jj 

!llj see li 

Jli jdl name of the letter j 

uji iabba u to drive away, chase away (*, • 
s.o.,; to defend (j» s.o., 

,_>l!i juMe (coll. j n. un. !) pi. l> il aiibba, 
jUj tft&Mn flies, fly | ^ijli v^ gadfly, 

Uii ivbSba pi. -<B (n. un. of ijlji) fly; 
tip (of the sword, or the like) 

iilij dubbdna, iitbSna fly; sight, bead 
(on a firearm) 
wJL midabba fly whisk, fly swatter 

* i #aooA<> a (rfoiW to kill (by slitting the 
throat); to slaughter, butcher; to mas- 
sacre; to murder, slay; to sacrifice, offer 
up, immolate (* an animal) II to kill, 
slaughter, butohor, massacre, murder 

£i iabh slaughtering, slaughter 

f)> 4ibh sacrificial victim, blood sacrifioe 

1*3 &ibha, ivbha angina (med.); diph- 
theria | Lj^JI «*ill (fadriya) angina 
pectoris (med.) ; O h'^ «*J" tf»'*"*°) 

^Ui fabb&h slaughtering, killing, mur- 
dering; slaughterer, butcher 

-2*j ^o6»A slaughtered 

<>_ij jaetya pi. ^lii idbi'ih' slaughter 
animal; sacrificial victim, blood sacrifioe; 
sacrifioe, immolation; offering, oblation 

fi, madbah pi. f\i. madSbih' slaugh- 
terhouse; altar (CAr.) 

**X» madbaha massaore, slaughter, 
carnage, butchery 

Ljii iabjaba to set into a swinging motion, 
swing, dangle (a II foa/o6g\ioa to 
swing, pendulate; to osoillate (el.); to 
be deflected (magnetio needle) ; to vibrate ; 
to fluctuate; to waver, vacillate, hesitate 

4*.Lj jabfaba pi. -df pendulous motion, 
pendulation; osoillation (el.); vibration 

V^iJ (otfo6(Ju6 pendulous motion, 
pendulation, swinging; osoillation (el.); 
defleotion (of a magnetio needle) 

O vM» mu4ab4ib oscillator (el.) 
<->±iX* mudabfab fluctuating, variable; 
vacillating, wavering, hesitant, unsteady 

v^-L-ii* mutadab4ib: v^-^ 1 * J^ ( to Vy df ) 
oscillating ourrent (el.) 

J<i iabala, iabvla u (gViil, J^i ju&ttf) to be 
wilted, to wilt, wither; to fade; to 
become dry, dry up; to waste away; to 
become dull, lose its luster (eye) 

Jjj 4abl mother-of-pearl, nacre 

ijbi $vbdla wick 

J>l j iabU pi. Jji rfueuJ wilted, withered; 
dry, dried up; faded (color); languid, 
dull, lackluster, languishing (glanoe); 
feeble, weak, tired 



J»-j dakl pi. JU-il adh/U, Jj>o du£uZ resent- 
ment, rancor, hatred; revengefulness, 
vindictiveness; blood revenge 

j*o dakara a to keep, preserve, store away, 
put away (a; to save, lay by (a VIII j»-*\ iddakara to keep, pre- 
serve, Btore away, put away (a; to 
store, accumulate, gather, hoard, amass 
{a; to lay by (a; to save (a, also strength, trouble, etc.) | ji-s\ 
J L»- (hubban) to harbor love for; _^--b V 
I j^- (jvhdan) he spares no effort 

j^i dukr pi. jUol adk&r stored 
away, put by, hoarded, or accumulated; 
stores, supplies; treasure 

Sjuij daHra pi. _r*Ui dak&'ir* treasure; 
stores, supplies; provisions, food; am- 
munition (mil,); (holy) relic 

jU-jl iddikdr storage; hoarding, amass- 
ing, accumulation ; storing, gathering; 

S>-x* mudakkir pi. -fin assistant gunner, 
ammunition passer (mil., Syr.) 

j^-Xa mvdakkar pi. ■& supply 

~»jj-x* muddakira pi. -at (Syr.) storage 
battery, battery 

2 yi dura see jji 

2 j* darra u (darr) to strew, scatter, spread 
(*; to sprinkle (u> a on | 
4-Le j iUJI jj (ar-ramdda fi 'ainaihi) to 
throw dust in s.o.'s eyes; — u (jjji 
durur) to rise, come up, rise resplendent 
over the horizon (sun) | *Jj» j J (jornuAu) 
it began to show, it emerged 

jj darr strewing, scattering, sprinkling; 
(coll.) tiny particles, atoms, specks, 

•p darra (n. un.) pi. --a* atom; tiny 
particle; speck, mote | *p <Jli£. mitqdl d. 
the weight of a dust particle, a tiny 
amount; a little bit; »p jl-ii. miqd&r d. 

a tiny amount, a jot, an iota; dLlJI ^* ip 
(&»££) the least doubt 

^ji dorri atomic j iji iLJ (qujibuia) 
atomic bomb; j^jjl .UlJLUi (naiof) and 
4jji iiU. (/ago) atomic energy 

jjjj rfarwr powder 

^jjjj daruri powdery, powdered, pul- 

»yji darira pi. jTlp dard'ir 2 fragrant 
powder, cosmetic scented powder 

ijji durrl of or pertaining to the off- 
spring or progeny 

ajjJ durriya pi. -d*, ^jlp dardriy 
progeny, descendants, children, offspring 

3 j-u yadaru see ( jij) 

i-jjj dariba a (darab) to be sharp, cutting 

«-jjJ ^arofc diarrhea (med.) 

t-jjj tiartfi pi. »_jjj #ur6 sharp, cutting | 
<-»ji £j»- (/urA) a malignant, incurable 

^ip durrah pi. £jlp rfardrtA* Spanish fly, 
blister beetle (zod.) 

£ji dara'a a (dar*) to measure (a; to 
take the measure or measurements (a 
of; to cover (a a distance); to oross, 
traverse (a a country), travel through (a); 
to intercede, intervene, mediate, put in 
a word (J for s.o., on behalf of s.o., x^ 
with s.o. else) V to use, employ, apply 
(i*jji bi-dari'a or <L-j> bt-wasila a 
means, an expedient); to use as a pre- 
text, as an excuse <o*; to use as a 
means (*_*, Jl to an end) VII to 
proceed, advance; to intervene 

£ji dar* power, ability, capability (<_> 
to do | <_; Up JL* and <c* JU* 
Up (dar'an) not to be up to, be 
unable to do or accomplish; to be 
unable to stand or bear, be fed up 
with, be tired of, feel uneasy about, be 
oppressed by 



¥-[; j dira" f. and m., pi. £jjl o^ru', 
oLp dur'an arm; forearm; connecting 
rod; cubit, in Syria = .68 m [ in Egypt: 
(^oJj f-lji (ftotodi) = .58 m, J*^ 1 £b* 
(wfonMUE) — .665 m, Sjlx* ^i (Wn- 
daaa) = .656 m, tjj^»* £_lp (mi'Tndrl) = 
ca. .75 m, gj* &]?* £Jp (muroMa') = 
.5625 m"; in Iraq: ^ £jp (Aotoii) = 
ca. .68 m, ^al j*> flp (6o^d5dt) or ^aL £jjj 
(ftotodt) = ca. .80 m, ^j^. £Jji see above 

£jj dari* stepping lively, walking 
briskly; rapid, quick; torrential; rapidly 
spreading, sweeping (death) ; devastating ; 

i*jji dari'a pi. wlp dara'i' 7 medium, 
means, expedient; pretext, excuse 

J»ji darafa % (darf, Juj'a darif, Jijji dur&f, 
jliji darafan) to flow, well forth (tears) ; 
to shed (a tears; said of the eye) II to 
exceed (J* an age) X to let flow, shed (a 

Jjj daraqa t u (darq) to drop excrement 
(bird) IV do. 

jji darq droppings, excrement (of a 

( jjj and jjj) !ji dard u (darw) to disperse, 
scatter (a; to carry off, blow away 
(* dust; said of the wind); to winnow, 
fan (a grain); — ^ji data i (dary) do. 
II do. IV = I; to throw down, throw off 
(a, o s.o., | £»a)l j«Jl ^jil (dam'a) 
the eye shed tears V to be winnowed, be 
fanned; to climb (a on), Bcale (a; to 
seek shade or shelter (i_-> in, at, under); 
to take refuge (>-> with), flee (<-> to) X to 
take refuge (<~> with), place o.s. under 
s.o.'s (>->) protection, flee (*-* to s.o.) 

«,i dura durra, a variety of sorghum | 
t/Li Iji (eg.) Indian corn, maize (Zea 
mays L.); »|_^i-» yi (?ajra') do. (ffj/r.); 
«*:_,£- «ji (eg.) a variety of millet (Andro- 
pogon Sorghum Brot. var. Schwein- 

furthianus Kcke.); »Uij «ji (baida') 
millet (ayr.) 

^ji damn protection, shelter 

ijj'i durwa y Airwa pi. ^ji duran sum- 
mit; top; peak; culmination, climax, 
acme, apex 

t^j-L mi^ran and 5j;i- midrah pi. jl-U 
madarin winnow, winnowing fork 

j*i da'ara a (da'r) to frighten, scare, alarm, 
terrify (• s.o.) ; pass, du'ira to be frighten- 
ed (J by), get alarmed (J at); — da'ira 
a (da'ar) to be terrified, alarmed, dis- 
mayed IV to frighten, scare, alarm, 
terrify (• s.o.) V and VII to be frightened, 
become alarmed 

jpi du'r t fright, terror, alarm, panic 

j*i da'ar fright, alarm, dismay, con- 

«J» U i du'df lethal , deadly, immediately 
killin g (poison) | <J»l*i £jj» (maut) a 
sudden, immediate death 

jti da'aqa a (da'q) to frighten (• s.o.) by 

j^i da'ina a (da'an) and IV to submit, 
yield, give in (J to s.o.), obey (J s.o., an 
order, etc.); to concede voluntarily, 
grant willingly (l-> J to s.o. 

uUil id* an submisaiveness, pliability, 
compliance, obedience 

jtit mvd'in submissive, pliable, trac- 
table, obedient 

jUJu mid'an pliable, tractable, docile, 
obedient, obliging, compliant 

yi dafar pungent smell, stench 

j^j daqan, diqan pi. utiil adq&n, uyi $vqun 
chin; — daqn f.,pl. by* duqun beard, 
whiskers | «-Ul j»i d. aS-faik worm- 
wood, absinthe; rf-liiV bj* 1 - £»*""* 
li-adq&nihim they prostrated themselves; 



jjifl J»- J*-JI j ijt igariqa fi l-'amal) 
to be up to one's neck in work, be 
swamped by work (properly: to drown in 
work); «JS J» ii> (fahika) pi. Jyi J» 
(ep., syr.) to fool «.o., make fun of so., 
lead s.o. around by the nose (<_> with ; to put on an aet for s.o.; <& J iX* 
to laugh in b.o.'b face 

jTj iakara u (dt'itr, jfi' taikdr) to remember, 
bear in mind (», think (» of); to 
keep in mind (»; to recall, recollect 
(»; — (dtix) to speak, talk (> of, 
about); to name, mention, cite, quote 
(»; to state, designate, indicate 
(»; to give (» e.g., facts, data); to 
point, refer (» to; to report, relate, 
tell (J a to s.o.) | jfi >Xu fofoiio 
dumun yutfharu notable progress; ^ 
jJX (yudbtru) inconsiderable, not worth 
mentioning; (j^L) jjc .jfi (j»ir) to 
have pleasant memories of s.o., hold 
s.o. in fond remembrance; to apeak well 
of s.o. ; jii .jfj (hrr) to have unpleasant 
memories of s.o.; to speak ill of s.o. 
II to remind (<-> • s.o. of, point out 
(v • to s.o., call s.o.'s (•) attention 
(v to); to make (» a word) masculine 
[gram.) Ill to parley, negotiate, confer, 
have a talk, take oounsel (• with s.o.); 
to memorise, ooromit to memory, learn, 
study (* one's assignment, one s lessons) | 
t-jjs jfli (durOsoAfi) to study one's 
lessons, do one's homework IT to remind 
(» • s.o. of, call (* to s.o.'s (•) 
mind V to remember, bear in mind (», think (» of VI to remind 
each other (« of), revive each other's 
memory of (»); to confer (together), have 
a talk, take oounsel Till jfjl tddaiara 
= T; X to remember, recall, keep in 
mind, know by heart (» 

jTj diir reoollection, remembranoe, 
reminisoenoe, memory, commemoration; 
reputation, repute, renown; naming, 
stating, mention(ing), quoting, citation; 

report, aooount, narration, narrative; 
invocation of God, mention of the Lord's 
name; (in Sufism) inceasant repetition 
of certain words or formulas in praise of 
God, often accompanied by music and 
dancing | _^"j J» (with foil, genit.) apropos 
of, speaking of...; dli jfj J»j speaking 
of that, incidentally, in that connection; 
!&■) /"ill the Koran; fjl\ JJU above- 
mentioned, afore-mentioned; jTiJI '_- - 
of blessed memory, deceased, late; jltl 
•jTi (aMda) to celebrate, praise, com- 
mend s.o. or, speak in glowing 
terms of s.o. or; &. £'z J» Jlj L. 
(dt'crui hi) he still remembered .... 
he could still recall . . . 

jfj dolor pi. jjfj duier, Ij^i duifiro, 
jl^j dufcrdn male; (pi. jjTi) penis 

•jTj dwfcro reputation, repute, renown 
(ijTj di'ird pi. oljjTi iikrayit re- 
membranoe, recollection, memory; pi. 
reminiscences, memoirs 

jfi fakir steel 

jlTiJ tajk&r, tiik&r remembranoe; 
reminder, memento; memory, commem- 
oration; souvenir, keepsake; memorial 
d»y I Ji-J-till £#: jB"i; <. jamf ol-gtddlsin 
All Sainta' Day (Chr.) 

&&& tadk&ri, tifk&ri serving to remind, 
helping the memory; memorial, commem- 

^T-U todjbtro reminder; memento 

•jS*JJ fadfctra, mostly pronounoed Aso> 
ibara, pi. jTlj; tadVUtr* message, note 
slip, paper, permit, pass; oard; ticket; 
admission ticket | i> wJ IJtX postcard; 
« . -i>.lJI oL'l IjTj; t. tit* oj-fa&rfyo 
identity card; v^.li v^ •X'*' '• doioo 
u»->ydo round-trip ticket; , -_ -/I j^j; 
(eo.) platform ticket; fjljlil IjTi; sub- 
soriptioo ticket; «_t Sjfj; (ft&oiya) 
medical prescription; jjj» l£'£ permit, 
pass, laisaei-passer; passport; ^j& ij>ii 


[Syr.) identity card (= '<~*£ ullu Eg.); 
vUsiVI iJ~Z t. oMntffctt ballot 

jrj?& taikarji, &$& tafkari tioket 
seller, ticket clerk; (streetcar) eonduotoi 

jnTuI factor reminding (of s.o., ^ of, reminder, memento; feoundation, 
pollination (of female blossoms; in 

i^"IL mu$&kara pi. -at negotiation, 
consultation, conference; deliberation (of 
a court; Syr.); learning, memorizing, 
memorization; study 

£ti ta4akhtr memory, remembrance, 

jlTjs^l ist%4hdr memorizing, memori- 
zation, committing to memory 

•^li ddfctra memory 

jjTi. majkHr mentioned; said, above- 
mentioned; celebrated | lijTi. IjLi jSo J 
Earn yahun iai'an m. it was of no im- 
portance, it was nothing 

jTii nmiakkar masouline (gram.) 

\£"x, mufrtklrira pi. •& reminder; note; 
remark; notebook; memorandum, me- 
morial, aide-memoire, (diplomatic) note; 
ordinance, deoree; treatise, paper, report 
(of a learned society, = Fr. mimoira); 
pi. reminiscences, memoirs | ,[fi\ J^Ti. 
m. aJ-ttttAdm bill of indictment (jur.); 
lJLLI S^X m. al-jtdb writ of habeas 
corpus; luiLii i/L (Ji/aAtya) verbal 
note (dipl.) 

(jTi and j'i) tfi jiU u {$ukiw, K"j dafain, 
.K"i jaU 1 ) to blaze, flare up (fire); to 
exude a strong odor; — Ji ialciya (.S*j 
^oia") to be sharp-witted, intelligent 
II and IT to cause to blaze, fan (• the 
fire); to kindle (» II to immolate an 
animal X = &ak& 

•ITi daM" acumen, mental acuteness, 
intelligence, brightness; — iulcd' 1 the sun 

S* oV>% pi. .LTil adWyiI'« intelligent, 
sharp-witted, clever, bright; redolent, 
fragrant; tasty, savory, delicious 

Ji daSa t (daU, dull, «jyi doMfa, «Ji dtOa, TiX. 
maialla) to be low, lowly, humble, 
despised, contemptible II to lower, debase, 
degrade, humiliate, humble (», • s.o.,; to subject, break, subdue, oonquer 
(• s.o.); to overcome, surmount (» dif- 
ficulties, obstacles) IT to lower, debase, 
degrade, humiliate, humble (», • s.o.,; to subject, break, subdue, oonquer 
(*, • s.o., V to lower o.s., humble 
o.s., cringe (Jl or J before 8.O.); to be 
humble, obsequious X to think (• s.o.) 
low or despicable; to think little (• of), 
disesteem (• s.o.); to deride, flout, 
disparage, run down (• s.o.) 

Ji &vU lowness, lowliness, insignif- 
icance; ignominy, disgraoe, shame, deg- 
radation, humiliation; humility, humble- 
ness, meekness, submissiveness 

!Ji iilta lowness, baseness, vileness, 
depravity; submissiveness, obsequious- 

JJi falil pi. ,W ooW, i!il arftOa 
low, lowly; despised, despioable, con- 
temptible; docile, tractable, pliable; 
humble, submissive, abject, servile; ob- 
sequious, cowering, cringing 

ij i falsi pi. JJ j dulul docile, tractable, 
gentle (animal); female riding camel 

Hi, ma4dUa humbleneas, meekness, 
submissiveness; humiliation 

JJii ta$il derogation, degradation, 
bemeaning; overcoming, conquering, sur- 
mounting (of difficulties, of an obstacle, 
and the like) 

JVil iffl/U degradation, debasement, 

JJj; ta&tflul self-abasement 



JiJj duldul pi. JiVi daladil 2 lowest, nether- 
most part of; train, hem (of a 
garment) | ,_^UI JiVi the mob, the riffraff 

^JJil adlaf 2 , f. .UJi daZ/a* a , pi. tJJi rfuZ/ 
having a small and finely chiseled nose 

j] j dalq tip, point; tip of the tongue 

jl-AJl <J»jjJ-' al-huruf a4-d,ulq t «J»jjJ-i 
ILUiJl and SJUjoJl «J»jji-l ({touJo^tya) the 
liquids r, I, n (pkon.) 

jjj dalq, daliq, J-J i doHg eloquent, glib, 
facile (tongue) 

3SVi daldqa eloquence, glibness (of the 

uiJii etc., see ij 

f»j damma u (a **", **-U madamma) to 
blame, find b±- meworthy , dispraise, 
criticize (» s.o.), find fault (a with b.o.) 
II to rebuke, censure sharply (• s.o.) 

a i damm censure, dispraise, derogation, 

<o dimma pi. /i dimam protection, 
care, custody; covenant of protection, 
compact; responsibility, answerableness ; 
financial obligation, liability, debt; in- 
violability, security of life and property; 
safeguard, guarantee, security; con- 
science | ?i*JUU honestly? really? serious- 
ly? j*j J and j** J* u P on m y word » 

truly; 4i»-b, <oi J in s.o.'s debt, indebted 
to s.o.; 4i* Xt U bis debt; 4to Jp under 
s.o.'s protection; at s.o.'s disposal; for 
the benefit of s.o. or, for s.o. or 
Bome purpose (allocation of funds); 
4-,i [p * she is financially dependent 
on him, he has to support her; <*ill J* I 
aht ad-d. the free non-Muslim subjects 
living in Muslim countries who, in return 
for paying the capital tax, enjoyed 
protection and safety; **iJi j*U> of pure 
conscience, upright, honest ; <^i \j 
(barra'a) to relieve one's conscience, 
meet one's obligation 

i/i dimmi a zimmi, a free non-Muslim 
subject living in a Muslim country (see 
i.S dimma: H.JJI J*l) 

j*l*j dimam pi. lol adimma right, claim, 
title; protection, custody; security of 
life and property | JJI flo ^ /* d. aZ-fcnZ 
under cover of darkness 

~o damim censured ; blameworthy, 
objectionable, reprehensible; ugly, un- 
fair, nasty 

<*~o damima pi. f UJ (£awux'tm a blame, 
*»X» madamma pi. -at blame, censure 

(»>»Xt madmum censured ; blameworthy, 
objectionable, reprehensible 

ji's V to grumble, complain (,>. or J* about) 

jLo dimar sacred possession, cherished 
goods; honor 

jaJJ tadammur pi. -at grumbling, 
complaint, grievance 

jj damiya a (»L.i dama') to be in the throes 
of death 

*Ui dama* last remnant; last breath 
of life | ;U-I O-'Ui (hayah) last breath of 

c-Ji IV to do wrong, commit a sin, a crime, 
an offense ; to be guilty, be culpable X to 
find or declare (• s.o.) guilty of a sin, 
of a crime, of an offense 

(_jj danb pi. <-?jJi dun&b offense, sin, 
crime, misdeed 

^Ji danab pi. ^liil adnab tail; end; 
adherent (pol.), follower, henchman 

^ i danabi caudal, tail- (in compounds) ; 
appendaged, appendant, dependent 

«_^j 4unaib petiole, leafstalk (bot) 

tjJi. mudannab comet 

wJJu mud-nib culpable, guilty; sinner; 
evildoer, delinquent, criminal 

-*i dahaba a (^LaJ dahab, <^hX» madhab) to 
go (Jl to); to betake o.s., travel (Jl to); 
to go away, leave, depart; to disappear, 
vanish, decline, dwindle; to perish, die, 
be destroyed; with <_;: to carry 
off, take away, abduct, steal, 
sweep or s.o. away, annihilate, 
destroy or s.o.; Jl <u <^*a to lead or 
conduct s.o. to, take s.o. along to; to 
think, believe (Jl, hold the. view, 
be of the opinion (Jl that); to escape {^ 
s.o.; fig.), slip (j* s.o.'s mind), jl «c* <_jo 
to lose sight of the fact that..., forget 
that ...; to ignore, skip, omit (jz; 
(with imperf.) to prepare to . . ., be about 
to . . . j *Uj ^i to go back and forth, 
walk up and down; j* -bul Jl «_*« 
{ab'ada) to go beyond... (fig.); l-. aJj U 
•cp-Jr j {naz'atihi) what follows along 
these lines; IdL i-j-a-aj {j>\ (yv4habu) the 
idea of it! you can't mean it! <j-u i_~aS 
(sudan) to be futile, be in vain, be of no 
avail; r\>J\ r!p' <— *^ {odraja r-riydh) to 
go the ways of the winds, i.e., to pass 
unnoticed, without leaving a trace; to 
end in smoke, come to nothing, be futile, 
be in vain; j-loJI ( _ r -.tT" ^i (ka-amsi 
d-dabir) to vanish into thin air, disap- 
pear without leaving a trace (lit.: like 
yesterday gone by) ; -u L^ <_~*o {bi-ba* 
hd'ihi) to take the glamor away from ; 4~Jcj >_Jti (bi-nafsihi) to kill 
s.o. (joy, terror, etc.) ; <j Ljc ,_jo (bi- 
kaydlihl) to let one's imagination wan- 
der (Jl to); <**>\* L-^i (madhabahu) to 
embrace s.o.'s madhab (see below); to 
follow s.o.'s teaching, make s.o.'s belief 
one's own, embrace s.o.'s ideas; to 
adopt s.o.'s policy, proceed exactly like 
s.o.; i_^JL. JT t_Jo (kuUa ma4^abin) to do 
everything conceivable, leave no stone 
unturned, go to greatest lengths II to 
gild (a IV to cause to go away, 
make disappear, remove, eliminate ( a; to take away (a, j* from s.o.) 

i_-a-U II tamadhaba (deriv. of i__a.u 
madkab) to follow, adopt, embrace (>-> 
a teaching, a religion, etc.) 

i_~*o dahab (m. and f.) gold; gold piece, 
gold coin | O *j*r?) *— *^ (abyad) platinum 

^aj dahabi golden, of gold; precious, 
excellent, apposite (e.g., advice, saying, 
etc.) | i-*j ijT golden word, maxim, 

Ljo dahablya pi. -at dahabeah, a 
long light-draft houseboat, used on the 

l-jUo dahab going; passing, passage, 
falling away, decrease, dwindling, loss, 
disappearance; leave, departure; trip, 
journey; outward-bound trip or journey 
(as opposed to l-jLI iydb return trip; 
railroad); opinion, view (jl Jl that) J 
\j\j\j LiUi (iyaban) there and back; back 
and forth, up and down; vki* v^ */^ 
tadkarat d. wa-iydb round-trip ticket 

h~*j»S duhub going | uLy *-j>aj coming 
and going; ^>y>'^j *— »- J coming and 
going, in a state of fluctuation, having its 
ups and downs 

,__*Jl* madhab pi. l—aI-L. maddkib 3 going, 
leave, departure; way out, escape {jc- 
from) ; manner followed, adopted pro- 
cedure or policy, road entered upon ; 
opinion, view, belief; ideology; teaching, 
doctrine; movement, orientation, trend 
(also pol.); school; mazhab, orthodox 
rite of fiqh {Isl. Law); religious creed, 
faith,, denomination | O SLJ-I j 4_aJL. 
(haydh) his philosophy of life, his Welt- 
anschauung; (^ilU i_-*oil (mdddi) the 
materialistic ideology, the materialistic 
approach to life; I-L*j LaJu i_jo to go 
very far, be very extensive 

^-U madhabi denominational, con- 
fessional; sectarian 

4^-aJu madhablya sectarianism 


w*li 4dhib: ojS\ y->lS 4. al-laun faded, 
colorless, discolored 

<u i-»j*J* modhtib WW and JiJl vj*^* 
m. (d-'aql out of one's mind, demented 

«^*i. mudahhab, mudhab gilded 

J*j ^oAala a (£aW, J^»i £uAfi{) to forget, 
overlook, omit, neglect, fail to heed (^; — dahila a (Jj*i ^uAul) to be 
perplexed, alarmed, dismayed, startled, 
surprised, baffled; to be astonished, be 
amazed; to frighten, scare, take alarm, 
flinch ; to be absent-minded, be distracted ; 
to be or become distracted (j» from), 
forget, overlook, fail to heed, neglect 
(j* IT to baffle, startle, nonplus 
(• s.o.); to distract (j* • s.o. from), make 
(. s.o.) forget (jp Til = dahila 

Jj»i dvhvl perplexity, consternation, 
bafflement, daze, stupor; confusion, be- 
wilderment, dismay, alarm, fright; sur- 
prise; amazement, astonishment; absent- 
mindedness, distraction, distraotedness 
( je. from) 

J* Id d&hil negligent, forgetful, obliv- 
ious, distracted, absent-minded; dazed, 
in a stupor 

Jy>4* madhiU perplexed, startled, 
alarmed, dismayed, dazed, confused, 
baffled, bewildered; distraoted, absent- 

J»i- milfoil startling, baffling, amaz- 

Jft.o mundahil alarmed, dismayed, 
perplexed, startled, baffled; distracted, 

j»d £tAn pi. jUdl adhdn mind; intellect 
J*S $ihni mental, intellectual 
S-ui iihniya mentality 

j3 4&, genit. ji #£, ace. Id $&, f. old #K, 
pi. m. jji jjlawfi, _^>l «Zfl, pi. f. ol>i 

£ai«tt (with foil, genit.) possessor, owner, 
holder or master of, endowed or provided 
with, embodying or comprising | 
J!* jj #J r agl endowed with brains, 
bright, intelligent; JL jd rich, wealthy; 
\j* ji j£ fihha healthy; uU ji £6 lo'n 
important, significant; J^l jd £« (- 
yurM relative, kin(sman); fjj ^i ju> 
(zar'in) uncultivated (land); JJ ^i ,y 
min di qablu than before; <t— ii & ^ min 
£i no/«'At of one's own accord, spon- 
taneously ; y jS jjawuAu his relatives, 
his kin, his folks; *ij*ttj »d>i,l jji £awS 
Umatoadda wa-l-ma'rifa friends and ac- 
quaintances; CtlpJJl jj'i dawu £-Subuhdt 
dubious persons, people of ill repute; 
jlill jji dawu S-ia'n important, in- 
fluential people; the competent people 
(or authorities), those concerned with 
the matter; ^-Vl Jj\ via l-amr rulers, 
leaders; Xullf Ji-I _>Jjl ufw I-AoU wa-l-'aqd 
influential people, those in power 

old dot pi. ojjS rfauxW being, essence, 
nature; self; person, personality; the 
same, the selfsame; -self; ol>UI people 
of rank, people of distinction, notables; 
Lfli g^Etan personally | ^Jl old £. oZ-batn 
disagreement, dissension, disunion, dis- 
cord, enmity; friendship; ^ji-l old £. 
oj-yanfr pleurisy (med.) ; *yi old rf. 
ar-rCa pneumonia; jA-Jl old rf. ap-padr 
disease of the chest, pectoral ailment; 
jJ\ old ji. al-yad wealth, affluence; old 
Uj4jI 4' aidind our possessions; j^l old 
data Z-yamtni to the right, J^iJl old 
Alfa S-SinUUi to the left, jl—xll old data 
l-yas&ri do.; 5^ old ddta marratin once, 
one time, \y, ote j /» dtW* marratfn do.; 
p> old #Sto yaumin one day, ajj old j 
/* ddti yaumin do.; 4» old j /* #Wt 
gadin sometime in the future, before 
long ; . . . old j /i d&ti . . . (with foil, genit.) 
as to..., concerning..., with referenoe 
to ... , re ; O I Ji U bi-4-d4t none other 
than . . ., ... of all things, ... of all 



people; personally, in person; ol^lb lit 

I, of all people none other than 

I ...; oliJU OiJ j in London, of all 
places i olilli oUJI (sa'dda) essential hap- 
piness, happiness proper; «-£ £*lj tfdi 
na/n*i, ^-ill oli d. an/tutaim his self, 
their selves, his (their) very nature; 
ulj j», «ili; _>» (he) himself; • tf t)l ol i the 
same thing; »L-NI C»li the same things; 
l^li i-J (*>no) the same year; «JIJJ K- 
ddtiM by himself (itself); in itaelf; as 
such; for his (its) own sake; M j in 
itself; <ulj it- j ft haddi d. do.; «jli f li 
self-existent, independent, self-oontained, 
isolated; oliJU Mill (!«ja) self-oonfidenoe; 
iljll t_^- Auoi od-d. end olill i* maAoii- 
htl od-d. self-love, selfishness, egoism; 
oUI J» j^l self-eonfidence, self- 
reliance; 4jlJb ^^ self-evident, self- 
explanatory; «ilj jJSli. mundotd ittaJiQ 
self-oontradictory; £*\ji ±j) 9m dnuxU 
descended from a good family, highborn 

jli dSU own, proper; self-produced, 
self-created, spontaneous; personal; self- 
acting, automatic; subjective (patios.); 
(pi. -fin) subjeotivist (patios.); yii *U 
ttym of oj., by o.i.; personally, in 
person | Jlill fX\ (>u*m) autonomy 

ylj i&tiya personality; subjectivism 
(pAiio*.); identity (of a person) ISJiJII J^ 
identification (of a person) 

SJlill U-4itlya impersonality 

Jjp iawttl high-olass, exclusive, lux- 

'«>!>i see Ji 

'(w>jj) v'^ tf*°* « (rfauo, Oljji dauaidn) to 
dissolve; to melt; to melt away; to 
liquefy, deliquesoe; to dwindle away, 
vanish; to pine away, waste away (« r «- 
^(j Aosratan uHum with grief and 
sorrow) | »L*- ^-»lj (Aayd'an) to die of 
shame; J »jLifcl £jlj (af/druAfi) to strive 

in vain for, make futile efforts in order 
to II to dissolve, nwlt, liquefy (a 
IT to dissolve (also, e.g., tablets in water), 
liquefy (a; to melt (a; to 
smelt (» metal); to oonsume, spend, 
exhaust, use up, sap (a | *J^ \j\a\ 
(jrMahU) to exhaust s.o.'s energy; *j\i\ 
j <it !jL«* fualrata muj£tM) to raok 
one's brain with 

ljjJ dauo dissolution; solution (also, 
as a liquid) 

iljji dawabdn dissolution, melting, 
deliquescence, liquefaotion | glill Olyi 
(jrjlill) d. oJ-foJj (a|-faaa/) snowbreak, 
thaw; uUjJJJ J,U good I«-d-d. meltable, 
soluble, dissoluble 

i^-ijSS todwio dissolution, solution, 
melting, liquefaction 

iilil iddia dissolution, solution, melt- 
ing, liquefaction 

,_Jli dd'to dissolved; melted, molten; 
soluble, dissoluble 

CjVi and <Z»\j's see ji 

(jji) il i ddda it (doud, »l{j dtydd) to soatter, 
drive away, chase away; to remove 
(ja a, • s.o., from); to defend, 
protect (ja S.O., | 4-3La j* ^1 jlj 
(an-nowna 'on 'auiatAt) to drive or keep 
the sleep from his eyes 

yji davd defense, proteation (ja of 

jlji diydd defense, protection (j» of 

Ajl* midland pi. V^* mad&wid* manger, 
crib, feeding trough 

iJli gV id pi. Sjlj ddda defender, proteo- 

(jji) jli d»jo u (daiif, jlji dated}, jli. 
maddg) to taste, sample (a food, etc); to 
try, try out, teat (a; to get a taste 



(a of experience, undergo, suffer 
(a, go through (a) IV to have 
(» s.o.) taste or sample (a, give (a « 
s.o. to taste V to taste (a 
slowly, repeatedly, thoroughly; to get a 
taste (a of; to sense, perceive (a; to enjoy thoroughly, savor, relish 
(a; to derive pleasure (j- from) 

Jji dauq pi. jl^jl adw&q gustatory 
sense; taste {j for; also, e.g., literary 
taste); perceptivity, responsiveness (j 
for) ; sensitivity, sensitiveness; savoir- 
vivre, suavity, urbanity, tact ; liking, 
inclination; taste, flavor {of food, etc.) j 
JUI JjJJI good taste 

Jji dauqi of taste, gustative, gustatory 

J[)i dawdq taste 

3 \j's daiewdq epicure, connoisseur, 
gourmet, bon vivant 

J»li. maddq taste 

UJl i daiqa sense of taste 

jji dawa i and dawiya a to wither, wilt, 
fade; to be withe